Musaeum Regalis Societatis
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Copytext from University of Saskatchewan, Special Collections Nehemiah Grew Musaeum Regalis Societatis: Or, a catalogue and description of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the Royal Society, and preserved at Gresham Colledge. Made by Nehemiah Grew, M. D. fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Colledge of Physitians. Whereunto is subjoyned the comparative anatomy of stomachs and guts. London Printed for Tho. Malthus, at the Sun in the Poultrey 1685
Catalogue and Description
Of the Natural and Artificial
Belonging to the
And preserved at
Gresham Colledge
By Nehemiah Grew, M. D. Fellow of the Royal Society,
and of the Colledge of Physitians.
Whereunto is Subjoyned
the Comparative Anatomy
Stomachs and Guts.
By the same AUTHOR.
Printed for Tho. Malthus, at the Sun in the Poultrey, 1685.
[facsimile of title page]

Most Illustrious THE
The following
IS Most Humbly
By the Author
To his Honoured Friend J. W. Kirshaw Esqr.
Daniel Colwall Esq; Fellow of the ROYAL SOCIETY.

Nothing can be more fit, than to dedicate a Catalogue of that Musaeum to your Self, of which you are the Founder. You having, in your Devotion to the Royal Society, offered up to them That so noble an Hecatombe.

The truth is, I have herein prosecuted, what the Royal Society, by their Order for the making and publishing of this Catalogue, had begun: they having done the same, as with regard to Common Use; so to return that which is but Right to your Self, and that they might always wear this Catalogue, as the Miniature of your abundant Respects, near their Hearts.

Neither must your Voluntary Undertaking for the Engraving of the Plates for this Work, be unknown. You having done this, not only out of respect to my Self; but likewise in order to a Publique Good; whereby you are a Benefactor to all Ingenious Men.

Besides the particular regard you had to the Royal Society it Self; which seeming (in the opinion of some) to look a little pale, you intended hereby, to put some fresh Blood into their Cheeks; pouring out your Box of Oyntment, not in order to their Burial, but their Resurrection.

To conclude, I have made this Address, not only to do You Right, but to do Right unto Virtue it self; and that having proposed your exemplary prudence unto others; they may from you, learn, To use the redundant part of their Estates, either to a Charitable end, as this City will witness for your Self; or the Promotion of Masculine Studies, as in the present Case: or other laudable ways, so as with you, to merit a lasting esteem amongst the wiser and better part of Mankind.

I am, Sir, Your very humble obliged Servant N. GREW.

As to the following Catalogue, I have some things to say, of the Order, Names, Descriptions, Figures, and Uses of Particulars, and the Quotations I have made therein.

As to the first, I like not the reason which Aldrovandus gives for his beginning the History of Quadrupeds with the Horse; Quòd praecipuam nobis utilitatem praebeat. Being better placed according to the degrees of their Approximation, to Humane Shape, and one to another: and so other Things, according to their Nature. Much less should I choose, with Gesner, to go by the Alphabet. The very Scale of the Creatures, is a matter of high speculation.

As to the Names, where they were wanting, (which in our own Language were many) I have taken leave to give them. But have generally reteind them, where I have found them all-ready given. Although, from some distinguishing Note less convenient; as the Colour is, than the Figure. And sometimes very Improper, as Concha Persica, and the like, from the Place. For it often falls out, that the same Thing breeds in many Places. But there is no Natural Reason, why it should be called by one, rather than another. So that the Names of Things should be always taken from something more observably declarative of their Form, or Nature. The doing of which, would much facilitate and Improve the Knowledge of them many ways. For so, every Name were a short Definition. Where as if Words are confus'd, little else can be distinctly learn'd. Yet I took it not to be my part, actually to reform this matter; unless I had been writing an Universal History of Nature.

In the Descriptions, I have taken care; First, to rectifie the mistakes of such as are given us by other Hands. Secondly, not to Transcribe any; as is too commonly done: but having noted something more especial therein, to refer to the Author. Thirdly, where there is no Description at all, or that is too short, or the faults therein many, to give one at large. For the doing of all which, what the trouble of comparing Books together hath been, I say with Sleydan in another Case, Post Deum Immortalem Ipse novi.

In the Descriptions given, I have observed, with the Figures of Things, also their Colours; so far as I could, unless I had view'd them Living, and Fresh. And have added their just Measures. Much neglected by Writers of Natural History.

If any object against their length: perhaps they have not so well considered the necessity hereof, for the cleer and evident distinction of the several Kinds and Species, in so great a variety of Things known in the World. And wherein also regard is to be had, to all that after Ages may discover, or have occasion to enquire after. The Curiosity and Diligence of Pliny, is highly to be commended. Yet he is so brief, that his Works are rather a Nomenclature, than a History: which perhaps might be more intelligible to the Age he lived in, than the succeeding ones. But had He, and Others, been more particular in the Matters they treat of: their Commentators had engaged their own and their Readers Time much better, than in so many fruitless and endless Disquisitions and Contests. It were certainly a Thing both in it self Desirable, and of much Consequence; To have such an Inventory of Nature, wherein, as on the one hand, nothing should be Wanting; so nothing Repeated or Confounded, on the other. For which, there is no way without a cleer and full Description of Things.

Besides, that in such Descriptions, many Particulars relating to the Nature and Use of Things, will occur to the Authors mind, which otherwise he would never have thought of. And may give occasion to his Readers, for the consideration of many more. And therefore it were also very proper, That not only Things strange and rare, but the most known and common amongst us, were thus describ'd. Not meerly, for that what is common in one Countrey, is rare in another: but because, likewise, it would yield a great aboundance of matter for any Man's Reason to work upon. He that notes, That a Grey hound hath pricked Ears, but that those of a Hound hang down; may also the Reason of both: for that the former hunts with his Ears; the the latter, only with his Nose: So that as a blind Man, minds nothing but what he Hears: so a Hound, having his Ears half Stop'd with the Flaps, minds nothing but what he Smells. He that shall observe, That a Horse, which ought to have many and strong Teeth, and large and thick Hoofes, hath no Horns: and that an Ox, with Horns, hath fewer Teeth, and weaker Hoofs: cannot but at the same time see the Providence of Nature, In disposing of the same Excrementitious parts of the Blood, either way, as is most suitable to the Animal. One that considers the Teeth of a Horse, sees the reason, why he hath so long an upper Lip; which is his Hand, and in some sort answers to the Proboscis of an Elephant; whereby he nimbly winds the Grass in great quantities at once into his Mouth. So that for Nature to have made him a short Lip, had been to make a little Hopper, to a great Mill. The same Animal having need of great Lungs, how necessary is it also for him to have a broad Breast, well bowed Ribs, and wide Nostrils to give them play? That being much pester'd with Flys, he should have a long brush Tail to whisk them off. Whereas the Ass, which either for the hardness and dryness of his Skin, or other Cause, is less anoy'd with them, hath no need of such an one. That being heavy, he should not Tread or Leap stiff, as a Man; but have a Pastern made him, gradually and safely to break the force of his weight. By This, his Body hangs on the Hoof, as a Coach doth by the Leathers. Without this, the most thorow pac'd Horse, would tread so hard, that as it were impossible for any man to endure long upon his Back: so his Joynts would be much chafed, and he must needs presently tyre. Yet if it be too long, by yielding over much, it makes every step somewhat more laborious, and to loose some ground. He that would have one for Carriage, will choose him short, and high Back'd. For Runing, long, an clean or slender Limb'd: another, were like a Man that should run a Race in his Boots. And a due length is as necessary: which is, when the Measure between the Main and the Tail answers to the hight, or thereabout. If much under, his hinder Feet will want their full scope: if much over, there will be more weight to be moved with the same force, as if the weight were less. But he that would have one for Draught, looks not that the Limbs be slender, if they are strong; especially those behind. For though the fore Legs pull sometimes, most when they make an acute angle with the Belly; yet the greatest stress usually lies upon the hinder; these being as the Centre of Gravity, and the Load, and Body of the Horse, the two Counter Weights. And when he Goes without Drawing, his fore Feet only support him; but his hinder, serve also as Leavers to carry him on. And therefore when he walks, he always moves his hinder Foot first.

Together with such Notes as these, arising from the Description of the outward Parts; how largely and usefully might that of the Inner; his Generation, Breeding and the like, be also insisted on. And so the like of other Animals. Whereby a better History of them might be written in five years, than hath hitherto been done in two Thousand.

As for the Figures, I have given only those of such particulars, as are omitted by others. Saving one or two, found in some Authors less known, or common. Nor any, but what is also describ'd: which makes any further Explication of these needless, besides what the Reader will find next before them.

After the Descriptions; instead of medling with Mystick, Mythologick, or Hieroglyphick matters; or relating Stories of Men who were great Riders, or Women that were bold and feared not Horses; as some others have done: I thought it much more proper, To remarque some of the Uses and Reasons of Things. Where also for the sake of the English Reader, I have undergone the transcribing some particulars. More I could have done, with less trouble. These I hope will compensate the room, they take up. Amongst Medicines, I have thought fit to mention the Virtues of divers Exoticks. Because the greatest Rarity, if once experienced to be of good use, will soon become common. The Jesuites Barque, of which, no Man yet hath well describ'd the Tree, and very few know precisely where it grows; yet what great quantity, doth the much use of it bring over to us? Unicorns Horns, upon the like motive of Trade, would be as plentiful as Elephants Teeth.

I have made the Quotations, not to prove things well known, to be true; as one * * Aldrovandus. (and he too deservedly esteemed for his great Diligence and Curiosity) who very formally quotes Aristotle, to prove a Sheep to be amongst the Bisulca: Ovem, (inquit) ex genere esse Bisulcorum, non soùm ἀυτοψια ipsa loquitur, sed Aristoteles etiam scripto publicavit, inquiens; as if Aristotle, must be brought to prove a Man hath ten Toes. But partly, To be my Warrant, in matters less credible. Partly, to give the Authors, that which is their due: not at all liking the Malignant-way of some, who never mention any, but to confute him. Yet withall, To rectifie his Mistakes where I found them. And to mind the Reader, Not to peruse the most Honest, or Learned Author, without some caution.

A Prospect of the whole WORK. Of the MUSAEUM. PART. I. Of Animals. Sect. 1. Of Humane Rarities. Sect. 2. Of Quadrupeds. Chap. 1. Of Viviparous; and particularly of Multifidous Quadrupeds. Chap. 2. Of Bifidous, and Solidipedous Quadrupeds. Appendix. Of certain Balls found in the Stomachs of divers Quadrupeds. Chap. 3. Of Oviparous Quadrupeds. Sect. 3. Of Serpents. Sect. 4. Of Birds. Chap. 1. Of Land-Fowles. Chap. 2. Of Water-Fowles; particularly of the Cloven Footed. Chap. 3. Of Palmipeds or Web-Footed. Chap. 4. Of their Eggs and Nests. Sect. 5. Of Fishes. Chap. 1. Of Viviparous Fishes. Chap. 2. Of Oviparous Fishes; particularly such as are Not-Scal'd. Chap. 3. Of Scaled Fishes. Chap. 4. Of Exanguious Fishes. Sect. 6. Of Shells. Chap. 1. Of Shells Whirled and single. Chap. 2. Of Shells Double and Multiple. To which are subjoyned 7. Schemes comprehending them all. Sect. 7. Of Insects. Chap. 1. Of Insects with Naked Wings. Chap. 2. Of Insects with Sheathed Wings. Chap. 3. Of Creeping Insects. PART. II. Of Plants. Sect. 1. Of Trees. Chap. 1. Of Woods, Branches and Leaves. Chap. 2. Of Fruits; particulary such as are of the Apple, Pear, and Plum Kinds. Chap. 3. Of Calibashes; and some other like Fruits. Chap. 4. Of Nuts, and divers other like Fruits. Chap. 5. Of Berries, Cones, Lobes, and some other Parts of Trees. Sect. 2. Of Shrubs and Arborescent Plants. Chap. 1. Of Shrubs, chiefly. Chap. 2. Of Arborescent Plants. Sect. 3. Of Herbs. Chap. 1. Of Stalks and Roots. Chap. 2. Of Fruits. Chap. 3. Of Seeds. Sect. 4. Of Mosses, Mushrooms, &c. Togegether with some Appendents to Plants. Sect. 5. Of Sea Plants. Chap. 1. Of Sea Shrubs. Chap. 2. Of other Sea Plants; and of Sponges. PART. III. Of Minerals. Sect. 1. Of Stones. Chap. 1. Of Animal Bodies petrified; and such like. Chap. 2. Of Vegetable Bodies petrified; and Stones like them. Chap. 3. Of Corals, and other like Marine Productions. Chap. 4. Of Gems. Chap. 5. Of other Stones Regular. Chap. 6. Of Stones Irregular. Sect. 2. Of Metalls. Chap. 1. Of Gold, Silver, and Copper. Chap. 2. Of Tin, Lead, and Iron. Chap. 3. Of Antimony, Mercury, and other Metallick Bodies. Sect. 3. Of Mineral Principles. Chap. 1. Of Salts. Chap. 2. Of Ambar and other Sulphurs. Chap. 3. Of Earths. PART. IV. Of Artificial Matters. Sect. 1. Of things relating to Chymistry, and to other Parts of Natural Philosophy. Sect. 2. Of things relating to Mathematicks; and some Mechanicks. Sect. 3. Chiefly, of Mechanicks. Sect. 4. Of Coyns, and other matters relating to Antiquity. Appendix. Of some Plants, and other Particulars. Index. Of some Medicines. List. Of those who have contributed to this Musaeum. Of the Anatomical Part. Chap. 1. Of the Stomachs and Guts of six Carnivorous Quadrupeds, sc. a Weesle, Fitchet, Polecat, Cat, Dog, and Fox. Chap. 2. Of the Mole, which seems to feed on Insects, as also of the Urchan, Squiril, and Rat; chiefly frugivorous. Chap. 3. Of a Rabbit, Horse, and Pig; both frugivorous and graminivorous. Chap. 4. Of a Sheep, and Calf; chiefly graminivorous. Chap. 5. Of the Uses of the Gulets of Quadrupeds. Chap. 6. Of the Uses of the Stomachs of Quadrupeds. Chap. 7. Of the Uses of the Guts of Quadrupeds. Chap. 8. Of the Stomachs and Guts of Birds. Chap. 9. Of their Uses. q Chap. 10. Of the Stomachs and Guts of Fishes. With a Short Explication of some of the Figures, next before them. At a Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society,
July 18th 1678.
That Dr. Grew be desired, at his leasure, to
Make a Catalogue and Description of the Rarities
belonging to this Society.
Thom. Henshaw Vice-Praeses R. S.
At a Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society,
July 5th 1679.
That a Book entitled, Musæum Regalis Societatis, &c. By Dr. Nehemjah Grew, be Printed.
Thom. Henshaw Vice-Præses R. S.
The Reader is desired to amend the following
Page, 5. line, 3; for, only; read, chiefly£ p. 7. l. 24. r. Biliaria. p. 16. l. 12. r. Conical. p. 41. l. 20. r. Humorous. p. 49. in the margin, r. Schroderi Pharmac. p. 65. l. 15. f. European, r. Common. l. 22. again, r. Common. p. 70. l. 1. f. Poop, r. Prore. p. 72. l. 16. f. Mona, r. Man, and. p. 73. l. 1. f. Mona, r. Man. p. 103. r. Oviparous. p. 126. l. 34. dele, other. p. 136. l. 12. r. Fore-Whirled. p. 182. l. 18. add, Or rather, Prunus Sylv. Americana; the AMER: BLACK THORN. p. 202. l. 14. r. Ciliare. p. 220. l. 26. r. Taxocoquamoclit. p. 252. l. 10. dele, a Cap.
Belonging to the
And preserved at
Gresham Colledge.
Of Humane Rarities.

AN ÆGYPTIAN MUMMY given by the Illustrious Prince Henry Duke of Norfolk. It is an entire one taken out of the Royal Pyramids. In length five feet and ½, defended with several linnen Covers, all woven like ordinary Flaxen Cloth. But by the spinning, distinguished into three kinds. The utmost, is like Flaxen Cloth of two shillings an Ell: the inmost, of half a Crown: the middlemost, of three shillings, or thereabout.

The utmost Cover is divided into several pieces, each of doubled Linnen, and adapted in figure to the part it covers, as one on the Breast, another on the Belly, and so on all the principal Parts. On each of these pieces is laid a white Paint, of a kind of chalky or limy substance, of the thickness of a Hen-Egg-shell. Upon this chalky ground are drawn the Hi roglyphick Figures of Men, Women and Birds; in Gold, yellow, red and blew. But with very rude shapes, and the Colours no where mixed together. So very mean was the Art of Painting amongst the Ægyptians heretofore. For we have reason to believe, that what was done for one of their Kings or Nobles, was done with their best skill.

