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Thomas Browne, Sir (19 Nov 1605 - 19 Oct 1682)

Norwich physician, writer, and collector Dictionary of National Biography entry: Other biography: Collector (minor)
Relevant locations: Residence at Upper Shibden Hall, Shibden-Dale
Residence at Browne residence, Norwich
Relationships: Dorothy Browne (c.1622-24 Feb 1685) was a wife of Thomas Browne
Edward Browne (1644-1708) was a unspecified to Thomas Browne
Walter Charleton (1620-1707) was a associate or acquaintance (general) of Thomas Browne
Elizabeth Lyttleton (c1648-1736) was a daughter of Thomas Browne
Henry Power (-) was a correspondent of Thomas Browne
Linked manuscripts: as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Sloane 3413, Bodleian Library,
as Recipient of a letter - Sloane 3515, British Library,
as Sender of a letter - Sloane 3515, British Library,
Linked manuscript items: as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - "Catalogus librorum in ejus Musæo clauso [Musaeum Clausum]," Bodleian Library Sloane 3413, Oxford University
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - "Musaeum Clausum," British Library Sloane 1874, London
Linked print sources: as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Certain Miscellany Tracts Written by Thomas Brown.
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - De Precationibus.
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - De Tribus Impostoribus.
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - De his Quæ Fiunt apud Or­cum.
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Hydriotaphia urne-buriall; or, A discourse of the sepulchrall urnes lately found in Norfolk. Together with The garden of Cyrus, or The quincunciall, lozenge, or net-work plantations of the ancients, artificially, naturally, mystically considered. With sundry observations ....
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Oceani Circumnavigatio.
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Religio Medici.
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Sir Thomas Browne's Works, Including His Life and Correspondence.
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - The Commonplace Book of Elizabeth Lyttelton, Daughter of Sir Thomas Browne. Description by G. Keynes. [Containing extracts by Sir Thomas Browne.] .
as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Tracts.
as Collector (major) - Hydriotaphia urne-buriall; or, A discourse of the sepulchrall urnes lately found in Norfolk. Together with The garden of Cyrus, or The quincunciall, lozenge, or net-work plantations of the ancients, artificially, naturally, mystically considered. With sundry observations ....
as Collector (minor) - 'Occasional Specimens, Not Compleate Systemes': John Evelyn's Culture of Collecting.
as Collector (minor) - Certain Miscellany Tracts Written by Thomas Brown.
as Collector (minor) - Musaeum Clausum.
as Collector (minor) - Sir Thomas Browne als Virtuoso: die Bedeutung der Gelehrsamkeit für sein literarisches Alterswerk.
as Collector (minor) - Sir Thomas Browne: A Doctor's Life of Science and Faith.
as Collector (minor) - The English Virtuoso in the Seventeenth Century (I).
as Collector (minor) - The English Virtuoso in the Seventeenth Century (II).
as Collector (minor) - Walter Charleton, D.M., F.R.C.P., F.R.S..
as Collector (minor) - [Review of Keynes's Works and Leroy's Le Chevalier Thomas Browne].
as Mentions or references - Edward Morgan and the Westminser Physic Garden.
as Owner - Historiarum anatomicarum rariorum. 4 vols..
as Subject of/in a document - Curiosities and Texts: The Culture of Collecting in Early Modern England.
as Subject of/in a document - Engaging with Pygmies: Thomas Browne and John Milton.
as Subject of/in a document - Sir Thomas Browne: A Life.
as Subject of/in a document - Souvenir of Sir Thomas Browne, With Twelve Illustrations, and Notes.
Linked items in print sources: as Author (in assoc. with a ms or print source) - Musaeum Clausum.
as Collector (minor) - Musaeum Clausum.
Linked images:

References in Documents:
MS Book of the Principal of Brasenose College (MacGregor, ed.) 45 The shear-water of Sr. Tho. Brown. Ead. quæ. 35. The Shearwater of Sir Thomas Browne. The same as no. 35.
Grew, Musaeum Regalis (1685)

Another LEG-BONE of an ELEPHANT, scarce so long, but of equal thickness. Given by Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich.

Grew, Musaeum Regalis (1685)

A CROCODILE, about two yards and ½ long. He differs not much from a Lizard; chiefly in his Bulk, and the hardness of his Skin, which on his Back hath Scales proportionably hard and thick. (b) Hist. Ind. l. 6. c. 1. In Paname there are some an hundred feet long; as is affirmed both by Joh. de Lopez, (b) and Joh. de Leri. (c) (c) Cap. 10.In the Musæum Romanum, there is a Tragical Relation of a very great one that devoured a Virgin, Cap. 6. The same Animal which in the Book of Job is called the Leviathan, and hath been commonly taken to be the Whale; but falsly falsely, as Bochart hath demonstrated. He is tolerably well described by most; and curiously figur'd by Besler. He breeds in divers places in both the Indies, as well as in Egypt.

Nature, saith Aristotle, hath denied a Tongue to this Animal. Which Sir Thomas Brown takes notice of as a Vulgar Error. On the hinder half of his Tail he hath firm leathern upright Finns, wherewith he governs himself, as a Fish, in swimming.

He is esteemed good meat, not only by the Natives in Brasile, but also by the Hollanders there. (a)(a) Gulielmus Piso. He is taken thus; They fasten a thick long Rope to some Tree by the Waterside, and to the other end, a strong iron Hook, which they bait with a Weather. (b)(b) Scal. Exer. 196. Sect. 5.

In Brasile, they hunt them much for the sake of their Fat, which they commonly and successively apply to their Wounds, when bitten by him. (c) (c) Gul. Piso. As also for his Testicles, which smell like Oyntment, and which they sell very dear. (d) Ibid.(d) In New Spain, the Kernels under their Throat, smell like Musk, and are a present Remedy against burning Fevers. (e)(e) Joh. de Læt. l. 5. c. 4. out of Franc. Ximenex Ximenez. The Stomach dry'd in the Sun, powder'd, and taken to the quantity of ʒj, is an admirable Diuretick, and brings away Stones from the Reins and Bladder. (f) The same taken to the quantity of a spoonful in the Morning, after (f) Ibid. Dinner, and before Supper, or as often as the Patient can bear it, is an excellent Remedy for the Dropsie. (g)(g) Ibid.

Grew, Musaeum Regalis (1685)

The VIPER. Vipera, qu. Vivipera; because she only among Serpents hath been thought to bring forth her young Ones. All Animals, saith Aristotle, (a) (a) Hist. Anim. l. 1. c. 11 that bring forth their young, have also external Ears: yet knew that an Adder which hath no Auricle is Viviparous. And this, indeed, he observes with a good Remark, which is, That she first lays her Eggs within her Womb; (b) (b) Histor. Anim. l. 6. c. 34 wherein they are afterwards hatched. Which had been a fair Introduction to him, to have observed, That all other Viviparous Animals are Oviparous within themselves. And 'tis much, that the hint hath not been long since taken from the Raya, and some other Fishes. The Viper, saith Sir Thomas (c) Pseudod. Epidem (c) Brown, from the experience of credible Persons, in case of fear, receiveth her young Ones into her Mouth; which being over, they return thence again.

Grew, Musaeum Regalis (1685)

The EGG of a SWAN with another within it. Given by Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich. Who hath also observed the like both in Hens and Turkeys. The utmost seemeth to be a little bigger than ordinary, sc. near five inches long by its Axis, and ten round about, or three and ⅓ strait over. In shape like a Turkeys. The other which is included sticks fast to the side of the greater; whether it did so originally, as also whether both of them contained White and Yelk, is uncertain. It is of the same figure, about four inches long, bigger than the biggest Hens Egg. The Shell of the same hardness and thickness as that of the greater.

Grew, Musaeum Regalis (1685)

Et procul a pelago Conchae jucure [jacure] marinae. Ovid. Metam. L:xv. V.264. ITIt hath been much disputed, and is not yet resolv'd, of many subterraneal Bodies, which have the semblance of Animals, or Parts of them, Whether they were ever such, or no. And I am not ignorant of the Arguments offer'd on both hands. If I may speak my own sense a little, Why not? Is there any thing repugnant in the matter? Why not a petrify'd Shell, as well as wood? Or is the place? If Shells are found under ground, far from Sea, or in Hills, unchanged; as we are sure they are; then why not petrify'd? Or is the form, to which no Species of Shells doth answer? The assertion is precarious: no man can say, how many are known to some one or other; much less, how many are not known: I have reason to believe, that scarce the one half of the under Species of Shells are known to this day. And so for Artisicials: if Coyns are found, every day under ground, then why not sometimes also Pictures, and other Works, in time petrify'd? And although Nature doth often imitate her self; yet to make her in any case to imitate Art, is unphilosophical and absurd: for the one, a natural reason may be given, not for the other.

On the other side: although Nature cannot be said to imitate Art: yet it may fall out, that the effects of both may have some likeness. Those white Concretions which the Italians, from the place where they are found, call Confetti de Tibuli, are sometimes so like round Confects, and the rough kind of Sugar'd-Almonds, that by the eye they cannot be distinguish'd. To call these Petrify'd Sugar-Plums, were senseless. What if we find in some Stones under ground the likeness of a Cross? Doth not Sal Ammoniac often shoot into millions of little ones? Or do we find in other Stones the resemblance of Plants? Why not naturally there, as well as, in Frosty Weather, upon Glass Windows? Or as Salts sometimes figure themselves (as Sir Th. Brown, (a) (a) Relig. Med. and Dr. Daniel Cox (b) observe) into some likeness to the Plants whereof they are made. Nay, why not too, a Face, or other Animal Form? Since we see that there are divers (b) Phil. Trans. N. 108. Palm-Nuts which have the like. That the Volatile Salt of Harts-Horn, will shoot it self into the likeness of little branched Horns. That of Flesh or Blood, into the shape of little flat fibrous Tendons or Muscles, as I have often observ'd. And though I have not seen it my self, yet I have been told by one (c) (c) Sir Thomas Millington. that doth not use to phancy things, that the Volatile Salt of Vipers, will figure it self into the semblance of little Vipers. But there can be no convincing Argument given, why the Salts of Plants, or Animal Bodies, washed down with Rains, and lodged under ground; should not there be disposed into such like figures, as well as above it? Probably, in some cases, much better, as in a colder place; and where therefore the Work not being done in a hurry, but more slowly, may be so much the more regular. I shall now come to the Particulars, and leave the Reader to judge of them.

Part of the Upper JAW of a strange HEAD, together with some fragments of other Bones, and three very Great Double TEETH, or Grinders, all supposed to be of the same Animal. Found, about twelve years since, seventeen feet under Ground, in Chartham a Village three miles from Canterbury. The Ground within twelve Rods of the River running thither, and so to Sandwich-Haven. An Account hereof is written by Mr. William Somner: yet without a Description of the Jaw. But supposing it to be part of the Head of an Hippopotamus, takes occasion thence for a Discourse, wherein he endeavours to prove, That all the low Ground from the East-Kentish shore, to Romney-Marsh, was once under Water, and an Arm of the Sea. Published, since his Death, by his Brother Mr. John Somner: in whose Ground these Bones were dig'd up; and by whom they were bestowed upon this Musæum.

This Jaw-Bone, is only part of the far Cheek; about fifteen inches long, and seven where deepest: yet part of both the ends, and the Sockets of the Teeth are broken off. The Orbit of the Eye, neither so round, nor so big, as in the Hippopotamus: yet the Teeth far bigger. For the bigest Grinder in the Head of the Hippopotamus here preserv'd, is less than six inches about: one of these, near eight. And 'tis much, if they belonged to that Animal, that none of the long Cutters which grow before (as is represented in Tab. 1.) should be found with them.

Besides, in that Skull of the said Animal, the Orbits of the Eye stand so high, and the Forehead lies so low, that it looks like a Valley between two Hills: whereas in this Bone, the Forehead evidently stands higher than the Eye. The Knob also at the Corner of the Eye in this Bone, is six times as big, as in the said Skull. Although this perhaps, as well as the tuberousness of the Bone in some places, may be the effect of its lying so long under ground; as if it were thereby a little swell'd in those places: for they are more rare and soft, than the other, and the whole Bone, than the Skull of any grown Animal not bury'd. Considering all together, it seems to me more likely to belong to a Rhinoceros, for the being whereof in this Country, we have as much ground to suppose it, as of the Hippopotamus. See Wormius's Description of the Double Tooth (a) (a) Mus. lib. 3. of a Rhinoceros.

A PETRIFY'D CRAB. Carcinites. It seems to be of the undulated kind; whereof see the Description in Rondeletius. 'Tis very hard and solid, and as heavy as a Pebble. Yet dissoluble with Acids. There is one pretty like this in Aldrovandus, (b) (b) Musæum Metallicum. under the Name of Pagurus lapideus. And another in Besler.

A FISH-MOLD. Ichthyites in modum Typi. There are several figures of Fishes in Stones in Besler, Aldrovandus, and Moscardo. In Aldrovandus also of the Heads of Birds, Beasts and Men, in Flints. Septalius hath a Head in Marble. And Mr. Boyle (a) (a) Of Gems p. 156. a Pebble with a Serpent (all but the Head) perfectly shap'd, and coyl'd up in it. All these (except perhaps the last) are either semblances on a Plain, or at least in solid Stones. But this here is hollow, and was so found in the Island-Sea. About five inches long; now split into two halfs, like those of a casting Mould. On the insides of which, are fairly impress'd the form of the Spine, with the Ribs, Fins, and Tail, of a Fish. Without, a long Plate of the same substance, grows to each side; and others cross to these: as if to the Mould of the Fish, were also added that of its Funeral Cloaths.