The middlemost Cover consisteth of one single and entire piece of Linnen, almost like a Winding-sheet. It is also tinged with some kind of Paint, but very lightly, and without any Figures.

The inmost Covering is wrapped round about the Head, Trunk, each Arm, and each Leg apart, about thirty or forty times, like so many swathing Bands. About twenty of the utmost of these folds are lightly tinged, all the other inmost more fully, with a blackish and gummous substance. But the Flesh so fully, as it seems to be converted into a black Rosin; which being held to the flame of a Candle, is a little odorous and inflamable. The Bones also, are not only outwardly, but also quite through of a black colour, as if they were burnt.

From hence it is very probable, That the way of Embalming amongst the Ægyptians, was by boiling the Body (in a long Cauldron like a Fish-kettle) in some kind of liquid Balsome; so long, till the aqueous parts of the flesh being evaporated, the oily and gummous parts of the Balsome did by degrees soak into it, and intimately incorporate therewith. Much after the same manner, as the Sugar doth, in the conditing of Pears, Quinces, and the like.

'Tis also likely, that a better way might be taken, than this used by the Ægyptians. And that is, by boyling, or rather soaking the Body in some white sort of Oyl, and such as will dry, (as that of Walnuts) made and kept so hot, as to evaporate the watery parts by degrees, and to keep the flesh white, and not brittle, but limber and plient. Which, especially in the business of Anatomy, would be of good use: because, that all the Muscules of the Body, being first parted one from another, might hereby be preserved sound, clean, and limber upon the Bones; and so all the motions of the parts be explicated with the greatest ease, and without any offensiveness.

'Tis equally probable, that the whole Compages of the Muscules, as they lie upon the Bones, might with little trouble, and less charge than by the former way, be truly Tanned, or reduced to a limber sort of Leather; whereby also the Weftage of the fibers, or other mechanisme of the Muscules might more easily and leisurely be observed. For the skins of Beasts, whereof Leather is daily made, are Muscular; and in mans body consisteth, for the most part, of the same carneous fibers, as the Muscules, but more closely woven or matted together.

Mummy, saith Wormius Musaeum Wormianum. (and so most Writers hereof) is of great use against Contusions, clodded Blood, Hard Labour, & c. But let them see to it, that dare trust to old Gums, which have long since lost their virtue.

By some Chymists are also prepared Mummiæ Tinctura Quercetani; Mummiæ Extractum Crolly; Oleum Olivarum Mummiatum. Schrod. Pharm. But the prudent Reader will take heed of words.

A MALE HUMANE FOETUS. Given by Thomas Cox Esq; An Abortive of about the 4th Month. In length five inches. The Head, from the hinder part to the face, an Inch and ½. The Face, an Inch and ¼. The Back, from shoulder to shoulder, an Inch and ¾ broad. The Buttocks an Inch. The Arms and Thighs ½ Inch over. The Wrist and small of the Leg, ¼ of an Inch. The Navel-string ⅕ of an Inch; twisted like a Rope; and cut off five Inches long. The Eyes shut. But the Mouth open. It hath neither Nails, nor Hair. The Skin white and smooth, almost as in Children newly born. See Dr. W. Needham's curious Book de Fœtu Formato. And Hobokenus's Anatomia Secundinae Humanae.

The largeness of the Head and Chest, with respect to the other parts, is observable. The mouth being open, shews that the Fœtus, even in the 4th Month, may that way take part of its Aliment. See Harvey de Generat. Animalium. The Skin hath been kept white and smooth for so long a time, scil. above fifteen years, by being included with rectified spirit of Wine in a Cylindrical Glass; to the middle of which the Fœtus is poised, by means of a Glass Buble of an Inch diametre, the Neck whereof is fastned to the Anus of the Fœtus by a wyer.

The entire SKIN of a MOOR. 'Tis tanned with the Hair of the Head, and even the smallest in all the other parts remaining on it.

Herein are observable, the Fibers in the skin of the Penis, which are very white, and exquisitely small, like the thread of a Spiders Web. Likewise the thinness of the true Cutis in the sole of the Foot; and on the contrary, the extraordinary thickness of the Cuticula, especially in the Heel, exceeding the sixth part of an Inch: which is about fifty times the thickness of that in the ball of the Hand. Bartholine Historiar. Cent. 5. mentions a Farrier who had several Callosities on his Right-Hand Fingers, as big as Walnuts.

The same Author Historiar. Cent. 3. shews the way of tanning a Humane Skin. I believe it may be tann'd by all the ways which are us'd upon other Skins.

He saith, Ibid. That a Thong hereof ty'd about the middle, is of good use for facilitating the Birth; and especially against Mother-Fits. Whether any other way, if so, than by raising and fortifying the phancy (which will sometimes produce strange effects) I leave to the Reader to judge.

All the Principal VEINS, ARTERIES, and NERVES, both of the Limbs and Viscera. The generous Gift of John Evelyn Esquire. He bought them at Padoa, where he saw them with great industry and exactness (according to the best method then used) taken out of the body of a Man, and very curiously spread upon four large TABLES, whereon they are now preserved. The Work of Fabritius Bartoletus then Vestingius's Assistant there, and afterwards Physician to the King of Poland.

The Veins and Arteries are so exceedingly well done, as to shew the most curious Schemes which Laurentius and other Physitians have given us of them, are real and not fictitious. But the Nerves have been much more truly and fully represented to us of late by Dr. Richard Lower, in Dr. Willis.De Nervorum Descript. & usu. Especially as to their Plexus and Inosculations, and their admirable Distributions to the Organs of the Senses, and the Viscera.

Aristotle Histor. Anim. lib. 3. c. 3. by the account he gives of the Doctrine of the Naturalists of his Time, and before him, seems to have been the first, who to any purpose, observed the Distribution of the Sanguineous Vessels. Yet he describes them chiefly from the Heart upward. Nor makes he any distinction betwixt the Vena Portæ, and the Vena Cava. So that even here he comes far short of that exactness which Anatomists have since arrived at; as appears, upon inspection, by the TABLES above mention'd.

The SCELETON of a Man. Wherein the number of Bones (about two hundred and fifty) together with their dimensions, figures, and articulations are all easily observable. Given by Thomas Povey Esquire.

The History of the Bones, as finished, is well perform'd by most Anatomists. But the manner, and order of their beginning and perfection, hath been given us, so far as I know, by the diligent Observations of Kirckringius Kirckringii Osteologia. only.

Of all Humane Bones indifferently, as well as of the Skull, are prepared, Spiritus simplicior, Spiritus oleosus, Oleum rectificatum, & Magisterium. Amongst which, the spiritus oleosus, if well prepared, is of undoubted use against Hysterical Passions, and in some other Cases, where the Nerves especially are affected.

The SCELETON of a Woman; of equal height with the former. By comparing these two together, it may be noted, That the Os Ilium is larger and more outward in the Female Sceleton, than in the Male; sc. for the more easie Labour, as Bartholine and others have also observed by the like comparison. I add, That the same Bone is also broader by ½ an Inch in the Female Sceleton, than in the Male: sc. for the better sustentation of the Fœtus in the Womb. Again, That the Os Sacrum is half an Inch longer in the Female: both for the forementioned reason, and also the better proportion of the Parts. On the contrary, That the Vertebræ, especially of the Loyns, are much broader, thicker, and stronger in the Male Sceleton, than in the Female; being hereby better fitted for the bearing of burthens. And, that as in the Male Sceleton there are 32 Teeth, as is usual, and in the Female but 28; So the nether Chap in the Male Sceleton is half an Inch broader than in the Female, as being made to accommodate a bigger Muscule for the motion of those Teeth. And for the same reason, the Angles subjected to the Os Jugale are above ½ an Inch more distant; For that a Man being fitted, in other respects, to undergo more labour; his Chaps also should be the better made to eat the more. Once more, That the Skull of the Male Sceleton, is much bigger, than of the Female; and so capable of more Brains. Although a little House may be well furnished, and look better than a great one that stands empty.

The SCELETON of an Abortive Humane Fœtus. 'Tis not above two Inches long. The parts of the Head, Chest, and Limbs are all entire, but not perfect. For the extremities of the Bones of the Arms and Leggs, are at both ends plainly cartilagineous. They are in thickness like a Taylors stitching Thread. Given by Thomas Povey Esq;. See Kirckringius de Fœtûs Ossibus.

It may possibly be conceived by some, That the Bones, at least some of them, are hard at the first; as Salts and other like Crystallizing Bodies are as hard upon the very first instant of their shooting, as they are when grown into great Crystals. But it is so far evident, that all the Bones are soft at the first, that I am of opinion, That originally they are a Congeries of Fibers or fibrous Vessels, as true as any other in the Body; which by degrees harden into Bones: even as the inmost Vessels in a Plant, do in time harden into Wood. See the Authors Anatomy of Plants. And that as in a Plant, there are successive additions of Rings or Tubes of Wood, made out of Vessels: So in an Animal, it seems plain, That there are additions successively made to the Bones out of the Fibrous parts of the Muscules; especially, those whitest Fibers which run transversly, and make the stamen or warp of every Muscule. So that as in the Barque of a Plant, part of the Vessels are successively derived outward to the Rind, and part inward to the Sap, which afterwards becomes hard wood. See the Authors Comparative Anatomy of Trunks. So in the Flesh of an Animal, part of the white transverse Fibers are successively derived to the Skin (of which this chiefly consists) and part of them inwardly, making still new Periosteum's one after another, as the old ones become so many additions to the Bones.

A HUMANE SKULL that was never buried. Whereof there are several Medicines prepar'd, See Schrod. Pharm. and others. as Cranium Humanum præparatum, Cranium Humanum Calcinatum. Cranii Humani Magisterium, Spiritus Essentificatus, Oleum, Sal Volatile, Tinctura, Galreda, i.e. Extractum Cranii Theophrasti. But the Cranium præparatum, and the spirit are most, and most deservedly, in use.

A HUMANE SKULL cover'd all over with Moss, by the Paracelsians call'd Usnea. This Moss is by them commended for its peculiar Virtue in stopping of bleeding at the Nose.

Upon comparison it appears to me, to be the same, in specie, with that described by Johannes Bauhinus under the Title of Muscus facie Abietis. So that we may probably expect the same advantage from the use of this, as of that which grows upon Skulls. For a Skull can have no further influence, than hath the alteration of the soil: which although it may produce some differences, yet is seldom or never known to alter the specifick Virtue of a Plant.

A HUMANE SKULL cover'd all over with the Skin. Having been buried, as is probable, in some Limy, or other like soil, by which it was tann'd or turn'd into a kind of Leather.

The GALL BLADDER, together with the VASA BILIARIA, taken out of the Liver, and filled with soft red Wax. Performed, and given by Dr. Swammerdam.

The SPLEEN most curiously EXCARNATED, and the Vessels filled with wax: whereby its Fibers and Vessels are very well seen. Performed, and given by the same Hand.

A Portion of the PENIS and Urethra: wherein the Corpora Nervosa are most conspicuous. By the same Hand.

A Portion of the INTESTINUM JEJUNUM: wherein the Valvulæ conniventes observed by Rhuysserius, delineated by Kirckringius, are well seen.

It is observed Philosoph. Trans. N. 125. by Dr. William Cole, That not only these Valves, but the Fibers of the inner Muscular Membrane of the Guts are admirably continu'd in a spiral Line, all along from the Stomach to the very Anus.

The PROPER VESSELS of a HUMANE TESTICLE, separated and expanded, from their most close and numerous into wider folds, for the space of a foot in length, and half a foot in breadth. Performed by Dr. Edmund King.

It is taken for granted, I think almost by every body, That Van Horne and de Graaf were the first Observers of these Vessels. But that every one may have his due, it is worth the Readers notice, That ten years before de Graaf's Book concerning the same, a Description with Figures thereof, in the Testicles both of a Boar and of a Man, were first published by Vauclius Dathirius Bonglarus, sc. in the Year 1658. Whereof also Mr. Oldenburgh hath given an account in the Philosophical Transactions. N. 42.

The WOMB of a WOMAN, blown up and dried. Together with the Spermatick Vessels annexed; and the Arteries in the bottom of the Uterus, undulated like the Claspers of a Vine; all filled up with soft Wax. Also the Membranous and Round Ligaments of the Womb, the Ureters, Bladder, Clitoris, Nymphae, Hymen, Fallopian Tube, and the Ovarys, commonly called the Testicles; all made most curiously visibly, and given by Dr. Swammerdam. The Descriptions and Figures hereof may be seen in the same Authors Book, printed at Leyden, 1672. and presented to the Royal Society.

Of the Organs appropriated to Generation in both Sexes, see also Van Hornes Prodromus, and Regnerus de Graaf.

Of the manner and use of filling the Vessels with Wax, or other like substance, see the Honourable Mr. Boyle, in his First Part, Of the Usefulness of Natural Philosophy; who, I think, was the first that made mention of managing and representing them this way.

A TOOTH taken out of the Testicle or Ovary of a Woman, and given by Dr. Edward Tyson. 'Tis near ½ an Inch long, pointed like the Eye-Tooth of a Man, but more slender. As hard and white as any in the Head.

Here is also the Draught of another TOOTH, taken also out of the Ovary of a Woman, by the same Hand, being shaped pretty like one of the Grinders or great Teeth, and as big. It is as white and as hard as the former. The Womans Husband keeps the Tooth it self by him.

HAIR taken out of the Ovary of a Woman, and given by the same Hand. It is fine, and most of it grey. The length of one Hair (longer than the rest) ¼ of a yard.

HAIR found by the same Person in the Ovary, and Hornes of the Womb of a Bitch: as also in the Omentum, Veins, and Heart. 'Tis all short, answerable in length to the Hair of a Dog; and of a brown colour.

The BONES of a Humane LEG and FOOT grown together, and in some places rarified like a Sponge or Pumice-Stone. 'Tis very probable, it was a Disease in the Bones somewhat like to that which Chirurgions call an Exostωsis; and that they became such, by some malignant and strumous Ulcer.

A piece of a BONE voided by Sir W. Throgmorton with his Urine. Given by Thomas Cox Esq;. 'Tis about the 3d. of an Inch over, and almost square. Smooth on one side, and spongy on the other, on the edges rugged. About the bigness of a little green Peas.

In the Philosophical Transactions (Num. 41.) there is a Relation of a BULLET that was voided by the Penis with the Urine. Communicated by Dr. Nath. Fairfax.

A STONE voided from the Penis or Urethra of a Man who lived at Exeter. Given by Dr. Cotton. It is of a whitish colour, and soft substance, almost like Chalk. In length two Inches and a quarter. Of a Pyramidal figure; with an obtuse Cone. Near the Base an Inch over. Where it hath a little Hole or Canale tending towards the Cone. When it first slipped out of the Bladder into the Penis, it was neither so thick or big, nor so hard, but that, as it seems, the Urine pressing forward, forced a hole for its passage through the middle of it. Which being opened, the Stone continued fixed in the same place, viz.about an Inch behind the Glans Penis, for the space of Thirteen Years. In which time, it gradually grew bigger, till it came to the bulk above mention'd. And the said Hole or Canale being by the continual accretion of new matter, at last stop'd up, the Stone was then forced out of the end of the Penis.

This Man, in all this time, scarce felt any great Pains; neither did he omit his usual Recreations or his business. And once he took a Journey (on Horseback) from Exeter to London, is about an hundred and thirty eight miles, without any trouble.

Bartholine Histor. Cent. 5. mentions a Stone as big as a Walnut, of an Ounce weight, which was voided at the upper end of the Urethra, through which it there forced its way.

Of Humane Stones bred either in the Kidneys or Bladder, are prepared, The Crystalline Salt, and the Elyxir. Medicines hardly to be got, and at last, to little purpose.

Of the Nature of the Stone, and of those Medicines which are most effectual to prevent the Generation of it, see some experiments of the Authors in his Book of the Luctation arising from the mixture of Bodies.

SECT. II. Of Quadrupede's. CHAP. I. Of Viviparous Quadruped's; particularly, such as are Multifidous.

A MONKEY. Cercopithecus: qu. Simia caudata. See the Descriptions and Figures of several kinds in Aldrovandus, Marggravius, and others. Aldrovandus speaks of some as big as a Mastiff, having Tails five Cubits long. In Brasile there is a sort of yellowish Monkey, which smell like Musk. Barl. Rerum gest. in Bras. Hist. p. 223. In which place they are numerous, and in great variety. Joh. de Laet. As also in all the Mountanious places of the East Indies. Aldrovandus a Monfet de Re Cibariâ. As they climb the Trees, if in danger of falling, they save themselves not only with their Feet, but their Tails, by wraping them round about the next Bough. The Zygantes in Africa esteem them good meat.

The SCELETON of a MONKEY. Wherein the distance betwixt the Os sacrum and the Ischia, as it is much greater, than in the Sceleton of a Woman, is observable. Likely so, in other Viviparous Quadrupede's: for which cause, partly, they have all more easie Labour than a Woman.