This Stone, for consistence, is like that called Saxum Limosum, soft, inequal, and unpolishable. Of a blewish hue, like that of Tobacco-Pipe Clay, with some very small glossy Grains intermixed. Not only Spirit of Nitre, but Oil of Vitriol droped upon it, dissolves it, and is excited into a violent Effervescence. But the Saxum Limosum stirs not with any Acid. So that it is to be rank'd amongst the Gypso-limosa, or Calcilimosa.

A petrify'd BONE, taken out of a Gravel-pit in St. James Fields, above eight yards deep.

A Stone like the VERTEBRA of a Fish. Given by Sir Philip Skippon. It may be called SPONDYLITES.

Part of the SPINE of another Fish, consisting of several Vertebræ. 'Tis hard and ponderous; yet dissoluble with Acids. It breaks flaky, as the Lapis Judaicus, and many others, or with plain and glossy sides.

The TOOTH of a TIGER, growing to a kind of Limestone. 'Tis about as big as that described in the First Part, and of the same shape and colour.

A square crooked TOOTH, not much unlike that of a Bevir.

A very great DOUBLE TOOTH or GRINDER. 'Tis about five inches long, and two broad; twice as big as a Sea-Horse's. The stumps seem to have been saw'd off. The top divided into several Points and Ridges, as other double Teeth. Of a greyish colour and glossy; ponderous, and hard as a Flint or the hardest Pebble.

ANOTHER of the same shape, but not an inch long. Besler hath one like this, under the Name of Pseudocorona Anguina.

The SHARKS TOOTH. Glossopetra: so call'd, for that these Stones were fabled by some to be the Tongues of Serpents, in the Isle Malta or Melita, turn'd into Stones ever since St. Paul Preached there. But the English Name, is much more answerable to the shape. Which yet is various, as well as the size and colour; as ash-colour'd or black, long or broad, strait or crooked, with the edges toothed or plain. Of the brown, strait, indented and broader sort here are several very great ones. One, three inches broad; and four, long: with the exerted part, smooth; the Root, rough. Every way, in shape, so like the Tooth of a Shark, that one Tooth cannot be liker to another. Yet if it be such, then by comparing those in the Head of a Shark, with This, That to which This belong'd, to bear a just porportion, must have been about six and thirty feet in length.

A GLOSSOPETRA, growing to a stony Bed. 'Tis of a lightish colour: and was brought as is supposed, from Melita.

ANOTHER, of a lesser sort. The Root of this is rough, as of the rest. But not expanded with the exerted part, as is usual, but of a globular Figure.

These Stones are dissoluble with any Acid. Whereby it appears, That (besides such Metallick Principles they are sometimes tinctur'd with) they abound with an Alkalizate- Salt. They are found not only in Melita, but in Germany, and many other places. Figur'd by Aldrovandus (a) (a) Musæum Metallic. and by others.

DRAGONS TEETH. Given by Sir Phil. Skippon. Glossopetræ Claviculares. So I call them, because they seem to be of the same kind; and are long and slender, somewhat like a small Nail; and much more like a Tongue (sc. of some small Bird) than any of the former.

The GOATS-HORN. Tephrites Boetij; from its ashen colour. Selenites Cardani; from its almost Semilunar Figure. Inwardly, 'tis of a blewish Grey. Outwardly, mixed with oblique and white streaks. Of a bended figure, yet with one end thicker than the other, not unlike a Goats Horn; whence I have taken leave for the English Name. Broken at both ends, yet above ½ a foot long, and two inches and ¼ where broadest. The Belly or inward Ambit, an inch over, and furrow'd; the Back somewhat edged. 'Tis found in Germany, Moravia, Silesia, and other Parts.

A Scruple (a) (a) Boet. de Gennis & Lapid. hereof in powder, is an excellent Sudorifick. Spirit of Nitre droped hereon, dissolveth it with an Effervescence.

The FISHES EYE. Ophthalmites. A parcel of them given by Sir Philip Skippon. 'Tis a kind of Pisolythus. But by some of them, the Humors of the Eye, with the Tunica Uvea, and therein the Iris, are not ill represented: for which reason I have plac'd them here.

SOME other Varieties, from the same Hand.

The HERMAPHRODITE. Commonly called Hysterolithos. By Pliny, (b) (b) Lib. 37. c. 10. Diphyes, more properly; as representing, in some sort, the Pudenda of both Sexes. Well described by Wormius. 'Tis a black Stone, not much broader than Half a Crown; very hard, and dissoluble with no Acid. Accounted an Amulet against Hysterical Fits.

Another of the same shape, but lesser.

A soft BUTTON-STONE. Echinites albus. Given by Sigr Boccone. Of these Stones there is some variety, with several Names, but confounded by Authors. They all agree, in having some likeness to the shell of the Button- Fish. This resembles that most with all small prickles. Of a white colour. Not very hard, and dissoluble, with Acids. See an excellent Figure hereof in Calceolarius's Musæum.

Another of the same Species and colour.

THUNDER-STONE or hard Button-Stone. Brontias. So called, for that people think they fall sometimes with Thunder. Yet different from the Ceraunias. This is shaped like a little round Cake. Very hard and indissoluble with Acids; being a kind of yellowish and opacous Pebble.

Another, a lesser one of the same Species.

A THIRD, also very hard (as all of them are) but Semiperspicuous.

A FOURTH, which is a whitish FLINT, stained with blew specks.

A FIFTH, a small one, and having a little flinty Stone (c) De figur. Lapid. c. 3. growing to the middle of it on both sides. This particularly resembling Gesner's Ombrias. (c) Or the Stone sent him by the Name of Lapis Hyæniæ. (d)(d) Ibid. c. 12.

A SIXTH, somewhat oblong and striated all round about.

The SERPENTS EGG. Ovum Anguinum. From the roundness, and form of Snakes Tailes pointing upward, and towards the middle of the Stone. This also is an Echinites, and by Ferranti Imperato called Histrix Marinus petrisicatus. Agricola makes it a sort of Brontias. It most resembles that sort of Button-Fish, with several Orders of great Knobs or Prickle-Bases, divided by lesser; described in the First Part of this Catalogue.

A STONE with the SIGNATURE of a Button-Fish upon it. So that it was once a Bolus or Clay.

The soft OVAL HELMET STONE. Given by Sigr. Boccone. So I name it from its similitude to the shell of the Echinus Spatagus, (a) (a) See Part I. which the English call Helmet--Fish. Oval, to distinguish it from the Conick. Soft, as being very brittle, and easily dissoluble with Acids. Several of these Stones are figur'd by Aldrovandus, (b) (b) Musæum Metallic. with the Name of Scolopendrites. And some leaves after, divers others not much unlike, with that of Pentaphyllites from its likness in some part also to the Cinquefoyle.

ANOTHER of the same kind, with four narrow Furrows, composed of fine short Rays, and meeting in the form of a Cross; to which a fifth is added, more broad. 'Tis somewhat hard, yet dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre.

The HARD OVAL HELMET-STONE. 'Tis an opacous Flint, and of a dark colour. But figur'd as the former.

ANOTHER, also flinty, and opacous; but betwixt citrine and yellow.

A THIRD, opacous and white.

A FOURTH, with one half, opacous and yellow; the other, whitish and Semiperspicuous.

A FIFTH, somewhat rounder and more depressed than the former; and may therefore more particularly be called Pentaphyllites. Some of these Ambrosinus (c) (c) Aldrov. M. Metall. hath misplaced with the Astroites.

The blunt CONICK HELMET-STONE. It hath, as it were, the Signature of the Echinus Spatagus. But rises up in the form of a Cone. Of which Figure I have not yet seen any shell. The top is blunt, and of a middle height. Encompassed with five double pricked Rows, all meeting in the fore part of the Belly. The spaces betwixt which, are cancellated much after the manner of the Sea-Tortoiseshell. 'Tis a perfect Flint, brown without, and whitish within.

ANOTHER of the same sort, with bigger pointed Rows.

A THIRD, of the same Figure, but soft, sc. of a kind of Limy substance, or that of Gypsum.

The SHARP CONICK HELMET-STONE. 'Tis a Semipellucid Flint. Surrounded with five double pointed Rows, meeting not only on the top, but also at the centre of the Base or Belly. Besler figures a small Conick Helmet, by the name of Echinites: a great one, by that of Scolopendrites. And several Species hereof are also figur'd by Aldrovandus. (a) (a) Mus. Metallicum. None of the flinty or other hard Helmet Stones make any ebullition with Acids.

The HELIX or Stone Nautilus; as from its Figure it may not improperly be nam'd. Cornu Ammonis; From Jupiter Ammon, pictur'd with Horns. Here are several of them, both in size, shape, and substance distinct. I find no Author describing them much broader than the ball of a mans hand. The highest Boetius reckons, about three pounds in weight. But in this Musæum there is one near two yards in circumference, and proportionably thick. Of an Ash-colour, and somewhat gritty substance. The several Rounds, as it were, carved with oblique waves. Given by the Right Honourable Henry Duke of Norfolk. With,

ANOTHER GREAT CORNU AMMONIS almost as big, sc. about five feet round about.

A SMALL CORNU AMMONIS, of an ashen colour, and softish substance: yet dissoluble only with Nitrous Acids. It maketh but one or two Rounds; ratably, far more swelling, than in the other kinds.

ANOTHER, of a soft and whitish substance; dissoluble in any Acid, and consisting of several Rounds.

A THIRD, growing upon a Stone of a like substance. Figur'd in Calceolarius's Musæum, and that of Olearius; in both under the Name of a Petrify'd Serpent.

The CASED CORNU AMMONIS. The outer part of this is dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre: of a shining blackish colour, thin, and as it were the shell of the far greater part within it. This also is very glossy, and transparent as Glass. Of a brittle substance, breaking into square flakes, like those of a flaky Spar. Yet no Acid will stir it.

The HARD CORNU AMMONIS. 'Tis a perfect whitish and pellucid Flint. These Stones are found in Germany.

Note, that if one of these Stones be broken, the several Rounds will part so, as the ridges of one, and the answerable furrows of the other, are apparent.

Likewise, that in some of them, there is not only a ridge, but a round part about as thick as the biggest string of a Tenor Viol, winding round between two Circumvolutions, as the Medulla Spinalis runs within the Back-Bone.

The Helick SERPENT-STONE. Ophites Ammoneus. See the Description hereof in Wormius, with the Title of Lapis Sceleton Serpentinum ferens. 'Tis of kin to the Cornu Ammonis; wrought all over with Striæ, imitating the Scales of a Serpent. In some parts of This, rather the jagged Leaves of a Plant. Of a pale Okre colour, but somewhat hard, and dissoluble only with Nitrous Spirits.

ANOTHER, which in the room of Scales or Leaves, is wrought all over, and as it were joynted, with sutures in the form of an s. obliquely waved from the rim towards the centre. Which Articulations are not only on the Surface, but, as Wormius well notes, in its intimate parts. This is of a dark amber colour, and somewhat hard; yet maketh an Effervescence with Spirit of Nitre.

The HELICK MARCASITE. Marcasita Ammonea. So I name it, for that it hath the same Figure with the Cornu Ammonis, and to the first of these in Boetius, is next a kin, if not the same. Yet appears to be a sort of Marcasite or Gold colour'd Fire-Stone; both by its Weight, and Copperas Tast. And some of them are cover'd with Vitriolick Flowers. Ambrosinus (a) (a) Mus. Metall. Aldrov. figures two of these under the Title of Crysammonites: not so properly, as not having a grain of Gold in them.

The HELICK MARCHASITE, having shallow Furrows on the Rim.

ANOTHER, with some also channell'd.

A THIRD, with the utmost round far more swelling, than in the other kinds; having its Centre lying deep, and its front spread wide on both sides.

A FOURTH, of all, the most flat, and with a sharp or edged Rim. Wrought all over, with undulated Striæ, almost as in the Serpent-Stone. These two last, particularly, figur'd in Aldrovandus. (a)(a) Ubi supra.

A FIFTH, with the Rounds, on one fide, all concave: so that it looks almost like one split through the middle.

A SIXTH, beded within a tuberated Fire-Stone.

Several small ones, of the kinds above-mentioned.


The LONG WHIRLE. Turbinites. There are several of them. In one, the several Rounds are hollow: a ground to believe it was once a shell.


The CONICK SNAIL-STONE. Cochlites pyramidalis. Very brittle, and maketh an Effervescence with any Acid.

Divers others SNAIL-STONES; some of them of a Limy substance, others perfect Flint.

The SEA-OYSTER-STONE. Ostrites Cymbiformis. Shaped almost in the figure of a Boat. In the right side especially there is as it were the signature or seat of the Animal. So that one can hardly doubt of its being once a shell. Yet this kind of Stone is sometimes found many miles from Sea or any great River.

A Petrify'd Oyster and Wilk growing together.

A great petrify'd SCALLOP. Figur'd by Ambrosinus (b) (b) Aldrov. Mus. Metall. with the Name of Hippopectinites. Given with several more of the same bigness, by Mr. Wicks. 'Tis half a foot over. Many of the same kind were taken out of a great Rock in Virginia, forty miles from Sea or River.

The smaller PECTINITES, with smooth ridges.

ANOTHER, of a kind of Lead-colour. Dissoluble with Acids.