The THROTTLE BONE of a Male AQUIQUI; which the People of Brasile call the King-Monkey; being far bigger than all the other kinds; described by J. de Laet, Lib. 15. c. 5. out of Lerius. 'Tis a Bone, so called by the English, with the help of which he makes a very great noise. For 'tis hollow, and very hard. Exceeding thin, and so half transparent. In length two Inches and ½. In height an Inch and ¼. In breadth almost two Inches. At one end, hath an Aperture an Inch wide every way. On the top furrow'd, so as to resemble a Puppies Skull.

I suppose it is placed in the Throat, or at the upper end of the Larynx, near the Epiglottis. Joh. Lerius describing of it, J. de Laet. lib. 15. c. 5. falsely calls it a Membrane.

The SLOATH. Ignavus sive Pigritia. An Animal of so slow a motion, that he will be three or four days, at least, in climbing up and coming down a Tree. Bartaeus de Reb. Bras. p. 222. And to go the length of fifty Paces on plain ground, requires a whole day. Clusius. The Natives of Brasile call him Haii, from his voice of a like sound: which he commonly repeats about six times together, descending, as if one should sing, La, sol, fa, mi, re, ut. Id. Whatsoever he takes hold of, he doth it so strongly (or, rather stifly) as sometimes to sleep securely while he hangs at it. Guliel. Piso. See his Description in Clusius, Marggravius, Piso, and others. They all seem to omit the length of his fore feet, which is almost double to that of his hinder.

From the shag of his Body, the shape of his Legs, his having little or no Tail, the slowness of his gate, and his climbing up of Trees, as little Bears are us'd to do, he seems to come near the Bear-kind: from which he chiefly differs, In having but three Claws upon a foot. He breedeth principally in Florida and Brasile.

Two BLACK-BEAR CUBS. The Description of the Bear, see in Aldrovandus, Gesner, &c. The Anatomy, in the Philosophical Transactions, N. 49. They breed most in Nova Zembla, and other of the more Northerly Countries. In Norway they hunt him, and so in Helvetia and Muscovy, and if he be fat, they account him a delicate Dish. Moufet, de Re Cibaria, & Musæum Worm.

'Tis observed by Aldrovandus, That a Bear hath Hair on both the Eye-lids, as a Man, which other Quadrupedes have not. Natalis Comes (cited by the same Author) comparing his parts with those of a Man, reckons his Claws among them, which are much more like to those of a Lion. So easie it is, to drive on the comparison too far, to make it good.

The FOOT of a white Groenland BEAR, which is half a foot broad. Vadianus Quoted by Gesner. saw a Bear-skin five feet long, and broader than a Bulls Hide. The Bear to which this Foot did belong, might be as big.

A LEOPARDS SKIN. 'Tis a yard broad. From the Snout to the hinder end of the Tail near three yards. The Tail a yard. See the Description of the Animal in Aldrovandus, &c.

If they are well compar'd, he is every way, in shape, like a Cat: his Head, Teeth, Tongue, Feet, Claws, Tail, all like a Cats. His actions also like a Cats; he boxes with his fore-feet, as a Cat doth her Kitlins; Leaps at the Prey, as a Cat at a Mouse; and will also spit much after the same manner. So that they seem to differ, just as a Kite doth from an Eagle.

The Leopard (and all of this kind) as he goes, always keeps the Claws of his fore-feet turned up from the ground, and sheath'd as it were in the Skin of his Toes, whereby he preserves them sharp for Rapine, extending them only, when he leaps at the Prey. See somewhat to this purpose in Gesner, out of Pliny.

He is begotten by a Lion, upon a Panther, Aldrovandus. which hath her name from her being so fierce. Yet in Tartary they keep Leopards tame, and breed them up for hunting of Deer, and other Beasts; especially for the Great Cham's use. Gesner out of Paulus Venetus. They are most numerous in Africa and Syria.

The SKULL of a young TIGER. Both as to the Teeth, and otherwise it well resembles that of a Cat. Except that in the room of the Transvers Suture in a Cat, there is one in the figure of a great Y; so wonderfully close and firm, as the Bones seem to be continuous. Except also the outward Sinus's of the lower Jaw, where the Musculi Temporales and the Mansorii primi are inserted: as being, rateably, much deeper than in a Cats; and so better fitted to receive those Muscules which are here also much more robust.

Two CLAVICULAR Teeth or Tusks of a Tiger. A little crooked like those of a Dog or Cat. Their exerted part very white. By the bow, almost five Inches long. From the top of their Root, or from the seat of the Gooms, to their apex near two Inches. An Inch over, and two and ½ about. The Animal to which they belonged, was kill'd in Java major, and weighed 435 pounds. A great weight, considering, that not feeding on Grass, but Flesh only, they have no great Belly. Aldrovandus saith, He saw the Skin of one above five foot long, and therefore guesses the Animal was almost as big as a Horse. Which this also may well be thought to have match'd.

One of the fore-CLAWS of the same TIGER. 'Tis somewhat white and half transparant, very flat, sharp pointed, and extreamly hooked; every way in colour and shape like the Claw of a Cat. At the Basis, 'tis an Inch broad, and measur'd by the bow, 'tis two Inches and ½ long. Note, That as the Bone, whereon the Claw is set, receives it into a little Fovea or Groove; so is the Bone, again, by a double Epiphysis, inserted into the Claw: by which means it is more strongly and immovably contained in its place, for the surer grasping of the Prey.

Two other lesser CLAWS of a TIGER.

The Tiger excels in swiftness; from whence he hath his Arabick Name, as well as the River call'd Tigris. As also in Fierceness: and yet in fondness and love to her Cubs; of which see divers instances in Gesner. An Impression which Nature hath stampt upon all Creatures, to secure the succession of Generation. They abound in Mexico, Brasile, and in the East Indies.

A Great STONE taken out of a Dogs Bladder. Given by the most Reverend Seth Lord Bishop of Sarum. The figure hereof is Oval, but flat on both sides. 'Tis above an Inch and ½ thick, two Inches and ½ over, and above three Inches long. Of a limy or chalky colour, and all over rough.

Note, that nitrous spirits dropped here upon, scarce produce any ebullition; although dropped on the redish Stones, bred in a mans bladder, it produceth a great one. Of a like Stone bred in a Dogs bladder, see a Relation in the Phil. Trans. N. 84. Taken out of the Roman Journal de Letterati.

The GREAT TAMANDUA; by the People of Brasile, Tamandua-guacu; by the English, the Great Ant-Bear; Because he feeds upon Ants, and is shagg'd, and hinderfooted almost like a Bear. He hath also a very long and sharp Snout, a slender Tongue, and extensible to a great length, also a long and brushy Tail: which are his principal Characters. See him described in John. de Laet, out of Lerius, in Guliel. Piso, Marggravius, and others. Abbaevillanus, quoted also by Joh. de Laet, Lib. 16. c. 15. hath given a different Description; and probably a false one.

He catcheth Ant's by scratching open their subterraneal Hives, and then thrusting his Tongue into them; which after a while, he draws back into his mouth laden with the Prey. Barlaei Res Brasil. p. 223. He useth his Tail for a Cover, which, like a Squirrel, he sometimes spreads over his whole body. Ibid.

The SKULL of the RIVER-HORSE or HIPPOPOTAMUS. If we respect his Figure, he were more properly called BUPOTAMUS, or RIVER-OXE. And accordingly the Germans rightly call him Wasser-Ocks; and the Italians at Constantinople BOMARIN. The same Animal, which in the Book of Job is called BEHEMOTH; as is solidly proved by Bochart, in his Hierozoicon. He is almost every where described very falsely. Aristotle falsely gives him a Maine, like that of a Horse: deluded, 'tis likely, by the Name. Kircher Chin. Illustr. falsely gives him all Horse Teeth. In the Musæum Romanum, he is described with double Hoofs like an Ox, and pictured with four or five Claws like a Bear; neither truly. Bellonius, who saw one alive, but yet very young, was the first that hath given any tollerable Description of him. Yet as to the Teeth, he is mistaken, comparing them all to those of a Horse: probably because they were not yet grown. Fab. Colum. lib. de Aquat. & Terrest. But Columna, who also saw one, and that full grown, hath given a most accurate Description hereof, his principal Characters being these; Four yards and half long, about two yards high, a yard and half broad. Short leg'd. Cloven-hoofed; yet not with two, but four Hoofs. Tailed like a Tortoise. (Or like a Hog, Solinus and others quoted by Bochart. which he also twists in the same manner) Head almost like an Ox. His Chaps wide. His Eyes small. His fore Teeth prodigiously great, being some of them ½ a foot round about, above ¼ of a foot long; as is evident in the Skull here preserved; and other particulars mention'd by Columna in his copious Description hereof.

The great prominency of the Os Jugule is also observable; as being thereby fitted for the reception of marvelous great and strong Muscules for the drawing of his Chaps together.

Rings made of his Teeth, are believed to be very effectual against the Cramp. Charl. On. Zoci. Those that sell Artificial Teeth, usually make them of the long Teeth of this Animal, as being supposed the best for this purpose.

His Teeth, says Columna, are so hard, that being struck against Steel, produce sparks of fire. And thence concludes it probable, That this Animal, by striking his Teeth one against another, in the night time, might produce the like, and so seem, as it were, to vomit or breath out fire; a thing attributed to him by the Ancients. But the error of this Conjecture is double: First in his not considering, That the fire (could any be produced by striking Steel against these Teeth) would be struck not out of the Teeth, but out of the Steel. And next, In that, in truth, no fire can be produced by either striking of these Teeth one against another, or against Steel it self; as I have try'd.

He is found in the Rivers Nile and Bamboth; Fab. Colum. out of Strabo and Solinus. as also near the Indian; and in Zaire, the great River of Congo. Mus. Septal. c. 29. & Linschot. 204.

Several Teeth, both of the upper and nether Jaw of the Hipopotamus. Some so big, that they seem to have belonged to a much bigger Skull, than this here.

A PISLE said to be that of the HIPPOPOTAMUS. It seems to be only that part of the Pisle which he exerts. 'Tis in length, above a foot. The Glans even now it is dry, above seven Inches about. The other end very slender.

The fore-TOOTH of a BEVIR, so called from FIBER by a transposition of Letters. 'Tis three Inches and half long, with the Root, or that part which is fixed in the Chap. Near half Inch broad. A little crooked, and distorted or writhen. Triangular, the inner Angle more obtuse. Its end sharpen'd very obliquely, after the manner of a Chizel. So that these Teeth may properly be called DENTES SCALPRARII: wherewith this Animal, as with so many strong Chizels, pairs off the Barques of Trees for his use.

The TAIL of a CASTOR or BEVIR. Of a peculiar shape, being very broad and flat, like an Apothecaries Spatula, but much bigger, being ten Inches long, and five broad. Almost bald, though the Beast very hairy; and cancellated with some resemblance to the Scales of Fishes. Nature having hereby, as well as in other respects, marked him for an Amphibious Animal. The Scythians Gesner out of Pomponius Sabinus. eat the Tail of a Castor, as a dainty, being sometimes as fat as bacon.

The PISLE-BONE of a CASTOR. So I find it inscrib'd. 'Tis very smooth and solid. In length four Inches and ½. Conical, about ½ Inch over at one end, ¼ Inch at the other. At both ends inflected like the letter S.

See the Description of the Animal in Gesner, and others. His parts most remarkable, are those now described, and the Castor-Bag. His Anatomy see in the Philosophical Transactions, N. 49. Many strange Stories of his Ingenuity in Aldrovandus, Wormius, and others. He breeds in Italy, France, and other places: but our best Castor is from those of Russia. The great and principal use whereof inwardly, is in Hysterical and Comatose Cases.

An OTTER. Lutra. See him describ'd in Aldrovandus, &c. The Toes of his hinder feet, for the better swimming, are joyn'd together with a Membrane, as in the Bevir. From which he differs principally in his Teeth, which are canine; and in his Tail, which is feline, or a long Taper. So that he may not be unfitly called Putoreus aquaticus, or the Water Polecat. He makes himself burrows on the water side, as a Bevir. Is sometimes tamed, Gesner out of Olaus Magnus. and taught, by nimbly surrounding the Fishes, to drive them into the Net. In Scandinaria they will bring the Fishes into the very Kitchen to the Cook. See some Observations of this Animal in the Philos. Trans. N. 124. He breeds every where.

The QUILLS of a PORCUPINE. Tela Histricis. The Animal is described by Aldrovandus, and others; but the Quills not so fully. They are very smooth, and thick as a Goose-quill. With black and whitish portions alternately from end to end. Their Root ⅓ of an Inch long. Their Point not round, but flat and two-edg'd, like that of a Sword, or of some Needles. So that they both bore with their Point, and cut with their edges at the same instant, whereby they wound the more surely.

The Porcupine erects his Quills, at his pleasure, as a Peacock doth his Tail. And, partly by stretching his Skin, Gesner out of Solinus. shoots them at his pursuing Enemy. It may also be noted, That being rooted so little a way in the Skin (nothing near so deeply as the Quills of Fowls) they are the more easily ejaculated. They breed in India, Africa, and Ethiopia.

An HEDGHOG, or Urchan. Echinus, Herinaceus. See him describ'd in Aldrovandus. Anatomiz'd in Bartholine's Acta Medica. The Urchan, though a Viviparous Animal, yet hath his Testicles lying within his Body, as in the Oviparous kind. Arist. H. Anim. l. 3c. 1. In the Island Maraguan, in the North of Brasile, are some Urchans very great, almost as big as Boars. Joh. de Laet. (out of Abbaevilanus) lib. 16. c. 15. He makes his Bury with two Entries, to the North and South; and according to the weather and season, keeps the one stopt up, the other open. Gesner, out of Plutarch. The Liver, Stomach, and fat of this Animal are sometimes medically used.

The GREAT SHELL'D HEDGHOG. By the Natives of Brasile, called TATU; By the Spaniards, ARMADILLO; as Names common to the several species. And by Latin Authors, Echinus Brasiliensis. This once belonged to the Duke of Holstein. See the Description of this Species in Clusius, and others.

Those Creatures which are cover'd with Feathers, Scales, or Shell, saith Aristotle, Histor. Anim. lib. 1. c. 11. have no Auricula or outward Ear. So that he never saw this Animal; nor many others now known, and some which he ventures to describe; as appears by those general Assertions, whereof he is too often guilty.

He gathers himself up, Head, Feet and Tail, within his Shell, as round as a ball: as Piso hath also pictur'd him. Hist. l. 3. 8. 3. And this he doth, not only when pursued, but also when he sleeps. Unless he be ty'd, he will dig out his way under the very walls of a house. Mus. Septal. For it is his nature to dig himself Buries, as the Coney doth; which he doth with very great celerity. Clusius.

For the tenderness, whiteness and delicacy of his Flesh, he is reserved for Feasts; Barlæus de Rebus Bras. p. 222. and therein prefer'd before either Conies or sucking-Pigs. Guil. Piso. The Plates of his Shell being powder'd and given in a draught of the Decoction of Sage in the quantity of ʒj, provoketh sweat; and are a singular remedy against the Lues Venerea, saith Barlæus. P. 369. out of Franc. Ximines. If it provoketh sweat, it may be used to good purposes, whether it cureth that Disease, or no.

The PIGHEADED ARMADILLO. Tatu Porcinus. Nierembergius hath described this Species, but yet imperfectly. The best of any Wormius; who also omiteth some particulars, and in others is mistaken.

From his Snout-end to his Tail, about ten Inches and ½; being younger and lesser than that of Wormius. His Body four Inches over. His Head an Inch and ¼, and three Inches long. The end of his Nose scarce half an Inch over, shaped like that of a Pig; from whence I have taken leave to name it. His Ears not above ¼ of an Inch distant one from the other. His fore-foot two Inches and ½ long, above ½ Inch over. On which he hath four Toes; the two foremost of which are an Inch long, the other two ½ an Inch. The hinder-foot of equal length, but thicker. On which there are five Toes; the three foremost, and thickest whereof are an Inch long, the other two ½ an Inch. His Tail about 11 Inches long, at the Buttocks an Inch and ¼ over, at the end as small as a Shoemaker's waxed Thread.

His Head, Back, Sides, Legs, and Tail, are all cover'd with a shelly Armour. His Head, with Shells, Scales for the most part, five and six angled. His Shoulders, with round ones, and lesser, about ¼ of an Inch over; betwixt which other lesser ones are interjected. The Back-piece consisteth of about ten shell Plates, joyned together by the mediation of as many parallel Skins. Every Plate is about ½ Inch broad, curiously composed of small triangular or wedgelike pieces, indented one against another, and pounced or pricked all along their edges. His Buttocks adorned in the same manner as his Shoulders. His Shell ending next his Tail, with an Elipsis. The fore-part of his Tail is encompass'd with shelly Rings, in number eleven; composed not of triangular, but sixangl'd and square pieces. The other half with Scales set together, as on his Head. His nether Buttocks, Belly, Breast, Neck, and Ears are all naked. His Eyes black, round, and very little; resembling a black Bead of the bigness of a Vetch. His Grinders in each Chap about twelve. More properly Tunsores; because they are level and smooth on the top. No thicker than a great Needle. Besides these Teeth, I find none.