The Coralline PECTINITES, furrow'd, and wrought all over with the Species of fine Needle-WORK. Also soluble with Acids.

A blackish PECTINITES, a perfect Flint.

A soft Stone of a blewish grey, with part of the Belemnites growing to it on one side, and a Pectinites on the other.

A petrify'd COCLE immersed in a Flint.

The SMOOTH SPONDYLITES, with an Oblique Navle.

ANOTHER, with an Oblique Navle, all over striated.

A THIRD of the same, furrow'd.

A FOURTH, also furrow'd, and with the Navle sharper and more produced. So hard, as scarcely dissoluble with any Acid.

A FIFTH, with a strait Navle, and numerous Joynts.

The OXES HEART. Bucardia. So call'd from its figure. Described and figur'd by Ferranti Imperato, and others, and out of them by Wormius. 'Tis divided, by a ridge along the middle, into two halfs. Each of them having a prominent Knob, a little winding, somewhat like a Navle: so that it may not be improperly called Conchites umbilicatus. Figur'd by Besler with the name of Hysterapetra.

A SMOOTH CONCHITES, with an Oblique Navle, unequal sides, somewhat round, and fill'd with a Limy substance.

Part of one, filled with a sort of granulated Spar.

A smooth and round one, undulated.

ANOTHER, as hard as a Pebble; of a yellowish and pellucid red.

Another hard one, yet dissoluble with Acids.

Another, with the Margins of the two halfs furrow'd and indented one into the other.

A LONG CONCHITES, of a black colour.

Another, undulated, and white; filled with a black and yellow substance, which with Acids maketh a strong Effervescence.

ANOTHER, compressed, and the end opposite to the Base, pointed, like the common form of a Heart: and may therefore be called Cardites. 'Tis of a Limy substance dissoluble with Acids.

A Broad equilateral CONCHITES, radiated.

Another, undulated, and radiated.

A Third, undulated, radiated, and circinated.

A Broad one, of a Limy substance, and fill'd with a flaky and glistering Spar.

The HIGH-WAVED CONCHITES; that is, where the middle of one Valve making a high and broad ridge, the other falls into it. 'Tis of a white Limy substance.

ANOTHER of the same, but shining and pellucid like a Spar. Dissoluble with Acids. I meet not with any shell of this form.

A little BIVALVOUS MARCASITE. Conchites Marchasita.

The MUSCLE-STONE. Musculites. This is black and of an oblong Figure.

A Second, lesser and rounder.

Another of the same, more Concave.

A Third, broader, and more expanded.

A sort of MUSCULITES fill'd with Earth like Tobacco- Pipe Clay or Marle. Found amongst the earth of a Hill that was overturn'd at Kenebank in New England.

The square MUSCULITES. Musc. quadrilaterus. I have not yet met with any shell of answerable shape. 'Tis, as it were, bivalvous: and each Valve, hath two sides. Of the four, two are broader, and a little Convex, especially towards the Base, at the other end somewhat sharp: with oblique furrows, from the first to the last growing shorter. The other two, striated and plain, joyned with the former at obtuse Angles. Of a limy substance dissoluble with Acids.

The TOOTHLESS MUSCULE. Found, of several sizes, beded in a lump of Irish Slate: yet not petrify'd, but a perfect shell. It is of a rare kind, no where figured or mention'd, that I find, nor have I met with it elsewhere. The biggest of them two inches long, and ¼ over. That end near the Base, as it were pinched up, almost into the form of a Childs fore-Tooth. On the outside of the Base, stands a plated piece, contiguous therewith at both ends, but in the middle, joyned to it by the intervention of other very small transverse Plates, like the Wards of a Lock: supplying the use of the Teeth in other Muscles, which are here wanting; from whence I have nam'd it. The outside, is adorn'd with circinated Lines, and in some sort also radiated with very small Tuberculi, especially at the narrow end.

The SHEATH-STONE. Solenites. Like the petrify'd shell of the Sheath-Fish. 'Tis fill'd with a kind of limy substance.

A piece of WHIRLY-ROCK. Turbinites Saxum. A sort of Gypsum of a dark colour, with the semblance of divers kinds of turbinated or whirled shells immersed therein. Dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre, but very slowly. There is one like to this in Besler.

A Piece of white MUSCLE-ROCK. Musculites Saxum. With the similitude of little, white, furrow'd Muscle-shells.

Another Piece of an Ash-colour, and more soft.

A piece of spoted MUSCLE-ROCK, sc. with white, red and brown, in imitation of Marble. In which also are beded, as it were, several Muscle-shells. Although it hath the face of Marble, yet is it a kind of Gypsum, dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre.

A Piece of MIXED SHELL-ROCK. Conchites miscellaneus. Composed of petrify'd shells, both of the Turbinated, and the Bivalvous kinds, beded in a kind of gritty Lime-Stone. In Calceolarius's Musæum (a) (a) Sect. 3. p. 317. is one like to this, in the form of a Choping-Knife, but without a Name. Another in Ferranti Imperato. (b) (b) Lib. 24. c. 25. And in Aldrovandus's Musæum, by Ambrosinus called Ostracomorphos Lapis. Not properly, Lapis, as being part of a Rock: nor, by the former word, sufficiently expressing the mixture of shells therein.

Another, consisting of such like shells (or their resemblance) beded in a brown Stone.

Grew, Musaeum Regalis (1685) A List of those who have Contributed to this Musæum: excepting some Names which are lost. His Highness Prince RUPERT, Count Palatine of the Rhine. THomasThomas Allen M. D. John Aubrey Esq. WILLIAM L. Visc. BROUNCKER. Hon. ROBERT BOYLE, Esq. Dr. Erasmus Bartholine. John Bembde Esq. Sign. Paul Boccone. Mons. Olaus Borrichius. Joseph Bowles Merch. Sir Thomas Brown Edward Brown. M. D. JONH JOHN late Lord B. of CHESTER. EAST-INDIA COMPANY. ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY. Walter Charleton M. D. Walter Chetwynd Esq. Andrew Clench M. D. Samuel Colepress, Esq. Thomas Cox, Esq. Edward Cotton M. D. Thomas Crispe Esq. Ellis Crispe, Esq. William Crone M. D. John Evelyn Esq. George Ent Esq. Captain Thomas Fissenden. Nehemjah Grew M. D. Hon. CHARLES HOWARD of N. Esq. Theodore Haac Esq. Thomas Henshaw Esq. Abraham Hill Esq. Mr. Hocknel. Luke Hodgson M. D. Robert Hook Geom. Pr. Anthony Horneck B. D. Sir John Hoskins. John Houghton Pharm. L. Edmund King M. D. Mons. Lannoy. Mr. Langerman Mr. Linger. Fath. Hieronim. Lobus. Richard Lower M. D. Martyn Lyster Esq. Mr. John Malling. Sign. Malpighi. Christopher Merret M. D. Sir Thomas Millington. Sir Jonas Moore. Sir Robert Moray. Mr. S. Morgan. HENRY Duke of NORFOLK. Walter Needham M. D. Isaac Newton Math. Prof. Henry Oldenburge Esq. Philip Packer Esq. Dudley Palmer Esq. Sir William Petty. Robert Plot L L. D. Walter Pope M. D. Thomas Povey Esq. SETH Lord B. of SALISBURY. Mr. Scotto Merch. Mr. John Short. Sir Philip Skippon. Francis Slare M. D. George Smith M. D. Mr. John Somner. Sir Robert Southwell. Dr. Swammerdam. Captain Tayler. George Trumbal T. D. Edward Tyson M. D. WILLIAM late L. WILLOUGHBY of Parham. Sir Christopher Wren P. R. S. George Wheeler Esq. Daniel Whistler, M. D. Henry Whistler Esq. Sir Joseph Williamson. Francis Willughby Esq. John Winthrop Esq. Robert Witty M. D.
Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
The Preface

. . .

Now because elegant and accurate Figures do much illustrate and facilitate the understanding of Descriptions, in order to the Engraving such Figures for this Work, Mr. Willughby made a Collection of as many Pictures drawn in colours by the life as he could procure. First, He purchased of one Leonard Baltner, a Fisherman of Strasburgh, a Volume containing the Pictures of all the Water-fowl frequenting the Rhene near that City, as also all the Fish and Water-Insects found there, drawn with great curiosity and exactness by an excellent hand. The which Fowl, Fishes, and Insects the said Baltner had himself taken, described, and at his own proper costs and charges caused to be drawn. Which curiosity is much to be admired and commended in a Person of his Condition and Education.For my part, I must needs acknowledge that I have received much light and information from the Work of this poor man, and have been thereby inabled to clear many difficulties, and rectifie some mistakes in Gesner. Secondly, At Nurenberg in Germany he bought a large Volume of Pictures of Birds drawn in colours. Third­ly, He caused divers Species, as well seen in England as beyond the Seas, to be drawn by good Artists. Besides what he left, the deservedly fa­mous Sir Thomas Brown, Professor of Physick in the City of Norwich, frankly communicated the Draughts of several rare Birds, with some brief notes and descriptions of them. Out of these, and the Printed Figures of Aldrovandus, and Pet. Olina, an Italian Author, we culled out those we thought most natural, and resembling the life, for the Gravers to imitate, adding also all but one or two of Marggravius's, and some out of Clusius his Exotics, Piso his Natural History of the West Indies, and Bontius his of the East.

The Gravers we employed, though they were very good Workmen, yet in many Sculps they have not satisfied me. For I being at a great di­stance from London, and all advices and directions necessarily passing by Letter, sometimes through haste mistook in my directions, sometimes through weariness and impatience of long Writing sent not so clear and full instructions as was requisite; and they as often neglected their instructions, or mistook my meaning. Notwithstanding the Figures, such as they are, take them all together, they are the best and truest, that is, most like the live Birds, of any hitherto engraven in Brass.

It is requisite now that we inform the Reader what compendious ways we sought to avoid unnecessary expences in graving of Figures. 1. Of the same Species of Bird when more Figures than one occurred either in divers Authors, or our own Papers, or both, we caused only one, which we judged to be the best to be engraven. 2. We have for the most part contented our selves with the figure of one Sex only, and that the Male. 3. We have omitted all such dubious Icons as we knew not whether they were of true birds or not, or could not certainly determine of what Species they were. 4. Of such as differ only in bigness, or if otherwise in such accidents as cannot be expressed in Sculpture, we have given only the Figure of the greater. Of this kind are the greater and lesser Curlew, the common Snipe, and Jack-Snipe, or Judcock. And yet some Birds we have caused to be graven twice when the first time the Gravers mist their aim, and shot too wide of their mark: Such are the red-leg'd Partridge, The common Swallow, the Swift, the common Blackbird, the House-Dove, the Royston Crow, the Witwall, and the Dottrel. I might add hereto the Canada Goose in the seventieth Plate, for I now persuade my self that the Bird graven in Plate 71. is the same with it. The lain Sheldrake was through mistake twice figured in Plates 70. and 71. so was the Auk or Rozor-bill in Plates 64. and 65. The figures of the Rock Ouzel, Bittern, and Stone-Curlew first graven, though they were passable enough, yet having afterwards gotten very exact Figures of those Birds, we caused them also to be Engraven.

The whole Work we have divided into three Books. In the first we treat of Birds in general; in the second of Land-fowl; in the third of Water-Fowl. The second Book we have divided into two parts: The first whereof contains Birds of crooked Beak and Talons; The second, such whose Bills and Claws are more streight. The third Book is tripartite: The first part takes in all Birds that wade in the waters, or frequent watery places, but swim not; The second, such as are of a middle nature between swimmers and waders, or rather that partake of both kinds, some whereof are cloven-footed, and yet swim; others whole-footed, but yet very long-leg'd like the waders: The third is of whole-footed, or fin-toed Birds, that swim in the water.

As for fabulous Birds, such as are confessedly so, viz. Phenixes, Griffins, Harpyes, Ruk, and the like, I have omitted them, as being no part of our sub­ject, and all that can be said of them having been more than once written already. I have also omitted some that I only suspected for fictitious, as the Scythian Bird, the Aquila Heteropus, &c. Yet because I would not rely too much upon my own judgment, I have put in the Appendix the descriptions of some of that nature out of Hernandez, which I refer to the Readers censure.

It remains that I make a grateful mention of such of our learned and wor­thy Friends, as have given us any considerable information or assistance; as well to do them right, as to acquaint the Reader whom we mean by some names recorded in this Work. Those were Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich be­fore remembred: Francis Jessop Esq of Broom-hall in Sheffield Parish, Yorkshire, who sent us the Descriptions and Cases of many rare Birds, and discovered and gave us notice of many Species thereabout, which we knew not before to be native of England: Sir Philip Skippon of Wrentham near Bliborough in the County of Suffolk, Knight, who communicated the Pictures of several Birds we wanted: And Mr. Ralph Johnson of Brignal near Greta Bridge in Yorkshire, a Person of singular skill in Zoology, especially the History of Birds, who be­sides the Descriptions and Pictures of divers uncommon, and some unde­scribed both Land and Water-fowl, communicated to us his Method of Birds, whereby we were in some particulars informed, in many others confirmed, his judgment concurring with ours in the divisions and Characteristic notes of the Genera.

. . .

Among the whole-footed Water-fowl we omitted the Recurvirostra or Avosetta Italorum, which in Winter-time often frequents our coasts, the Shear-water of Sir Tho­mas Brown, and the Mergulus melanoleucos rostro acute brevi of the same.

Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
§. 1. The common or white Stork: Ciconia alba.