By the help of the aforesaid Plates, and parallel Skins together with the Muscules that lie under them, this Animal is able, like the Hedge-Hog, to gether up himself into a round ball. For the better performance of which action, Nature hath also left his Throat, Neck, Breast and Belly naked. As also his Ears, that he may turn them more expeditely for the reception of sounds from every quarter. His Eyes, like those of a Mole, very little, as most suitable to a Creature living for the most part in the dark, and under ground. His hinder feet, like a Conies, more strong, for the better working of his Buries.

Piso Hist. l. 3. S. 3. maketh the action of conglobation peculiar to this species, but very falsely, as will appear by the following Description.

The WEESLE-HEADED ARMADILLO. Tatu Mustelinus. I find this species no where describ'd. For that Description of a third species in Clusius, was taken only from some Picture, no way answering to the Animal before us.

His Head in figure almost like a Weesles, whence I take leave for his Name. 'Tis three Inches and ½ long; his Forehead two Inches and ½ broad, and very flat; the end of his Nose ½ Inch. His Eyes small, ¼ of an Inch long. His Ears two Inches distant one from another; an Inch long. His Body or Trunk 11 Inches long, about six broad. His Tail 5 ½ long; near the Buttocks an Inch and ¼ over, the extremity ⅕ of an Inch. His fore-Leg two Inches and ½ long, ¼ broad. On which there are five Toes; whereof the three foremost are an Inch long, the other two half an Inch: all with Claws the ⅓ of an Inch. On his hinder foot (which is somewhat bigger) he hath also five Toes, as in the foremost.

His Head, Back, Sides, Legs, and Tail are cover'd with a shelly Armour. His Head-piece, as also the shells on his Legs, are composed of roundish Scales, a ¼ of an Inch over. His Neck-piece is a single Plate, composed of little pieces, a ¼ of an Inch square. His Shoulder-piece consisteth of several Ranks or Rows of such like square pieces, but not set together by any Articulation, or movable Conjunction. His Back-piece, reaching also over his Buttocks to his Tail, is composed of several Plates, in number eighteen, moveably joyned together by as many intermediate Skins. The foremost and greatest of these Plates, consist of square pieces ½ Inch long, and a ¼ broad. The hindermost, of square and round ones together. The extream part of the Shell next the Tail, is Parabolick. The fore part of the Tail is surrounded with six Rings; consisting of little square pieces. The other half with Scales. His Breast, Belly and Ears all naked; for the same purposes, as in the former.

This Species, by the greater number of Plates, seemeth able to draw, especially his hinder parts, more roundly inward, than the other.

The FLYING SQUIREL, qu. Sciurel, from Sciurus. Not described, unless by Scaliger. The colour of his Body a dark grey. Of his Tail, almost that of straw. Lesser than the common Squirel, not above five Inches and ½ from his Nose end to his Buttocks. His Skin, from his Sides, Thighs and Legs (almost as the wings of a Bat) is stretched out about an Inch in breadth, or more or less at his pleasure: by means whereof he leaps further, and alights the more safely; and is therefore called The flying Squirel. In other respects, like the Europæan kind. It was sent from Virginia, its breeding place.

He seems to be the same Animal which Scaliger describes under the Name of the Flying Cat. Exercit. 217. S. 9.

The Squirel, when he hath a mind to cross any water for a good Nut-Tree, picks out, and sits on some light piece of Barque for a Boat, and erecting his Tail for a Sail, he makes his Voyage. Gesner, out of the Author of the Book, de Naturâ Rerum; out of Vincentius, Beluacensis, and Olaus Magnus.


The LEG of a GREENLAND STAG. It is scarce four Inches long. Nor above ⅓d of an Inch over. Cover'd all over with very short hair, of the ordinary russet or reddish brown colour. The hoofs somewhat black, ½ inch long, ⅓ broad, and ¼ high. Given by Mr. Palmer.

The BONES of a STAGS heart. About an inch and ¼ long, and ¼broad. Very thin, but yet hard and solid. They seem to be a help for the stronger and more steady motion of the Muscules of the heart. Butchers often find the like in the heart of an Ox; which are easily substituted for the former: and I would as soon trust the one, as the other.

A STAGS TEARS. A thicken'd Excretion from the inward Angle of his Eye. In colour and consistence almost like to Mirrh; or Ear-wax that has been long harden'd in the Ear. Of a strong stinking smell, like that of the Animal's sweat. They are generally affirmed to be sudorifick, and of an Alexipharmick nature. And if they were as easie to be had, as some Womens, it were worth the trying.

They are quite a different thing from that little round and hard Bone, which Scaliger describes Exerc. 112. by the Name of Lachryma Cervina, and which he affirms to grow in the great Corner of a Stags Eye to the Bone, after an hundred years old. I doubt a stranger sight, than the Ludus Secularis; such as no man (but himself) ever saw, or shall see.

The MUSK DEER. Capreolus Moschi. Gesner reckoning up the Names, tells us, That the English call him a Musk Cat. But is better at other Languages. He breeds in China, and the East Indies. Not ill pictur'd in Calceolarius's Musæum. That in Kircher's China Illustrata faulty as to the Snout and Feet. That of Johnston absurd. Almost every where worse describ'd. That he is a two-horn'd Animal, says Aldrovandus, all agree, except Simeon Sethi, who saith he hath but one. Neither of which is true. The Description likewise given by Scaliger, and out of him by Chiocco in Calceolarius's Musæum is false, and very defective. The best I find is amongst the German Transactions. To which I would have refer'd the Reader, but that comparing it with That I had drawn up before I met with it, I see some differences.

From his Nose end to his Tail, a yard and ½ a foot long. His Head above ½ a foot. His Neck ¼ of a yard. His Forehead three inches broad. His Nose end scarce ¾ of an inch, being very sharp, like that of a Grey-Hound. His Ears like a Coneys, about three inches long, and erect. As also his Tail or Scut, which exceeds not two inches. His fore-Leg a foot and two inches long, taking in Foot and Thigh. Near an inch over: the Foot deeply cloven; with two fore-Hoofs, an inch and ¼ long, each ¼ of an inch over; and two Heels, almost as big, and therefore conspicuous. His hinder feet are here wanting.

His hair on his Head and Legs about ½ inch long, and rateably small. On his Belly an inch and ½ long, and somewhat thicker. On his Back and Buttocks three inches long: thicker in proportion, than in any other Animal, except perhaps some of the Deer kind, sc. three or four times as thick as Hogs Bristles: consisting of brown and white portions alternately from the Root to the top. On the Head and Legs, brown; On the Belly and under the Skut, whitish. As it were frizled, especially on the Back and Belly, by a kind of undulation. Softer than in most Animals, and exceeding light and rare. For being split, and view'd with a Glass, they appear to be made up of little Bladders, like those in the Plume or Stalk of a Quill: so that it is a thing betwixt a common Hair and a Quill. On each side his lower Chap, almost under the corners of his mouth, there is a peculiar Tuft (about ¾ of an inch long) of short, thick and hard hairs, or rather Bristles, of equal length, as in a scrubing-Brush.

The Musk Bladder or Bag is about three inches long, two over, and swelling out from his Belly one and ½. Standing before his Groin about as much. I find it cut open, whereby the observation of its natural Aperture (which I suppose it hath as the Castor-Bag) is prevented.

He hath 26 Teeth. In his lower Chap, sixteen; of which there are eight little Cuters before; behind, four Grinders on each side, rugged and continuous. As many like Grinders in the upper Jaw. About an inch and ½ from the Nose end, in the same Jaw, on each side a Tusk, two inches and ½ long, hooked downward, and backward, and ending in a point. Not round, but flat, the breadth of ½ an inch; thin, and having a sharp edge behind: so as it may not unfitly be liken'd to a Sithe. There are no Horns.

The Hair of this Animal, by its softness and rarity, are a singular contrivance of Nature to keep him warm. For all Garments, the softer and rarer they are, (cæt. par.) they are the warmer. For the same cause, the Hair on his Back, is also the longest; sc. for the better protection of the Spinalis Medulla, His two Tusks, by the Figure, appear to serve for fighting partly, and partly for feeding; by the help whereof he is able either to stub up edible Roots out of the ground, or to tear off the Barques, or break down the Boughs of Trees. By the help of his great Ears, he hears his approaching enemy the further off, to make his flight. So also the Hare, being a fearful Animal, hath the like. Nature hath furnished him with great heels, both to enable him to make the greater leaps, and to light also upon his Feet the more safely, for by their means, the force of his weight is gradually broken.

Scaliger's mistakes Exercitat. 21. about this Animal, are principally these two; In saying his Tusks grow out of his nether Jaw; and in calling the Musk, A postemated Blood. For he might as well call Civet and Castor the Blood of those Animals that yield them. And if it were apostemated, it would not be separated from the Flesh, but contiguous to it: whereas it is plain, that the Musk was here inclosed on all sides, in an entire Cystis or Bag made by nature for that purpose.

The VELVET HORNES of a Greenland Roe-Buck. They are a yard high, with numerous, and round Branches. Covered all over with an ashcolour'd hair, a ¼ of an inch long, and standing upright, as the Pile of Velvet.

The HORNES of an Indian Roe-Buck; which the people of Brasile call Cuguacu-apara. See the Description of the Animal in Marggrarius. His Picture in Johnston; but under the name of the Capreolus Marinus.

The HORNES of a Roe-Deer of Greenland. They are very little more than an inch long, and half an inch over. They are pointed at the top, and knobed or tuberous at the bottom.

Deer in New Mexico so big, Joh. de Laet. from the Observation of Alfonsus de Benavides. that they breed them up to draw with, as we do with Oxen and Horses. So strangely does the Climate alter the Bulk of some Animals. Dear, and they only, may be suppos'd to cast their horns, because they have neither a long Tail, as Oxen; nor so long hair as a Goat or a Ram; by either of which is made a continual consumption of the same matter, which in Deer goes into the horns. The horns of Deer, are of all other the fullest of Volatile Salt. Which may lead us to conjecture of the like nature of his flesh, and blood; and the cause of his great salacity.

The ROCK-DOE. Ibex foemina. A kind of wild Goat. See the Description of Pliny, and Bellonius. She breeds chiefly upon the Alps. A Creature of admirable swiftness. And may probably be that very Species mention'd in the Book of Job. . Chap. 39. Her horns grow sometimes so far backward, as to reach over her Buttocks.

The HORNES of the WREATHED-Horn-Goat, or Antilope of Barbary, called Capra Strepsicerotes, and Gazella. See the Description of the Animal in Wormius. These Hornes are about a foot and ¼ long. But in Septalius's Musaeum there is one pair said to be above a yard in length. They are twisted into a kind of spiral shape, but the Rings which seem to be spiral, are really circular.

The BONE of the ANTILOPES HORN; which is solid, and also spiral or twisted, but without Rings. Given by Henry Whistler Esq;.

The HORNES of the SYRIAN GOAT; called Capra Mambrina 1.Syriaca being. Mambre, a Mountain near Hebron; where about, chiefly, this Goat breeds. Gesner in his Paralypom. See Gesner's Description of him. And compare it with the Picture he gives, which seemeth to be the truer, as to the hornes. His Ears are so long, Gesnet ibid. as to reach almost to the ground. A sufficient supplement for the shortness of his hornes: being not above two inches and ½ long, and a little crooked backward, almost like a Dogs Tooth.

The HORNES of a DOG-GOAT. I find them inscribed, The hornes of a Dog. Johnston giveth the figure of the Animal, without any Description. According to that figure, he is headed like a Dog, and of the bigness of a Tumbler. But footed, and horned like a Goat. To whose also the hornes here preserved are like in colour, and somewhat near in shape: but nothing near so big; being not much above two inches long. Not only the hornes themselves, but also the bones whereon they stand, are hollow to the top. They were sent from a certain Kingdom near China.

The HORNES of a HARE; so I find them inscribed. Although it is probable, that they are the hornes of a small kind of German Deer. Yet Wormius saith, There are horned-Hares in Saxony. See also Gesner of the same. Johnston gives the Picture, without a Descripton. This pair, once belonged to the Prince Elector of Saxony.

A pair of very great English Rams HORNES.

The HORNES of a Spanish-Ram. In length, ¼ of a yard. The Tips a yard distant. Somewhat flat, wrinkled, and twisted, as those of an ordinary Ram.

The HORNES of a MUSCOVY-Ram. I meet no where with the Description of the Animal, or these Hornes. He seemeth to be of kin to the Hircus Cotilardicus, which Johnston hath pictur'd. These hornes are black: and somewhat wrinkled. Consist of four Branches: The two greater whereof are a foot long, and as thick as an ordinary Rams, very strait, standing in the form of the letter V, or like the legs of a pair of Compasses, and a little writhen. The two lesser are seven inches long, not so thick, winding downward, and inward one towards another, in the form of two half Moons. The points of all four very blunt.

A very great HORN of the ROCK-BUCK, or of the Ibexmas. In shape almost like a bended Crossbow. By the string, ¼ of a yard long; but by the bow, about an Eln. It was formerly tipp'd with silver, and kept in a Gentlemans house, and shew'd (to some special Friends) for the Claw of a Griffin. See the figure hereof in Moscardus's Musaeum.

The HORNES of a WILD BULL; called Bubalus sive Buffalus. They are broad at the Roots, but grow very sharp of a sudden; and bended inwards about the middle; so that the Tips are not above two inches distant. See the Animal describ'd in Bellonius, and others. He is much bigger than the Europæan Bull. This kind breeds most in Asia. But they are also kept in Italy, in their Cities. In India they sell the Milk of the Female about the streets, as they do Cows Milk here. The Leather call'd Buff, is made of the Hyde. These Hornes were brought from Africa.

The HORNES of the BUNCH-BAK'D BULL. Cornua Bisontis. This pair belongeth to that Species, which hath a great Maine. These, contrary to the former, stand wide, and especial upwards, their Tips being ½ an Eln distant. See the Description of the Animal in Aldrovandus, his Picture in Johnston. He is swifter than any other Bull, and untameable. He breeds in Lithuania. To the hornes is joyn'd the fore-part of the skull, together with the skin, which is very thick and tough. The skin of any Bulls Forehead, either for its toughness, or other cause, is the only part of the Hyde made use of by Horners, whereupon they shave their Hornes (which they take out of a Tub of warm water by them) to fit them for Lamphorns.

The TAIL of an Indian COW. The Male is call'd Bonasus. The hairs hereof are greyish. Above a yard and ¼ long. Yet almost as soft and fine as a Womans. The Cow is said to be worshipped by the people that live near the River Ganges.

A little STONE out of an Oxes Liver. Inscribed Tetraedrum inventum in Hepate Bovis. But I find it broken into several pieces. It is just of a liver-colour. And is compos'd, as the Bezoar Stone, of several crusts or soft shells one over or within another.

A MONSTROUS CALF with two heads. Each head is a little less than usual; the rest of the parts according to Nature.

The SKIN of a CALF with two heads, tann'd with the hair on. There is a very strange story of a Monstrous Calf in the Philos. Trans. N. 1. & N. 2. compar'd together: communicated by the Honourable Mr. Boyle.

The TUSK of a Wild BOAR. It winds about almost into a perfect Ring or Hoop; only is a little writhen. In measuring by the ambit, 'tis long or round about a foot and two inches. Its basis an inch over. Almost all the way triangular, especially towards the point.

Another BOAR-TUSK, somewhat slenderer, and of a semiannular Figure.

The wild Boar breeds in Helvetia, especially near the Alps. In Barbados very great. Ligon History of Barbados. saith, he saw there one so big, that when his head was off, and his entrails taken out, weighed 400 l. It was well observed by Aristotle (as to those Beasts which he had seen) that no one was horned and tusked too: Histor. Animal. lib. 2. c. 1. the superfluous parts of the blood proper for their production, not being sufficient to feed them both.

The SKULL of the HORNED HOG. By the people of the Island Bouro, not far from Amboina, he is called Baby Roussa. Barthol. Hist. Cent. 2. See the Picture hereof in Bartholine, Ibid. 2. taken in Java, from whence he received it. As also the Description, though but imperfect. See likewise Guilielmus Piso, In Bontius's Hist. N. Ind. Orient. l. 5. c. 9. who gives a figure somewhat different, making him slenderer and shaped in Body like to a Deer. But his Description seems to be taken out of Bartholine. His principal Characters are these, About as big as a Stag, snouted and tailed like a Boar, footed like a Goat: besides what is observable in the skull, which I shall now particularly describe.

It is a foot long, seven Inches high, and about five over. The Snout scarce two. The Teeth are 32. In the upper Jaw, four Cuters; in the nether, six. In each Jaw, ten Grinders. In the lower Jaw, two Tusks, one on each side, like those of a Boar, standing outerly, an inch behind the Cuters; near their Root, ¾ of an inch over, sharp-pointed, hooked very much backward; by the bow, four inches long.

On his upper Jaw, he hath two Horns, of the same hardness and substance with the two great Teeth now describ'd: and Bartholine Histor. Cent. 2. calls them Teeth. Yet are they not Teeth, but Horns; because they are not, as all Teeth, even the Tusks of an Elephant, fixed in the Jaw with their Roots upward, but downward: and so their Alveoli are not open downward within the Mouth, but upward upon the top of the snout: where these Horns bore or pierce the flesh and skin, as the Teeth do the Gooms. Yet being two, they stand not in the middle, as in the Rhinoceros, but on the sides of the snout, sc. behind the Cuters about two inches. Near their Roots about half inch over, ending in a sharp point, bended upward and backward like a fish-hook, by the bow about ½ a foot long.

Piso In Bont. Hist. N. Ind. Orient. l. 5. c. 9. describing of it, saith, That in his nether Jaw (his upper Jaw he describes after) there are two great Tusks which stand upright, and bore through his snout (Rostrúmq; perforantes): which is a senseless mistake. Bartholine indeed saith of the Horns (which he calls the Teeth) of the upper Jaw, ---prodeunt ex superiori Maxilla carnem Rostri perforantes: which Piso transcribing, mistakes, and feigns as great an absurdity, as if Nature had put a Padlock or Bolt upon the Creatures Mouth.

Aristotle, as was before noted, said well, as to the Animals he had seen, That no one hath both Tusks and Horns. But of his fault in affirming too generally, this Animal is not the only instance, by many. The reason why this hath both, may be, because neither of them are very great, and his Horns, proportionably to what they are in others, are very little. Besides that he is cover'd with hair, and not, as the Boar, with Bristles, which probably spend more upon the same matter, which in other Creatures makes the Horns. For Bristles seem to be nothing else but a Horn split into a multitude of little ones.

This Creature is said Piso in Bont. to breed only in the Island Bouro. Yet that which the Brasilians call the Tajacuguitas, Joh. de Læt, out of Lerius. may be the same. As also Pigafeta's Porcus Quadricornis. There are Swine, saith he, Cited by Aldrovandus. in the Philippick Islands, with two, three, and four Horns. He might mistake the two Tusks for Horns; and from those which he saith had but two or three, they might be violently broken off.

Another SKULL of the BABY ROUSSA. It is altogether like the former, saving that the Tusks and Horns are not so crooked. So that one seems to be of the elder, or the Male, the other of the younger, or else the Female. Both the Natives, and others that live amongst them, esteem this Animal a delicate sort of Venison. Piso in Bontius.

The SKIN of a young RHINOCEROS, composed indifferently to the shape of the Animal. In the Description whereof Jacobus Bontius Histor. Nat. Ind. Orient. comes the nearest to the truth. Yet is he very short and defective. To whose therefore, as far as may be by this Skin, I shall add a better.

'Tis a yard long, and almost a foot over; his head nine inches long, almost eight over at the top. His Snout broadish, as in a Calf. His Eyes little, as those of a Hog, about ¼ of an inch long. They stand low, not much more than three inches above his Nose end. His Ears also like a Hogs. His Legs, as of the Hippopotamus, rateably short; about ten inches long. His Tail, five and ½; flat, as that of the Castor; but not so broad, near the Buttocks an inch and ½, at the end ½ an inch.

The said Skin is every where thick, and very hard; excepting only his Ears which are softer, and extream thin. It hath about ten Plicæ or Folds; two under the nether Jaw, one on the Breast, in the figure of the letter V, on the Neck one on each side, one between the Shoulders semicircular, on the Back two transversly extended to the bottom of the sides, with two more strait ones, carry'd obliquely on the Buttocks.

The lower part of the Forehead and Snout cover'd with a kind of hard Crust. His Ears naked and smooth. All the other parts rough with round scaly Crusts; on the Back, Sides, and Belly, lesser, near a ¼ of an inch over; on the nether Chap and Shoulders, bigger; on his Buttocks and Legs, the biggest, about ½ an inch over. His Hair is black, short, and fine. So few, that there are not many more than scales or shells; growing for the most part, out of the centre of the shell; so that he is almost naked. His Dock is also naked on both sides, but on the edges there grows a considerable quantity of longer and thicker Hair. The Animal being very young, had no Horn, nor so much as any sign of it.

The Rhinoceros, says Bontius, Histor. Nat. is near as big as an Elephant, saving that he is not so tall. He will lick a Man to death, Ibid. by raking away the flesh to the Bone with his rough and sharp Tongue.

In Piso's Figure, which he hath added to Bontius's Description, and which, he saith, was taken from the life, the Eyes are placed very low, as they are also in this Skin. But the Cloven-Feet, in the same Picture, I find not here: peradventure, the Skin not being well taken off the Feet.

In the time of Domitian the Emperour, there was one so big, as to toss not only a Bear, but a Bull upon his Horn. Mart. Epigr. 22. & Epigr. 9. lib. 1. But what Martial means, speaking of the Rhinoceros,

Namq; gravem gemino Cornu sic extulis Ursum, &c.

I do not well understand. The Figure given by Piso, as above, represents but one Horn only. Neither doth Bontius (who saith he hath seen great numbers of them both in houses and in the woods) describe or mention any more than one Horn, And those who do speak of another, yet make it a very small one, and not over against the other, but on the forepart of his back, and so in a place where it is immoveable, and can no way be made use of for the tossing up of any thing, as the other on his Nose.

The Rhinoceros breeds not in India, Linschot p. 88. but in Bengala and Patane, where they much frequent the River Ganges.

A piece of a great RHINOCEROS-SKIN, tann'd. 'Tis wonderful hard, and thick, about ½ inch; exceeding that of any Land Animal which I have seen.

The HORN of a RHINOCEROS. It once belonged to the Duke of Holsteine. Although Bontius describes the Animal the best of any before him, yet neither he, nor others describe the Horn to any purpose. 'Tis in colour and smoothness like those of a Bull. Almost a yard long. At the base, above half a foot over; and there surrounded with a Garland of black and stubby Bristles. Sharp-pointed. A little crooked backwards, like a Cocks Spur. Quite through solid. An instance contrary to that Assertion of Aristotle, De Partib. Animal. l. 3. c. 2.’Εζι δε τα χερατα δι όλδ ζερεα τοις ελαφοις μονοις.

Another HORN of a RHINOCEROS, as big as that now describ'd. Given by Sir Robert Southwell, present Embassador to the Prince Elector of Brandenburge.

A THIRD, almost as big as the former.

A FOURTH, a little one, about a foot long.

The Rhinoceros fights the Elephant with his Horn, and sometimes overcomes him. In Septalius's Musæum there are several Vessels mention'd to be made out of this Horn, as well as divers others. The Rhinocerous Horn, in India, as also his Teeth, Claws, Flesh, Skin, Blood, yea Dung and Piss, are much esteemed, and us'd against Poison, and many Diseases; and sold at great rates. Linsch. p. 88. Yet some for an hundred times as much, as others of the same colour and bigness; for some difference which the Indians (only) discern betwixt them. Ibid.

The TAIL of a great RHINOCEROS. Not well described by Bontius. The Dock is about ½ inch thick, and two inches broad, like an Apothecaries Spatule. Of what length the whole, is uncertain, this being only part of it, though it looks as if cut off near the Buttock; 'tis about nine inches, black, and very rough. On the two edges, and there only, grow also very black and shining hairs, a foot long, stubborn, and of the thickness of a smaller Shoemaker's Thread. Yet not round, as other hair, but rather flatish; like so many little pieces of Whale-Bone.

A SPIRAL or WREATHED TUSK of an ELEPHANT. Presented from the Royal African-Company by Thomas Crispe Esq;. 'Tis about an Ell long. At the base, a foot about. From the thin edges whereof, it is chonically hollow to the depth (or height) of near ½ a yard. It is twisted or wreathed from the bottom to the top with three Circumvolutions, standing between two strait lines. 'Tis also furrow'd by the length. Yet the furrows surround it not, as in the horn of the Sea-Unicorn; but run parallel therewith. Neither is it round, as the said Horn, but somewhat flat. The Top very blunt.

Pausanias (cited by Gesner) affirms, and seems to speak it as a thing well known, That the Tusks of Elephants, which he calls, and useth arguments to prove them Horns, may, by the help of fire, like Cows horns, be reduced to any shape. Whether this be naturally twisted, or by art, I will not determine. Terzagi in Septalius's Musæum mentions though not a Spiral, yet strait Tusk of an Elephant, two yards high, and 160 pounds in weight.

The LEG BONE of an ELEPHANT. It was brought out of Syria for the Thigh-Bone of a Giant. But the proportion which the thickness bears to the length of the Bone, shews it to be the Bone not of a Man, but an Elephant. For the Leg-Bone is usually about ⅞ of an inch over: and so its traverse Area contains about (49) square eighths of an inch. But this Bone is above four inches over, in the transverse Area whereof therefore, are contained about (1088) square eighths of an inch. Which number (1088) being divided by (49) gives (22) for the Quotient. So that it is two and twenty times as thick as the Leg-Bone of a Man: I mean, the transverse Area of the one containeth that of the other 22 times. Yet is it but three times as long; and therefore should contain the same but about nine times, were it the Leg-Bone of a Man. 'Tis about a yard and ½ foot long, and above a foot about in the slenderest part. And the shape of it, shews it to have belonged to the Leg, and not the Thigh. The Elephant to which it did belong, might be about five yards high.

Another LEG-BONE of an ELEPHANT, scarce so long, but of equal thickness. Given by Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich.

Elephants are brought into Europe out of Ceylan, Sumatra, Cochin, Siam, Bontam, Melinda, &c. But they breed most in the Kingdoms of Aracan and Pegu. Linchol. p. 29. &c. In the Island of Ceylon, most docile. The Æthiopians behind Mosambique eat them, and sell their Teeth. The Indians use them to draw, and ship their Goods. In Winter, when it begins to rain, they are altogether mad and ungovernable, and so continue from April to September, chain'd to some Tree; after that, they become tame and serviceable again. Ibid. See more of the nature, and ingenuity; and of the way of hunting and taming them, in Linschotus and Tavernere. East. Ind. Voyage.

One of the GRINDERS of an ELEPHANT. He hath four of these Teeth in each Jaw, wherewith he grinds his meat. This here is above a foot long. But the exerted part, or that part which stands above the Goomes, is but seven inches in length, and three in breadth. 'Tis not above ½ an inch above the Goomes, but fasten'd within the Jaw ½ a foot, where deepest. The said exerted part looks like eight or nine Rows of Teeth, three, four, and five in a Row, all coalescent. The sides all along waved. The furthermost Roots like the folds of an old set Ruff. It weighs above eleven pounds and ½ Haver-dupoyse.

ANOTHER of the same Teeth, somewhat lesser.

A THIRD, having part of it broken off.

The Elephant, in my mind, hath some affinity with the Boar. Both are Taper-Tail'd, hunch-back'd, little-Ey'd, arm'd with Tusks, have the nether Chap sharp before, and a moveable Snout; the Elephants Proboscis being but a long Snout, and the Boars Snout a short Proboscis.

The HOOF of a Solidungulous Animal. It was brought from Angola. Perhaps of a kind of Zebra there, answering to the Indian described by Pigafeta. 'Tis much about the shape of a Horse's, but not so big; two inches and ½ broad, two inches long, and as much in height. Somewhat thick and strong. For the greatest part, blackish; but just before yellowish, and half transparent. Within this is contained another young one (together with its inclosed Bone) all over of a yellowish colour. The Zebra, Indica, Aldrovandus. is in all his parts like a Mule, saving that it is not barren.

Another strange HOOF of a Solidungulous Animal. It is of a blackish brown and opacous colour. Very thin, like that of a Calf. But rateably much broader than in other Animals, being not much above an Inch over foreward, yet expanded side-ways two inches and a ¼.

Another HOOF of the former kind, a little less, blacker, and altogether opacous.

APPENDIX. Of certain BALLS found in the Stomachs of divers Beasts.

A NAKED and round HAIRY BALL; almost three Inches over, taken out of the Stomach of a Calf.

Another somewhat Oval, and more compact.

Several other lesser ones, and with the hairs more loosely composed.

Another, with the outward parts of the hair not complicated, as in the former, but standing parallel, and somewhat winding, as in the Crown of a Mans head.

Two HAIRY BALLS, SPHÆRICAL, and INCRUSTATED. About two inches Diametre, cover'd with a smooth and very thin Crust, of the colour of Occidental Bezoar, having neither taste or smell, nor stirring at all, upon the effusion of Acids.

A HAIRY BALL, incrustated, and FLAT. Taken out of the stomach of a Bull in Brasile. 'Tis very smooth, and of the colour of Oriental Bezoar. Figur'd just like a Bowl. Somewhat above two inches thick, and three, over. Ferranti Imperato Lib. ult. hath another like it. If you scrape a little of the Crust off, and pour spirit of Nitre upon it, it makes a conspicuous bullition, as it doth upon Bezoar. See the Author's Discourse of the Luctation arising from the mixture of Bodies.

Another BALL, in figure, colour, and substance, like the former; but bigger, being above three inches Diametre. It was taken out of the stomach of a Cow.

Another with the like Incrustation, but of an Oval Figure.

A FIBROUS BALL. Consisting, not of Hair, but for the most part of the fibers of Plants. Perfectly Sphærical. An inch and ½ Diametre. Cover'd with a brown, and very rough Crust. The like substance being also mixed with the most intimate parts of the Ball.

Another like Ball, but somewhat less.

Half a FIBROUS BALL taken out of the stomach of a Sheep. Two inches over, and a little flat. It consisteth of most fine herby Threads or Fibers, short, and very closely compacted. Cover'd with a black, shining, and most thin Cuticle. A piece hereof fired, burns like Match-cord, all away to ashes.

These Balls, especially those of Hair, we may suppose to be made by the motion of the stomach, which in these Creatures is very strong, and frequent: by which motion the Hair is wrought and compacted together, as Wooll is, by the Workmans hand, in the making of a Hat.


A Female LAND-TORTOISE. Testudo terrestris fœmina. Usually described, but no where fully, nor without errors. This here is eight inches long, and five broad. The Head an inch and ½ long, almost as broad; in shape somewhat like a Toads. The Orbits of the Eyes very large, almost ½ inch over; a ¼ of an inch behind the Snout. The lower Chap is received by a groove into the upper. The Tail three inches long, and sharp-pointed. The Feet two inches and ¼, and above ½ inch over. The fore-Feet have five very short Toes, with Claws about ¼ inch long. The hinder feet have but four Toes, with somewhat bigger Claws.

The Head, Back and Belly, have all bony Covers, faced or over-laid with shells. The head and back-pieces blackish, with citrine or straw-colour'd specks sprinkled up and down upon them. The back-piece convex, and almost Oval. On the sides, for the length of two inches as it were doubled inwards, and joyned to the Belly-piece. 'Tis cancellated with little squares on the Margin; on the top of the back, sexangularly; and with the largest Area's between. The Belly-piece is party-colour'd black and citrine, almost flat; but turned up a little at the ends. Cancellated in the middle with squares, with triangles before, and behind with Hyperbolick lines. The Feet are cover'd with small round Scales, the Tail with square ones. He breeds in the Deserts of Africa.

Three little LAND-TORTOISES of the same kind.

Another little LAND-TORTOISE, of kin to the former. 'Tis somewhat rounder.

A lesser LAND-TORTOISE, almost circular and ridged on the back.

A great CHEQUERD TORTOISE-SHELL. Testa Testellata major. It was sent from Madagascar. I find the Animal no where describ'd or figur'd. It is above half oval; being of all that I ever saw, the most concave; a foot long, eight inches over, and almost six inches high.

The Convex is curiously wrought with black and whitish pieces, alternately wedged in, one against another, and notched, as it were, with transvers Incisions. Those near the Margines and on the sides are composed into several Pyramidal Area's, or great Triangles, whose Bases are about two inches broad. On the Back, into sexangular ones, each of them convex. On the sides, and quite behind, the Shell is carry'd somewhat inward. Before, and hinderly, the edges are toothed, and bended outward and upward. The inward edges are cover'd with shelly Plates above an inch and ½ broad.