IT is bigger than the common Heron: Its Neck thicker and shorter than the He­rons: Its Head, Neck, and fore-part white: The Rump and outside of the Wings black: The Belly white. The quil-feathers of the Wings black: The Tail white: The Bill long, red, like a Herons Bill. The Legs long, red, bare almost to the Knees or second joynt from the Foot. The Toes from the divarication to the first joynt connected by an intervening membrane. The Vertebres of the Neck are four­teen in number. Its Claws are broad, like the nails of a man; so that [...]. will not to be sufficient to difference a man from a Stork with its feathers pluckt off. N. B. Herodotus attributes such like Claws to the white Aegyptian Ibis. The Claw of the middle Toe is not serrate. It is seldom seen in England, and not unless driven overby a storm of wind, or some other accident. My honoured Friend Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich, a person deservedly famous, for his skill in all parts of learning, but especially in natural History, sent me a Picture of one of these birds taken on the Coast of Norfolk, drawn by the life, with a short description of it, as follows. It was about a yard high: It had * Of a red lead colour. *red Bill and Legs; the Claws of the Feet like hu­mane Nails. The lower parts of both Wings were black, so that when the Wings were closed or gathered up, the lower part of the Back appeared black. Yet the Tail, which was wholly covered and hid by the Wings (as being scarce an inch long) was white, as was also the upper part of the Body. The quills were equal in bigness to Swans quills. It made a snapping or clattering noise with its Bill, by the quick and frequent striking one Chap against the other. It readily eat Frogs and Land-snails which we offered it; but refused Toads. It is but rarely seen on our Coasts. So far Sir Thomas Brown: Whose description agrees exactly with ours in all points.

The white Stork, saith * In his Annotations on Recchus his Animals. *Joannes Faber, is very rare in Italy: All these twenty eight years that I have spent at Rome, I never but once saw a white Stork, and then but one, on the top of the Tower, called Torre de Conti, I know not by what wind driven thither. Aldrovandus also himself an Italian born, and then a very old man, confessed that he had never seen a white Stork, for that the Territory of Bologna did neither breed nor feed them. But sith it is most certain, that Storks before the ap­proach of Winter fly out of Germany into more temperate and hot Countries, very strange it is, Italy being contiguous to Germany, and hotter than it, that they should not fly thither, at least pass over it in their flight Southward.

I know them (saith the same Faber) who have learned by ocular inspection, that Storks and Peacocks, when such Serpents as they swallow passed alive through their bodies, (as they will do several times, creeping out at their Fundaments) use to set up their Rumps, and clap their Tails against a wall so long, till they feel the Serpents dead within them.

. . .

Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
CHAP. XIV. The Stone-Curlew: The Oedicnemus of Bellonius: Charadrius of Gesner, Aldrov. called at Rome, Curlotte.** Lib. 13. c. 15.

ITsIts weight is eighteen ounces: Its length from Bill to Tail eighteen inches, to the points of the Claws twenty: Its breadth from tip to tip of the Wings extended thirty six inches. The length of the Bill, measuring from the tip to the angles of the mouth, two inches. The Bill is not much unlike a Gulls, but streight, sharp-pointed, black as far as the Nosthrils, then yellow. The Irides of the Eyes and edges of the Eye-lids are yellow. Under the Eyes is a bare space of a yellowish green colour. The Legs are long and yellow. The Claws small and black.It hath only three fore-toes, wanting the back-toe. The outmost Toe a little longer than the mid­dlemost; All joyned together by a certain membrane, which on the inside the middle toe begins at the second joynt, on the outside at the first, and reaches almost to the Claws of the outer Toes. The Legs (as Bellonius observes) are very thick below the Knees, as if they were swoln, by reason of the bones, which are there great; wherefore that he might render the Bird more easie to be known, he named it, Oedic­nemus. The upper Legs are above half way bare of feathers; which note alone, were there no other, argues this Bird to be a Water-fowl. The Chin, Breast, and Thighs are white: The Throat, Neck, Back, and Head covered with feathers, ha­ving their middle parts black, their lateral or borders of a reddish ash-colour, like that of a Curlew: Whence they of Norfolk call it, The Stone-Curlew.

In each Wing are about twenty nine quil-feathers; the first and second of which have a transverse white spot, else their exteriour surface black: The four next to these black: The three following have their bottoms and tips white: Then succeed thir­teen black ones; the last or next to the body are of the same colour with it. The first feathers of the second row are black: The rest have white tips, and under the tips a cross line or border of black. In the lesser rows of Wing-feathers is a transverse bed or bar of white. The coverts of the under-side of the Wings, especially those springing from the shoulders, are purely white. The outmost feathers of the Tail for the space of an inch are black, then white: The next to these, one on each side, are variegated, with one or two brown bars crossing the white part: The rest, the white by degrees fading and disappearing, become of the same colour with the body. The tips of the middlemost are a little black. The Tail is five inches long, consisting of twelve feathers. The guts great: The blind guts three inches long: The single um­bilical blind gut half an inch. We bought this bird in the Market at Rome, and there described it.

It breeds very late in the year (saith Bellonius) for we found of the Young about the end of October, which could not yet fly. Bellonius when he travelled first in England, observed this Bird here; for the feathers and the Feet very like to a Bustard.

The learned and famous Sir Thomas Brown Knight, Physician in Norwich, informed us, that it is found about Thetford in Norfolk, where they call it the Stone-Curlew, and that its cry is something like that of a green Plover.

Another bird congenerous to this, wanting also the back-toe, (which Aldrovandus described from the intuition of a bare Picture) but different in that its Thighs are feathered, and its Toes without any intermediate membrane, see in his Ornithology, Book 13. Chap. 15. I suspect it to be the same with the Oedicnemus, and those diffe­rent notes to be but mistakes of the Painter.

The Charadrios of Gesner,* * The Charadrios of Gesner. which Aldrovand judges to be the same with our Oedic­nemus, is a foolish and stupid bird. Being shut up in any room, it walks up and down, sometimes in a round about a Pillar or any other thing for a long time, and if any block or impediment be in its way it will rather leap over it, than decline from the right way. * It winks not. *It shuts not its Eyes though you put your finger to them. It is ea­sily made tame, for when it is at liberty in the fields it is not much afraid of a man. It is a Water-fowl, and lives in fenny Meadows, or about Marshes. In houses also it catches Mice in the night time. I hear that it abounds in the Low Countries, that it wanders up and down in the night, and makes a noise like a Whistle, or Pipe.

Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
CHAP. V. The Turn-stone,or Sea-Dottrel: Morinellus marinus of Sir Thomas Brown. An Cinclus Turneri?

IT is lesser than a Plover, and something bigger than a Blackbird: in length from the tip of the Bill to the points of the Claws ten inches: In breadth between the extremities of the Wings extended twenty. It is long-bodied, and hath but an indifferent Head. The Cocks and Hens differ not in colours. Its Bill is streight, black, an inch long, from a thick base lessening by degrees into a sharp point, something flat, stronger and stiffer than in the Woodcock kind.