The Concave is composed of six and forty Bones. Along the middle of the Back, are twelve, all, except the foremost and the four last, almost square. Next to these, are eight on each side, like to so many contiguous Ribs; together with two lesser square Bones before: Next to these, eight more, as it were, under-Ribs, on each side. To the twelve middlemost Bones, the Ribs are joyned by an alternate commissure, so as one of them answers to the halfs of two Ribs, & vice versa. To these, the under-Ribs, in a wonderful manner, scil. by a branched Suture or Indenture. For the great Teeth of the under-Ribs, being first inserted into those of the upper-Ribs; the Indenture is afterwards repeated, by lesser Teeth, out of the sides of the great ones. The Belly-piece is here wanting.

Besides the most elegant ordering of the Work in the Convex, there are three-things chiefly observable, which serve for the greater strength of the Shell. That is to say, The Convexity of the several Area's on the Back, the branched Sutures, and the Alternate commissures of the Bones. Answerable to the Rule of Nature, in a Humane Skull: and of Art, in the laying of Stones in Buildings; and in covering of broader Vaults, not with one Arch, but several lesser ones, for the greater strength.

A lesser CHEQUER'D SHELL. Perhaps Stellata Wormii, See his Musæum. or a kin to it. The Convex work is composed of black and citrine pieces, cancellated, and transversly notched; ten, eleven, or twelve of them meeting in a square, and rugged centre; each looking like a Star surrounded with Rays. The several Area's rise up into a convexity somewhat greater, than in the Shell above describ'd. Just before the Tail, the edges are bended a little upward; over the Tail, downward. The Belly-piece is joyned to the Back-piece for the length of two inches and ½, with the edges turned upward. The middle of it flat, streak'd, and cancellated; the hinder part endeth in a double broad point.

Two more CHEQUER'D SHELLS of the same Species; saving, That here are not so great a number of Rays to each Star.

Another of the same; excepting, that the several arched pieces are not so high, as in the former.

A CHEQUER'D-SHELL, from Suranam. I think no where describ'd, or figur'd, unless perhaps by Moschardus. The convex work is composed of black and citrine pieces, in the Margin, of a Pyramidal or wedged Figure, oppositely set, and with transverse Notches: amongst which there are also little square, rugged, and citrine pieces intermixed. All the rest, which are also black and citrine, are six times as big, adorned not with transverse but paralell Notches. Neither are they Radiated, but several of the same kind contiguous side to side. They are compos'd into Area's almost flat: the centres whereof are also rugged, but much bigger than in the Shell last described. The Belly-piece is also less convex.

Another of the same Species.

Another CHEQUER'D SHELL from Suranam, of kin to the last describ'd. The edges of this are round about, excepting before, turn'd up outward. The Back also is less convex; the Belly, more deep.

Another of the same Species.

A CHEQUER'D SHELL from Virginia. 'Tis in figure somewhat like the female Tortoise first describ'd. Saving that it is more convex, and divided into Area's also somewhat convex, and with transvers Furrows or Notches. 'Tis also near the Tail, turned up outward; but the hindermost part bended inward.

Another Shell of the same Species.

Another, like the first describ'd, excepting also, That it is more convex; and instead of specks, hath long streaks, and great blotches.

A SCALY TORTOISE SHELL. It seems to be of the Lutarious kind. I find it not describ'd, or figur'd. Above a foot long, ten inches broad, convex to the height of 3 ½. The convex, all along the middle, high ridg'd. Composed of Scales, very smooth, particolour'd, of a brownish red and citrine; in the utmost edge lesser, and almost square, but with acute Angles prolonged towards the Tail, and towards the Head doubled downwards. The rest are five, six, and eight times bigger, set alternately, as the Scales in Fishes, or Slate-work upon a house. The Concave is strengthened with a Back-Bone, and eight Ribs, obliquely appendent, on each side. The Belly-piece is here wanting.

A SEA-TORTOISE. Curiously figur'd by Besler. Fascicul. Rariorum. Described by Aldrovandus and others. He differs from the Land-Tortoise, chiefly, in having a more rude, and softer shell, and Feet rather like the Finns of a Fish, as proper to swim with. As also in Bulk. In the Brasilian shore, said to be big enough, for one sometimes to dine fourscore men. Mus. Roman. In the Indian-Sea so big, Ibid. that the shells serve the Natives for Boats. In the Island Cuba so great, that they will creep along with five men upon their Backs. Joh. de Læt.

He squirts the water out at his Nostrils, in the same manner as the Dolphin doth at his Spout. Rondelet In Generation, the embraces of the Male and Female continue for a whole Lunary month. Trapham's Disc. of Jam. Cap. 4. They take them, by turning them on their Backs with staves, in which posture they lie, till they are fetch'd away. Lig. Hist. of Barbados. As they lie on their Backs, they will sometimes fetch deep sighs, and shed abundance of Tears. Trapham, ut sup. They kill them, by laying them on their backs, and so ripping them up round about where the Back and Belly-pieces meet. Lig. Hist. They abound in the Caribdy and Lucayick Islands, and in Jamaica, As also in the Red-Sea.

Of their Nature, Generation, and inward Parts, see some Observations in the Philos. Transactions. N. 27. & N. 36. The flesh hereof maketh a most pleasant jelly. Trapham's Disc. of Jam. The Callapee, i. e. the Belly-part so called, baked, is an excellent Dish. Ibid.

The Legs, saith Schroder out of Solenander, applied to the part affected, are a most experienced Remedy in the Gout. In Turky, the Shells are used for Bucklers. In Tabrobana, to cover their houses. Ælianus. In China, Mus. Rom. to make Girdles for Noble men.

A LITTLE SEA-TORTOISE, taken out of the Egg.

The SHELL of a Sea-Tortoise.

The HEAD of a SEA-TORTOISE. 'Tis large, and so shews the make of the Mouth the better: where the sharp and toothed edge of the nether Chap, strikes into a Canale cut into the Bone of the upper; and the toothed protuberance of the upper, into a Canale in the nether: by which means he easily sheers the Grass, or other Plants, whereon he feeds. Given by Mr. John Short.

The SKULL of a SEA-TORTOISE, Nine inches long. The head of a Sea-Tortoise a foot long, is but about two inches. Therefore the Tortoise to which this skull belong'd, was a yard and half in length.

Three other SKULS about the same bigness. One whereof, given by Henry Whistler Esq;.

Two pieces of the SHELL of a very great TORTOISE, each with a Rib fixed in it. Given by Sir Robert Southwell.

The HEART of a SEA-TORTOISE. It is about as big as a Lambs. Herein both the single Ventricle, and two Auricles, are all plainly visible. The Hearts of all great Animals, saith Aristotle, De Part. Anim. lib. 2. c. 4. have three Ventricles; of lesser, two; of all, at least one. One would a little wonder, how so observing a man, should discover so many mistakes, in so few words.

The PISLE of a SEA-TORTOISE. 'Tis fourteen inches long, and two and ½ round about. In substance like a Bulls. There are three more about the same bigness. See the great efficacy attributed hereto by Ligon, Hist. of Barbad. p. 118. in curing him of two Fits of the Stone.

An EGG of a SEA-TORTOISE. 'Tis very white, and Sphærical, which I find no Author distinctly to say, but only to be like the Eggs of Fowls. About the bigness of an Hand-Ball. The shell rather thinner and softer than of a Hen's. She lays them in the sand, where they lie till they are hatch'd. Sometimes above a hundred at a breed.

The CHAMÆLEON. By Wormius well described. Johnston's Figure, especially as to the feet, very false. A most curious one in Calceolarius. As also in Besler, saving that his eyes are drawn somewhat too little. Of the skin it may be noted, that 'tis every where rough, as it were, with little round blisters or knobs; on his Head and Back, greater; on his Legs, Sides and Belly, lesser; of the bigness of Silkworms Eggs. As also, that his hinder Feet are thicker than the fore-Feet: and the Heels or hinder Toes as long again, as the other; whereas in the fore-Feet, they are all of a length. The shape of his hinder Feet is therefore the better fitted to assist him in the climbing of Trees; the Heels being like strong Leavers to hoist him up. And the make of his Skin, for the changeableness of his Colours; which seems to depend on the falling or swelling of the said Knobs; whereby the light, receiving different Reflections, produceth different Colours. Of his Colours, saith Scaliger, Exercit. 196. Sect. 4. from the Observation of Joh. Landius, it is not so properly said, that they are chang'd, but only the several Species highten'd or deepen'd. He hath a long Tail, as a Lizard, but slenderer: which, Panarolus. as he descends from a Tree, he laps round about the Boughs, to keep himself from falling. His Feet also are all made where with to take fast hold.

Of the inward Parts, see the Philos. Trans. N. 49. But especially Dominicus Panarolus, who together with his Medicinal Observations, hath published the Description and Anatomy hereof. Amongst other particulars, the Muscular Membrane of the Eye, by which singly all those motions are perform'd, which in other Animals require six, and in some seven Muscules, is remarkable. As also the distinct continuation of the Optique Nerves from their Original to each Eye; whereby the uniform or conjunct motion of both his Eyes is not necessary, as in other Creatures; but he is able to move one upward or backward, and the other downward or forward, or any other way, at the same time. No less the fabrick of his Tongue; which being hollow from end to end, with a string running through the hollow, fasten'd behind to the Os hyoides, before to its extremity, it darts out and contracts it self in an instant: and with a Viscous substance at the end, catches the Prey, which are Flys and other Infects, as we use to do Birds with Limetwigs. Thus far Panarolus.

In the High-hoe, and other Birds of this kind, there is a peculiar Cystis, wherein a Viscous matter, like that above mention'd, is stored, and a Pipe deriving it thence into the Mouth; the Description whereof I may hereafter publish. I suppose therefore, that upon further examination, the like Contrivance will be found in a Chamæleon.

It may be noted, That Panarolus, about the beginning of his Description, calls the Chamæleon a slow Creature: Yet saith afterwards, (towards the end) that he climbs Trees so wonderfully swift, as if he flew. He is not therefore so properly slow, as perhaps sullen and Humorous.

Bartholine Hist. Cent. 2. hath also the Anatomy of this Animal, but transcribes it all out of Panarolus. In one particular much forgets himself, saying about the beginning of his Discourse, that the Chamæleon hath very great Lungs; and in the end, that they are but little.

A young brown CHAMÆLEON.

A third, with black, yellow, and ash-colour mixed together.

A CROCODILE, about two yards and ½ long. He differs not much from a Lizard; chiefly in his Bulk, and the hardness of his Skin, which on his Back hath Scales proportionably hard and thick. In Paname there are some an hundred feet long; as is affirmed both by Joh. de Lopez, Hist. Ind. l. 6. c. 1. and Joh. de Leri. Cap. 10. In the Musæum Romanum, there is a Tragical Relation of a very great one that devoured a Virgin, Cap. 6. The same Animal which in the Book of Job is called the Leviathan, and hath been commonly taken to be the Whale; but falsely, as Bochart hath demonstrated. He is tolerably well described by most; and curiously figur'd by Besler. He breeds in divers places in both the Indies, as well as in Egypt.

Nature, saith Aristotle, hath denied a Tongue to this Animal. Which Sir Thomas Brown takes notice of as a Vulgar Error. On the hinder half of his Tail he hath firm leathern upright Finns, wherewith he governs himself, as a Fish, in swimming.

He is esteemed good meat, not only by the Natives in Brasile, but also by the Hollanders there. Gulielmus Piso. He is taken thus; They fasten a thick long Rope to some Tree by the Waterside, and to the other end, a strong iron Hook, which they bait with a Weather. Scal. Exer. 196. Sect. 5.

In Brasile, they hunt them much for the sake of their Fat, which they commonly and successively apply to their Wounds, when bitten by him. Gul. Piso. As also for his Testicles, which smell like Oyntment, and which they sell very dear. Ibid. In New Spain, the Kernels under their Throat, smell like Musk, and are a present Remedy against burning Fevers. Joh. de Læt. l. 5. c. 4. out of Franc. Ximenex. The Stomach dry'd in the Sun, powder'd, and taken to the quantity of 3DRACHMAj, is an admirable Diuretick, and brings away Stones from the Reins and Bladder. Ibid. The same taken to the quantity of a spoonful in the Morning, after Dinner, and before Supper, or as often as the Patient can bear it, is an excellent Remedy for the Dropsie. Ibid.

A CROCODILE, which, with part of the Tail that is broken off, is about a yard long. Perhaps that lesser sort which breeds in Brasile, whereof Linschoten saith, That they will come into the Houses, and let the Children play with them harmlesly.

Another young CROCODILE not a foot long.

The SKELETON of a CROCODILE. Given by Sir Robert Southwell; to whom it was sent from the East-Indies. 'Tis about four yards and three quarters long. The Head about two feet. The Neck, from the hinder part of the Head, almost a foot and ½. The Trunk, from the fore-Ribs to the Tail, four feet. The Tail, seven. From the top of the Back to the Breast, a foot and ½ high.

The Orbites of the Eyes proportionably little; what ever Piso saith of his great Eyes.

The Articulations of the lower Jaw with the upper; and of the Occiput with the foremost Vertebra of the Neck; are here both made in the same manner, as in other Quadrupeds: notwithstanding the Tradition of his moving the upper Jaw.

The Teeth are about threescore, thirty in each Jaw. All of them Claviculares, or Peg-Teeth, not much unlike the Tusks of a Mastiff; and scarce bigger: notwithstanding that Aristotle calls them great Teeth, οδοντας μεγαλδς. Hist. An. l. 2. c. 10. And yet, whereas a Dog hath but four Tusks, or exerted Teeth, in this Animal being all of that figure, their smallness, with respect to so great a Head, is fully compensated by their number. For the most part, those that are new and not worn, are toothed, like a small Saw, on their sides.

The Vertebræ, in all, sixty. Those of the Neck, are seven, as in a Man. The first whereof, in a Man called the Atlas, hath a Processus in the figure of the Epiglottis. The other six, have each one Processus or Prominent Part, which is long, broad, sharp, and upright: and two that are transverse, and short; to which are joyned, by a Cartilage, so many Ossa mucronata, one shorter than another from the Head toward the Trunk. But the Vertebræ, one lesser than another, from the Trunk towards the Head.

The Vertebræ of the Back, nineteen; that is, three sevens running one into another. Each of which hath three Prominent Parts, which are sharp, broad, and long; one perpendicular, and two that are transverse, or at right angles.

The Ribs 24, twelve on each side. Seven of which, have each of them double Cartilages, that is, one after another, appendent to them.

The fore part of the Sternum is plainly bony. The hinder part, cartilaginous; shaped like the Os Hyoides in a Man.

The Vertebræ of the Tail, are 34; or (if you add the last of the Trunk as common to both) 35; that is seven times seven. The first fourteen, have each three Prominent Parts, like those of the Vertebræ in the Back. The next nineteen, have only an upright Processus. The last of all, hath none. The first 14, are double, in number to those of the Neck, the next 19, are equal to those of the Back; the last answers to the Head. To all the Vertebræ of the Tail, except the last, are also subjoyned so many Ossa Mucronata, directly opposite to the upright Processus.

The Shoulder-Blades are two on each side; each ½ foot long.

The Bones of the fore-Foot, 27. The Thigh-Bone near a foot long; an inch and ¼ over. The Leg-Bones, two; each a little above ½ a foot long; and of equal thickness, sc. about ¼ of an inch over. The Foot strictly so call'd, the length of the Thigh. The Bones of the Pedium, four. The Fingers or Toes, five. The inmost, the thickest, like a Thumb. From thence, the third, the longest. The Bones of the Thumb, three; of the next Finger, four; of the next, five; of the two outmost, four; in all 20. All armed with black Claws, a little crooked, and not much above an inch long.

The Hip-Bones are three; each of them ½ a foot long.

The Bones of the hinder Foot, 24. The Thigh-Bone above a foot long, and an inch and ½ over. The Leg Bones almost eight inches long. The inmost, above an inch over; the other, but ½ an inch. The Foot, so called, the length of the Thigh. The Bones of the Pedium, four. The Toes, four; whereof the inmost, the greatest; the third, the longest. The Bones of the great Toe, three; of the next, four; of the third and fourth, five. The Claws somewhat bigger than in the fore-Foot.

Amongst other things worthy of note, the senselesness of the tradition of the Crocodiles moving his upper Jaw, is plain from the structure of the Bones, that is, the Articulation only of the Occiput with the Neck, and of the nether Jaw with the upper, as above said.

The first Author of it was Aristotle, in his Fourth Book de Partibus Animalium, Cap. 11. And thus much is true, not only of this Creature, but of all others, which have a long Head, and a wide Rictus, that when they open their Mouths, they seem to move both Jaws; as both the Viper, and the Lizard. And for the same reason, Columna Lib. de Aquatil. might say as much of the Hippopotamus, that he moves the upper Jaw, as the Crocodile. So all Birds, especially with long Bills, shew the contemporary motion of both the Mandibulæ; the Musculi splenii pulling back the Occiput, and so a little raising the upper, while the Musculi Digastrici pull the other down. But that this motion was not meant by Aristotle, appears in his First Book de Hist. Anim, c. 11. & lib. 3. c. 7. where he saith more plainly, That of all other Animals, only the Crocodile moveth the upper Jaw. So that he speaks of it, as a motion strange and peculiar; as if the upper Mandible did make an Articulation with the Cranium: contrary to what is here seen. And if we will hear Piso, who probably speaks Aristotle's meaning, as plainly as he doth his own, he goes further, and saith, Hist. N. lib. 5. That the Crocodile doth not only move his upper Jaw, but that his nether Jaw is immoveable. Than which Assertion, to one that hath any competent knowledge in Anatomy, and seeth the Head and lower Jaw of this Animal articulated in the same way, as in other Animals, nothing can appear more ridiculous.

The WINDPIPE of a CROCODILE. It is almost an inch and ½ over. Composed of Cartilaginous Rings, not broken off, with a Membrane betwixt their ends, as in most Quadrupedes, but entire.

The GREEN LIZARD. It was brought from the West-Indies. See the Description hereof in Gesner, and others.

The SENEMBI, a Lizard so called in Brasile. Also called Igvana. Curiously figur'd by Besler. Well describ'd by Marggrarius, and after him, Wormius. Saving as to the odd structure of the hinder Foot. The inmost Toe is joyned to the next, by a Membrane, for the length of an inch and ½. This to the third, by a like Membrane for the length of an inch. This again to the fourth, for the length of an inch and ½. The fourth, almost loose from the last. The Picture also, commonly given, falsely represents the fore-Leg equal to the hinder, which is far longer and thicker.

Another SENEMBI lesser than the former.

The SWIFT, or SPOTTED LIZARD. Commonly called STELLIO, or the STARRY-LIZARD; but not properly, the Stars, in the Figure given by Aldrovandus and others, being feigned. For the Animal is not marked with Starry, but with round Spots. The lesser are sprinkled up and down. The greater composed into about 13 half Rings or Girdles. On the Back the spots are also more distinct, than on the Tail. They breed in Thracia, Syria, and Sicily. The Powder hereof being taken, is believed by some plurimum stimulare Venerem.

The SWAPTAIL LIZARD. Uromastix, vel Caudiverbera. Called also CORDILUS. In Calceolarius's Musæum there is a curious Picture hereof, under the Name of CROCODILUS TERRESTRIS. As also in Besler. Gesner, from Thomas Erastus, hath very copiously describ'd him, especially his Tail.

The BUGELUGEY. Of kin to the former. Aldrovandus and Johnston give only his Figure, with the Name of Lacertus Indicus. He is distinguished from other Lizards, chiefly, by the Scales on his Belly, which, like those of a Crocodile, are very great; sc. five or six times bigger than those on his back. It was brought from Africa. This Lizard, saith Wormius, moveth his upper Jaw, as the Crocodile. Which, in what sense it is false and absurd, I have above shew'd.

The SCALY-LIZARD. He is well pictur'd in Besler. As also in the Musæum of Olearius. Aldrovandus gives only a rude half draught, and without any Description, as well as the former. Clusius only saith, He remembers that he had seen one of them. Bontius Hist. N. l. 5. c. 8. hath his Picture, but a very bad one. Else-where I find it not. He hath also described him, but very defectively, and with several mistakes.

He is a yard and ½ long. His Head from his Nose-end to his fore-Feet not above three inches. He hath no Neck. His Trunk, from the fore-Legs to the hinder, not above ten inches and ½. His Tail exceeding long, sc. a yard and half a quarter. His Head above two inches over. His Nose near an Inch. His Trunk almost four. His Tail moderately taper'd, and ending obtusely. The under part of the Tail is plain or flat; the upper part, hyperbolick. His fore-Legs, contrary to what they are in other Lizards, are longer than the hinder; these, not above three inches and ½; those, above four. The Claws also of the fore-Feet are longer; the longest about an inch; those of the hinder, but ½ an inch. He hath only four Toes and a Heel, both before and behind.

He is all over, except his Throat, Belly, the lower part of his fore-Leg, and the inward part of his hinder, cover'd with Scales, very thick, and in hardness answering to the most solid Bone. The basis of each Scale (perhaps through age) of a blackish yellow, the Cone betwixt yellow and straw-colour, or like old Ivory. Adorned with Striæ proceeding from the base to the Cone. Set together, with an alternate respect, as the Scales of Fishes. In the Trunk, there are 10 or 11 filed to each Rank. Towards the end of the Tail, but five. The greatest, near two inches broad; the least, a quarter of an inch. On his Forehead, Back, and fore part of his Tail, they are flat. But on the edges of the Tail, they are doubled into an acute Angle, the one half of each standing on the Convex, the other on the flat of the Tail.

He is said to be a most tame and innocent Creature. Which is very likely; according to the way of Nature, which usually leaveth dangerous Animals, as Serpents, and other hurtful Lizards, naked: but defendeth the Bodies of fearful and innocent Creatures, as the Tortoise, the Tatu, and the like, with Armor.

Johannes Lerus, quoted by Linschoten, mentions a white scaly Lizard in Brasile, as thick as a Mans middle, and five or six feet long. Perhaps a bigger of the same kind with this above described.

There is a sort of little Lizard, Ligon's Hist. of Barbad. p. 62. which when he swelleth with anger, like the Chamæleon, changeth his colour, from green to a kind of Hair-colour or Russet. The Eggs of some, if not of most Lizards, eat very pleasantly. And in Linschot. Lib. 2. 248. Brasile there are a sort of Water-Lizards five feet long, which being flay'd and sodden, for whiteness, sweetness, and tenderness, surpass all other meats.

A LAND-SALAMANDER. Described by Aldrovandus, and others. Much like a Lizard; but his Mouth is shorter, and broader, more like a Toads: and seldom exceedeth a foot in length.

Bartholine tells of one that was kept alive in a Glass nine Months without food. Hist. 50. Cent. 2.

The LITTLE COMMON EFT. He hath a thicker Trunk, a blunt Oval Snout, his hinder feet are very distant from the foremost.

The SLENDER EFT. His Head is rateably very great; his Snout also longer and sharper than in the former. His Trunk slenderer and much less belly'd. His hinder Legs also stand nearer to the foremost.

The THICK-TAIL'D EFT. His Head is here wanting. His Tail is not so slender or tapering as in both the former, but ends more obtusely. And his hinder feet stand yet nearer to his foremost.

The SCINK. Described by Wormius, and others. Curiously pictur'd by Besler. Like a Lizard; saving that he hath a shorter Neck and Tail, short Legs, a flat and broad Foot like a Hand, with very short Toes, and without any Claws. The Powder hereof is said, Potenter Venerem stimulare.


A SNAKE preserved in Spirit of Wine. In Barbados there are some about a yard and half long, that Ligon's Hist. of Barbad. p. 61 will slide up the perpendicular Wall of a House out of one Room into another. A greater agility without feet, than we see in most Creatures that have four. Much helped, as it should seem, by their great length; whereby they can, in an instant, reduce themselves into so many more undulations for their better assent. In Brasile, saith Joh. de Læt, Lib. 15. c. 14 there are Snakes found sometimes 25 or 30 feet long. The Indians, in some places, eat Snakes very greedily.

The greater SLOW-WORM; Cæcilia. Called also the BLIND-WORM; so commonly thought to be, because of the littleness of his Eyes. His Skin also is very smooth and glistering. His Teeth very small. Of a lighter colour than the Adder; which are his principal Notes. See the Descriptions of Gesner and Aldrovandus. The Female is Viviparous, as well as the Viper. Bellonius saith, that out of one, he hath taken above forty young ones.

The VIPER. Vipera, qu. Vivipera; because she only among Serpents hath been thought to bring forth her young Ones. All Animals, saith Aristotle, Hist. Anim. l. 1. c. 11 that bring forth their young, have also external Ears: yet knew that an Adder which hath no Auricle is Viviparous. And this, indeed, he observes with a good Remark, which is, That she first lays her Eggs within her Womb; Histor. Anim. l. 6. c. 34 wherein they are afterwards hatched. Which had been a fair Introduction to him, to have observed, That all other Viviparous Animals are Oviparous within themselves. And 'tis much, that the hint hath not been long since taken from the Raya, and some other Fishes. The Viper, saith Sir Thomas Pseudod. Epidem Brown, from the experience of credible Persons, in case of fear, receiveth her young Ones into her Mouth; which being over, they return thence again.

The chief use of Vipers is for the Medicine called Theriaca Andromachi. But there are also divers Medicines made out of them: as

Oleum per Infusionem, Sal Viperarum Spiritus, Oleum Stillatitium, Volatile, Essentia, Vinum Viperinum, Fixum, Alcohol Burgravii, Schroderi. Pharmac.. Theriacale, Pulvis Viper': Germanus. Prævotius.

Of the nature of the Viper, see the Observations of Bourdelot, Redi, & Charas. See also the Phil. Trans. N. 87.

The SLOUGH of an ENGLISH VIPER. That is, the Cuticula. They cast it off twice every year, sc. at Spring and Fall. The separation begins at the Head; and is finish'd in the space of 24 hours. From all parts so entire, that the very Tunica Adnata, or outward Skin of the Eye it self is here plainly to be seen.

A Gelly made hereof, is order'd to be used for the making up of the compounded Powder of Crabs Claws into Balls. Which way of preservation, were no less proper for divers other Cordial Powders; especially such as are Aromatick, and whose Virtue lies in parts that are of themselves volatile and easily evaporable. Of which kind, there are none in this Powder.

The SKIN of a BOIGUACU; a Serpent so called, by the Natives of Brasile. As far as can now be seen, 'tis mixed of ash-colour with cancellated work of brown; somewhat after the manner, as in divers other Indian Serpents. Towards the Head it is somewhat slenderer, than about the middle; where it is in compass, half a yard. 'Tis almost seven yards long. See the Description of the Serpent in Piso. He is of all other kinds the greatest. But not so venimous, as are many others. I have now at home, saith Bontius, the Skin of a Serpent (of this kind) twelve yards long, which I kill'd in a Wood in Java. And, that in that Kindgom, was one taken thirteen yards and ½ long, with a Boar in her Belly; of which, being boyl'd, the general D. Petrus, and others did eat a part. Hist. Nat. l. 5. c. 3 And Joh. de Læt. reports, Lib. 14. c. 1 That in Rio de la Plata, a Province of the West-Indies, there are some quatuor Orgyas longi, and so big, as to swallow a Stagg whole, horns and all. Of such kind of Serpents, see also Marcus Paulus Venetus, and Athan. Kircher. China Illustrata

This Serpent, says Piso, will thrust his Tail up a Mans Fundament, and gird him about the middle till he kills him. Hist. N Yet is it probable, that they communicate no Venime by their Tail, but only are so cunning as to use that way, whereby to take the faster hold. Not only the Natives, but the Hollanders that live amongst them, make them part of their food. Ibid.

The SKIN of the IBIBABOCA. Another Serpent of Brasile, so called by the people there. 'Tis a foot round about, and almost three yards and half long. His colours, originally, are white, black, and red. Joh. de Læt. from J. Lerius Of all the kinds of Serpents, his Bite is the most pernicious, yet worketh the slowest. Ibid. 'Tis healed by a Cataplasme made of the Head of the Serpent. Piso.

Two SKINS of the same kind, about eight feet long; and with their colours elegantly chequer'd, as in the former.

The SKIN of a RATTLE-SNAKE; a Serpent so called, from the Rattle at the end of his Tail. By the Natives of Brasile, BOICININGA. Well described by Franciscus Ximenez; and from him by Joh. de Læt. But his Rattle is no where well pictur'd. Neither doth Ximenez, or any other Author observe the true structure of it.

It is composed of about 8, 10, or 12, some times, as this before us, of sixteen white Bones, but very hollow, thin, hard, and dry, and therefore brittle, almost like Glass, and very sonorous. They are also all very near of the same bulk; and of the self same Figure, almost like the Os Sacrum in a Man. For although the last of all only, seems to have a kind of a Ridged Tail or Epiphysis adjoyned to it, yet have every one of them the like; so, as the Tail of every uppermost Bone, runs within two of the Bones below it. By which Artifice, they have not only a moveable coherence, but also make a more multiplied sound, each Bone hitting against two others at the same time.

By this Rattle, those that travel through the Fields, or along the High-ways, are warned to avoid coming near so noxious a Creature. For those that are bitten with him, sometimes die miserably in 24 hours; their whole body cleaving into chops. Franc. Ximenez quoted by Joh. de Læt. l. 5. c. 15. They commonly bury the Limb that is bitten, and so keep it, till the pain wears off. Bontius. By thrusting the end of his Tail, saith Piso, up into a Mans Fundament, he kills him immediately. But he seems here falsely to attribute that to this Serpent, which he doth much more probably to the BOIGUACU. For this is but a lesser sort, seldom exceeding a yard and ¼, and therefore cannot do it by girding a Man about. And for there being any Venime in the Rattle, it was, I believe, hardly ever imagin'd by any other man. Their progressive motion, saith Joh. Lerius, is so swift, that they seem to fly. Which makes the Rattle to be so much the more useful, in giving timely notice of their approach. Some of the largest are in Panuco, a Province of Mexico. 'Tis said, that the smell of Dittany kills him. See the Phil. Trans. N. 3. & N. 4.

It is affirmed by Marggrarius and others, that as many years old as the Serpent is, the Rattle hath so many joynts. Which if it be true, then they will live at least sixteen years, some Rattles (as this here) consisting of sixteen joynts. Which makes the Tradition very suspicious.

About fourteen more SKINS of the RATTLESNAKE. Some of them are all over of a dark-brown. Others chequer'd with a brown, upon ash-colour.

Several RATTLES of the same Serpent; most of them composed of above ten joynts.

A POWDER said to be taken out of a Serpents Head. 'Tis as white as Starch, and tastless. Makes a noise between the Teeth, like that Mineral called Agaricus Mineralis. Acid, and especially Nitrous Spirits dropped upon it, produceth a considerable effervescence.

The SERPENT-STONE. Said by some, to be factitious, By others, to be a Natural Animal Stone. Particularly by Sir Philiberto Vernatti, an observing Person, to be taken out of the Head of a Serpent in Java, from whence it was sent by him hither. It seems to be that called Bulgolda, which Boetius, out of Ferdinando Lopez, saies is taken out of the Head of an Animal, which the Indians call Bulgoldalf. Whether it be natural or artificial, I shall here describe it.

'Tis about ¾ of an inch long, above ½ over, and ¼ thick; flat and almost orbicular, like a Cowslip-Cake, or other like Confection. All round about very smooth, and shining, for the greater part, black; but with some ash-colour intermixed; so as to look like a River-pebble. But of a substance soft and friable, like the Oriental Bezoar. And in like manner, as the same Stone, is easily dissolved with any Nitrous Spirit dropped upon it, but not with other Acids. Which is to me an argument that it grows within some Animal: it being the nature of most Animal-Stones, to be dissoluble only by Nitrous Spirits.

Sir Philiberto Philosoph. Trans. N. 6. amongst other passages of this Stone, saith, That if it be laid to a Wound, made by any Venimous Creature, it is said to stick to it, and so to draw away all the Venime. And the like I have heard affirmed of the same Stone by a Physitian of Note in this City.

SECT. IV. OF BIRDS. CHAP. I. Of Land-Fowls, and of their Parts.

A Great BAT or FLITTER-MOUSE of the WEST-INDIES. Vespertilio Americ. The Bat stands in the Rear of Beasts, and in the Front of Birds. I meet with no full Description of this kind. From his Nose-end to his Anus almost a foot. His Body almost three inches over. His Head two inches and ½ long, one and ½ over. His Nose like a Dogs, the end about ½ inch broad. His Ears extream thin, about ¾ of an inch long, and as broad; an inch and ½ asunder. His Eyes ⅓ of an inch long. He hath six and thirty Teeth. In each Chap before, are four little ones, roundish, blunt, and almost flat-ended; rather Tunsores, than Incisores. The next are large, shaped like the Tusks of a Dog, two in each Chap. Next to these, two more of the first kind in each Chap. And last of all twenty Grinders.

The Wings stretched out, are two or three inches above a yard wide from end to end. The upper part of the Arm that governs them, about four inches long, and fleshy, sc. an inch over. The next, or the Cubitus also four inches long, tendinous, and slender, not above ¼ of an inch thick. The Fingers are five, or four and a Thumb. Each hath three Bones. The first Bone of the fore-Finger or Thumb, is above ½ an inch long; the middlemost, an inch and ½; the last very short, sheathed within a sharp and crooked Claw, ¾ of an inch long, almost like that of a Hawk. The first Bone of the next Finger, is above three inches long; the middlemost, but ¾ of an inch; the last, about ½ an inch; having a very little Claw. The first Bone of the third or middle Finger, is four inches long; the middlemost, three; the last, three and ½. The first of the fourth, is also four inches long; the middlemost, two and ½; the last, as much. The first of the fifth or utmost Finger, is also four inches long; the middlemost, two; the last, as many.