The colour of the Plumage in the Head, Neck, Shoulders, Wings, and upper part of the Breast is brown. [Mr. Willughby makes the feathers covering these parts to be black, or purplish black in the middle, cinereous, or of a white russet about the edges.] All the under-side, but the Breast, is as white as snow. The Plumage on the middle of the Back is white; but on the very Rump is a great, transverse, black spot. The long scapular feathers are brown, with edges of an ash-colour, or dirty white. The quil-feathers of the Wings are about twenty six, of a brown or dusky colour: But from the outmost three or four their bottoms are white, continually more and more, till in the nineteenth and twentieth the white spreads almost over the whole feather. In the second row the foremost feathers are wholly black: The tips of the following being white, together make a broad line of white cross the Wing. The edges of the lesser rows are red. Near the second joynt of the Wing is a white spot. The Tail is two inches and an half long, consisting of twelve feathers, of which the lower half is white, the upper black, yet the very tips white.

The Legs are short, of a Saffron or Orange colour. The Claws black: The Toes divided almost to the bottom, but the outmost and middle toe coupled by a mem­brane as far as the first joynt. It hath the back-toe.

The Liver is divided into two Lobes, of which the * That on the right side. *dexter is much the bigger. I found no Gall, yet dare not say that it wants one. Upon the Western shores of Eng­land, about Pensans in Cornwal, and Aberdaren in Merioneth- shire in Wales, we ob­served many of them, where they fly three or four in company: Nor are they less frequent on the Sea-coasts of Norfolk.

Our honoured Friend Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich sent us the Picture of this bird by the title of the Sea-Dottrel.

Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections CHAP. V. The Turn-stone,or Sea-Dottrel: Morinellus marinus of Sir Thomas Brown. An Cinclus Turneri?
Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
CHAP. IV. The Shear-water.

OUrOur learned and worthy friend Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich among the designs and Pictures of many other birds, sent us also that of this, with a short histo­ry of it as followeth. The Shear-water is a Sea-fowl, which fishermen observe to resort to their Vessels in some numbers, swimming swiftly to and fro, backward, forward, and about them, and doth as it were, radere aquam, shear the water, from whence perhaps it had its name. It is a fierce and snapping fowl, and very untracta­ble. I kept two of them five of six weeks in my house, and they refusing to feed, I caused them to be crammed with fish, till my Servant grew weary, and gave them over: And they lived fifteen days without any food. So far Sir Thomas. This Bird, according to the Picture of it, hath a great head like a Gull: Its upper part [Head and Back] were of a dark brown or blackish: Its Chin, Throat, and Breast white: Its Feet of a flesh-colour: Its Bill long, round, hooked at the end like a Cormo­rants, and blackish: Its Wings long, when gathered up reaching to the end of the Tail.

. . .

Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
§. IV. The grey or ash-coloured Loon of Dr. Brown.

THis Bird differs from the common Doucker, as well crested as not crested, in the grey colour of its body, being much rarer with us. The Picture represents the feathers on the crown of the Head standing up in form of a crest or toppin.

. . .

Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
§. IV. * The small black and white Diver with a short, sharp-pointed Bill.

THe Picture of this Bird was communicated by that worthy person Sir Thomas Brown. It hath a short Bill, a little bending at the end, [both Mandibles.] The top of the Head, the Back, Wings, and in general the whole upper part is black, excepting a transverse line of white in the Wings. The Chin, Throat, Breast, as far as the middle of the Belly, and sides of the Tail white: The Tail short: The Legs of a sordid green. The Toes web'd together. The Picture doth not shew any hind­toe. This Bird (saith Sir Thomas) is not usual with us; I have met with but two of them, brought me by a coaster, who could give it no name.

. . .

Excerpts from Ornithology (1876) related to Sir Thomas Browne's and the Tradescants' collections
§. X. The black Diver or Scoter: Anas nigerminor.

IT is almost as big as the common Duck, but rounder-bodied. The whole body all over is of a black or sable colour. From the Shoulders in some birds spring blacker feathers. In the Chin and middle of the Breast some ash-coloured or whitish fea­thers are mingled with the black. The Wings are of the same colour with the body, without any diversity of colours at all. The Bill such as in the Duck-kind, yellow about the Nosthrils, else black; pectinated about the sides, yellow within, with­out any bunch in the upper Mandible. Its Feet are black. This description is of a Hen.

In the year 1671. I found the Male of this kind at Chester, killed on the Sea-coasts thereabouts, and bought in the Market by my Lord Bishop Wilkins his Steward, and described it in these words.

It is something less than a tame Duck, short-bodied for its bigness, and broad; all over black both upper and under-side: Only the Head had a dark tincture of pur­ple, and the under-side of the first, second, and third rows of Wing-feathers inclined to cinereous. The wings were short; the quils in each twenty five. The Tail more than an hand-breadth long, consisting of sixteen feathers, the outmost of which were the shortest, the rest in order longer to the middlemost, which were the longest, so that the Tail runs out into an acute angle, more acute than I remember to have ob­served in other Sea-ducks; and each single feather is very sharp-pointed.

The Bill in this Bird is especially remarkable, being broad, blunt, as in the rest of this kind, of about two inches length, having no Appendix or nail at the tip, contra­ry to the manner of other Ducks. The upper Mandible above the Nostrils, next the forehead, bunches out into a notable protuberance, being so divided in the middle as to resemble Buttocks, distinguished by a yellow intercurrent line. Now the colour of this upper Mandible is black about the sides, yellow in the middle, the yellow part being so broad as to contain the Nosthrils, and about an inch long. The Tongue is very great. The Eye-lids yellow. The Irides of the Eyes dark. The Legs and Feet dusky: The Toes very long,and web'd together, so that its oars are broad and large. The shorter Toe hath a membranous border extant along its outside. This had no labyrinth on its Wind-pipe. The blind-guts for a bird of this kind were very short: The Gall great. It weighed two pounds and nine ounces: Its length from Bill to Tail was twenty two inches: It breadth from Wings end to Wings end thirty four and an half.

This Bird hath not as yet been described by any Author extant in Print that we know of. It abides constantly at Sea, gets itsliving by diving, and is taken in Nets placed under water. In the wash in Lincolnshire it is found plentifully. Its Case stuft was sent us first by Mr. Fr. Jessop out of Yorkshire: Next we got it at Chester, as we have said: Then Sir Thomas Brown sent us a Picture of it from Norwich; and last­ly, Mr. Johnson sent a description of it in his method of Birds, in which description are some particulars not observed by us, viz. that the Male hath on the upper side some tincture of shining green, and that in the Hen the Neck and Head on both sides, as far as the Eyes, is white.