His Thigh an inch and ½ long, and fleshy, yet not much above ½ inch over. His Leg two inches long, tendinous, and about ¼ of an inch thick. The Pedium, above ½ inch long. The Toes, five; each of them about an inch and ½ long; and each having a Claw, like that on his Thumb. The two inmost, have each two Bones; the other have three.

The Membrane which makes the Wings, excepting only his Head, Neck, two joynts of his Thumb and the bottom of his Feet, is spread from the top of his Back, over all his Parts.

He hath no Tail.

The shape and number of his Teeth, shew him to be a Voracious Creature. The Claws of his Thumb and Feet, that he is also Rapacious. The structure of his Wings is admirable. For were they to be always stretched out, they were (as to the length of the Bones) the most irregular and ill contrived of any thing that ever was seen. But being made to open and shut, shew the greater Artifice, in having the Bones of such a length, as might serve for all the Positions betwixt being quite open and quite close. The particular explication whereof, notwithstanding, cannot be made, without examining the several Muscules, by which all the said positions are determin'd.

Another WEST-INDIAN BAT of the same kind. There are many of them in Brasile. The Chineses esteem of them as a delicate sort of meat. Kirch. Chin. Illustr. Barlæus mentions a Water-Bat, which the Natives of Brasile call Guacucua. Res Brasil. p. 224. In the same Island, there is a sort of great Bat, that as Men lie asleep with their Legs naked, will suck their blood at a Wound so gently made, as not to awake them: whereby they are oftentimes in danger of bleeding to death. Piso's Hist. N.

The HEAD of an OSTRICH. Caput Struthiocameli. He is accurately described in Mr. Willughby's Ornithologia. His Head, like that of a Goose; he hath great thick black Hairs on his upper Eye-lid, as in Quadrupedes; his Tail standing in a Bunch, and not expanded, as in other Birds; his Wings very short and little; and his Foot not divided into three or four Toes, as in other Birds, but into two only; which are his principal Characters.

The Ostrich is the greatest of Birds; when he holds up his Head and Neck, near two Ells high. Willugh. Orn. In the Kingdom of Abasia, they are as big as Asses. Gesner out of Paulus Ven. The American, are lesser than those of Africa. Barl. 223.

He flys not, because his Wings are short. But with their help, is able to out-run a Horse. Gesner out of Pliny. He is a gregarious Bird. His Feathers are made use of for the adorning of Hats, Caps, &c. for making of Womens Fans, and the like. Willugh Ornithol. The Stomach of an Ostrich, saith Schroder, taken in power, wonderfully dissolves the Stone . Pharmac. 'Tis probable it may bring away Gravel.

The Leg of an OSTRICH. 'Tis near half a yard long without the Foot. The Foot, no less than ten inches, as long as of most men. The Leg-Bone in the smallest part four inches about, and in the Joynt nine inches: which is thicker than in most men. It hath but one triangular Claw; of that substance, as to look liker a little Hoof, and seems rather harder than that of a Horse.

The CASSOWARY. Emen. Accurately described by Clusius, and pictur'd in Willughby's Ornithologia. His Bill, almost like that of a Gooses, but not so broad. Next to the Ostrich, he is the greatest of Birds; and in Bulk little inferior, but not near so tall. On the top of his Head, hath a horny Crown, which falls off when he moulters, and grows again with the Feathers. His Wings extream small. The plumage of his Feathers so little, that he seems at a distance to be hairy. Hath three Toes without a Heel, as the Bustard. Hath no Tail: which are his chief Marques. He is brought from Tabrobana, the Molucca Islands, and others of the East-Indies.

The HEAD of a CASSOWARY. The Bill is longer, but not so broad, and so the mouth not so wide, as of an Ostrich.

The LEG of a CASSOWARY. 'Tis almost as long, and as thick, as that of an Ostrich.

The HEAD of the SEA-EAGLE or OSPREY. Caput Haljaêti.

The CLAWS of the same BIRD. See the full Description of the Bird in Willughby's Ornithologia.

The Eagle breeds abundantly on the Mountains Taurus and Caucasus. Not only comes into England, Willugh. Ornithol. but is said to build yearly on the Rocks of Snowdon in North-Wales. In Ibid. the Year 1668. on the Peke in Darbyshire, was found an Eagles Nest, flat or level, and about two Ells square; together with a young one in it.

The BIRD of PARADISE. By the Natives of the Molucca Islands (where they breed, and by whom they are worshipped,) called MANUCODIATA, i. e. The Bird of God. Because they know not from whence they come; and for their beauty. From his swift flight to and again, the Indians, in their Language, call him a Swallow. Marggravius reckons up several sorts of them, and describes them all. The least kind, Clusius calls the King. Because (as he saith, from the report of the Dutch Mariners) as they fly together, about 30 or 40 in a flock, he always keeps higher than the rest. ) Besides the smallness of his Body, in respect to what his copious Plumes shew him; the long Feathers which grow upon his sides under his Wings, and are extended thence a great way beyond his Tail; and the two long Strings or Quills which grow upon his Rump, do most remarkably distinguish him from all other Birds. He is elegantly figur'd in Calceolarius's Musæum, with the Title of Chamæleon Æreus.

Antonius Pigafeta was the first that brought this Bird, or any certain knowledge of him into Europe. Clusius. Before which, he was believed, not only by the Vulgar, but by Naturalists, (amongst whom Scaliger See Exerc. 228. S. 2. was one) that they had no Legs, but always flew up and down suspended in the Air, by the help of their Wings and Tail spread all abroad. According to which silly fancy, he is also pictur'd in Gesner.

Agreeable to this conceit, it is likewise commonly thought, and by Georgius de sepibus, who describes the Musæum Romanum, is affirmed, that those two long Quills that grow upon the top of this Birds Rump, being at his pleasure twined or wrapped round about the boughs of Trees, serve quietly to suspend him. Whereas, as Mr. Wray hath also rightly observed, Willoughb. Ornith. not being Muscular, it is impossible they should be of any such use. His hooked Claws shew him to be a Bird of Prey; and he ordinarily flys at Green-Finches, and other little Birds, and feeds on them. Bont. H. N. l. 5. The Tarnacenses shoot them down with Darts. Ibid.

Two more MANUCODIATA'S of the same Species.

The GREAT RED and BLUE PARROT. Psittacus Erythrocyaneus. All the great kind called also MACCAW and Cockatoone. It was sent hither from Java. See his Description in Willoughby's Ornithologia. There are of these greater, the middlemost called Popinjayes, and the lesser called Perroqueets, in all above twenty sorts. Their more remarkable Parts, are their hooked Bills, whereby they catch hold of Boughs, and help to raise themselves up in the climbing of Trees. Their broad, thick, and muscular Tongues, for which they are called TEXT and by which they are the better enabled to speak, and to rowl their meat from side to side under the edges of their Bills: and their Feet, which, like those of the Woodpecker, have two Toes before and two behind, with which they bring their meat to their mouths; and that after an odd way, sc. by turning their foot outward. Willoughb. Ornith.

The Parret only, saith Scaliger, Exercit. 236. S. 1. with the Crocodile, moves the upper Jaw: Yet the same is affirmed of the Hippopotamus, by Columna; of the Lizard, by Wormius; and of the Phænicopter, by Cardan. Which confirms what I have said under the Description of the Skeleton of a Crocodile, and in what sense it is absurdly said of them all. In their Cheeks, saith Piso, Hist. N. I. Occid. in each Nostril, and on the top of their Heads, in a certain Tumor, there lies, about August, a thick Worm; all which, in a little time, fall out of their own accord, without any sign left of their ever being there. They are a gregarious sort of Birds. Bart. 118. They breed very numerously in both the Indies. In Barbados, fly in flocks like Clouds. In Calechut they are forced to set people to watch their Rice-Fields, least they should spoil them. Gesner out of Ludov. Romanus. The flesh of their Chickens eats just like a Pigeon. Piso.

The BILL of a BIRD, by the people of Brasile, called COA. It is of a blackish-brown mixed with ash-colour. In shape, and bigness, very like that of the least sort of Parret called Perroqueets. He is said to feed upon all manner of venimous things: and to be himself a Cordial. Which, if true, yet is it not to be much admir'd. For if by venimous things, be meant Animals that have a venimous bite; Do we not know that the flesh of such Animals, as of Vipers, is esteemed a Cordial? Or is it understood of things that are Tota substantiâ Venimous, or at least malignant to humane Bodies, do not Ducks feed on living Toads? Again, what is a Cordial? are not many things so call'd meerly from their collateral effect? Carduus Benedictus it self, and other things given as such, Nature doth certainly abhor: but being able to cast them off, by Vomit or Sweat, and so perhaps something else that offends her together with them, they are therefore called Cordials.

A young LINET which being first embowel'd, hath been preserved sound and entire, in rectified Spirit of Wine, for the space of 17 years. Given by the Honourable Mr. Boyl. Who, so far as I know, was the first that made trial of preserving Animals this way. An Experiment of much use. As for the preserving of all sorts of Worms, Caterpillars, and other soft Insects in their natural bulk and shape, which otherwise shrink up, so as nothing can be observed of their parts after they are dead. So also to keep the Guts, or other soft parts of Animals, fit for often repeated Inspections. And had the Kings or Physitians of Egypt thought on't, in my Opinion, it had been a much better way of making an everlasting Mummy.

A young CHICKEN emboweled and put into rectified Oil of Turpentine, at the same time, with the Linet, and preserved sound; Only there is a little sedement at the bottom of the Glass.

The HEAD of the HUMGUM, or Horned-Crow; called RHINOCEROS Avis. It was brought from the East Indies. 'Tis of kin to that described by Bontius. Mr. Willoughby gives the Picture, but no Description. It hath a Crown on the top of the Bill, of the same colour and substance therewith, and prolonged in the shape of a Horn, to the length of ¾ of a foot. Yet not bended upward, as in that of Bontius, but standing horizontal. It is spongy behind, and hollow before; so that it is very light, although so big. The Bird described by Bontius, and probably this also, breeds in Bantam and Molucca.

The nether BEAK of the RHINOCEROS Bird. If we believe, saith Georg. de Sepibus, Musæum Roman. the Reverend Fathers, which are us'd to go to the Indies; the Bill of this Bird is a most precious Antidote against all manner of Poisons. For which cause also, the Indian Kings preserve it as a great Treasure, and account it a Royal Present.

The HEAD of the CROWNED CROW Mr. Willughby pictures it. But I meet with the Description hereof no where. 'Tis almost a foot long. The Skull not above two inches and ½ long, above two broad, and as high. The Bill likewise as broad. The nether Beak an inch and ¼ high, one forked Bone, in the shape of the Os Hyoides in a Bird, hooked or bended downward, the edges indented like a Saw; but with the points of the Teeth directed forward. The upper Beak an inch and ½ high, consisteth of one concamerated Bone, bended downwards, and Toothed as the other. To this and the Skull, grows a square horny-Crown, about six inches long, three and ½ over, and one and ½ high, spongy behind, and hollow before. The Nostrils, which are about ¼ of an inch wide, open between the Eye and the top of the Bill.

The Teeth of the Bill, not being made to point inward, but forward or outward, plainly shews, that they serve not, as they do in some other Birds, to hold fast the Prey; but rather, for some purpose or other, to perform the use of a Saw.

The HEAD of the TOUCAN, so called by the Indians. From the noise he makes, Aracari. Piso. And Pica Brasiliensis, for the likeness of both their Tails. Will. Orn. In the Musæum Romanum, this and the Rhinoceros Avis, are confounded. They breed not only in Brasile, but also in Guajana, and other places. This Bill was sent from Peru. See the Description of the Bird in Mr. Willughby's Ornithologia. That which is most remarkable of him, is, that his Bill is almost as big as his Body, which is not much bigger than that of a Black-Bird. The Bill and Head I shall describe more fully.

They are in length eight inches. The Skull but a little above an inch and ½ square. The upper Beak, which is prominent above the Skull near ½ an inch, is almost two inches high, and an inch and ½ over; consisting of one not hollow, but very spongy Bone, as the Crown of the Indian Crow, or rather more; with a ridge all along the top, which is blunt behind, and very sharp before; the end or point hooked down like that of an Eagle; and both the edges Toothed, as in the Indian Crow. The nether Beak near an inch and ½ over, one and ¼ high, hollowed, ridged underneath, and Toothed as the upper.

The Nostrils stand strangely, in a place altogether unusual, sc. on the top of the Head, behind the top of the Bill. The Teeth serve, doubtless, for the same purpose, as in the Humgum, and the Indian Crow.

Within his Bill, saith Piso, Lib. 3. Sect. 2. in the place of the Tongue, is contained a moveable Feather or black Quill. Were it really such, it were most absurd to think it any other, than one there by chance. But if a Tongue, or natural Part, it might have some such odd figure, as to have some resemblance to the stump of a Feather.

The BILL of the FLEMING of Suranam. Very like to that of a Toucan, saving, that it is not so sharp-ridged; neither is it spongy within, but perfectly hollow. So that the Bird seems to be an other Species of the Toucan kind.

The LEG of a DODO. Called Cygnus Cucullatus, by Nierembergius; by Clusius, Gallus Gallinaceus Peregrinus; by Bontius called Dronte; who saith, That by some it is called (in Dutch) Dod-aers. Largely described in Mr. Willughby's Ornithol. out of Clusius and others. He is more especially distinguished from other Birds by the Membranous Hood on his Head, the greatness and strength of his Bill, the littleness of his Wings, his bunchy Tail, and the shortness of his Legs. Abating his Head and Legs, he seems to be much like an Ostrich; to which also he comes near, as to the bigness of his Body. He breeds in Mauris's Island. The Leg here preserved is cover'd with a reddish yellow Scale. Not much above four inches long; yet above five in thickness, or round about the Joynts: wherein, though it be inferior to that of an Ostrich or a Cassoary, yet joyned with its shortness, may render it of almost equal strength.

The LEG, as it seems, of a certain MONSTROUS BIRD. 'Tis half a foot long. Two inches and ¼ about. Hath five Toes. The second from the inmost, the longest. The fourth, the shortest. The fifth or utmost the thickest. It hath a very great black Spur, yet not crooked as a Cocks, but strait, and sharp-pointed, two inches long, and next the Leg an inch and ¼ about.

A KING-FISHER, Ispida. Described by Mr. Willughby and others.

Two HEADS of the GROSSBEAK called Coccothraustes. See the Description of the Bird in Mr. Willughby's Ornith. There is a most curious Picture hereof in Dr. Charlton's Onomasticon Zoic. They breed in Germany and Italy: but rarely, and not except in Winter, seen in England. They will crack Cherry-stones, and Olive-stones too (which are as hard again) very easily; Willughb. Ornith. his Bill and Temporal Muscules are so strong.

The HUMING BIRD. By the Brasilians, called Guanumbi. By Clusius, Ourissia, i. e. a Sun-beam; because of his radiant-colours. By the Spaniards, Tomineius; because J. de Læt, l. 15. c. 7. out of J. Lerius, as he from Oviedus. one of them with its Neast, weighs but two Tomino's, a weight so called by the Spaniards, consisting of 12 Grains. Marggravius reckons up and describes nine sorts of them.

Yet whether he hath taken in this amongst them, seems doubtful. It is of the greater kind. From the point of his Bill to the end of his Tail, above four inches and ½ long; His Bill black, almost an inch and ½ long, as thick as a Shoomakers waxed Thread; sharp-pointed, and crooked all along like a Sithe, or exactly as the Bill of the Guara or Indian Curlew. His Head the third of an inch long, and as broad. His Neck two thirds. His Trunk an inch. His Tail an inch and ½. In which there are ten black Rudder-Quills ¼ of an inch broad. Each Wing is two inches and ½ long. Wherein there are sixteen Oar-Quills, of a blackish-brown or Eagle-colour, a little more than ¼ of an inch broad. Of which colour are the rest of the Feathers, and no where radiant, as of the other Species. His Thigh, ½ inch long. His Leg, ¼. On which are four Toes, above ¼ of an inch long, and thick as a Taylors Stitching-Thread. His Claws near ¼ of an inch long.

The Lesser HUMING BIRD. His Head is lost. From the top of his Breast, to the end of his Tail he is two inches long. But his Trunk or Body alone, is not above ¼ of an inch in length. The other Parts are answerable. His colour various: on his Wings and Tail, a dark-brown; on his Belly, a yellowish-Red; on his Breast, White; on his Back, Green, mixed with glorious golden Rays.

The Huming-Bird is every where ill pictur'd: even in Mr. Willughby, for want of the Bird it self. But all those Birds, at least, whereof he had the sight, are most curiously and exactly represented. He is said to have a loud, or shrill and sweet Note, emulous of that of a Nightingale. Thevetus Gallus & Linschot. l. 2. p. 249. He moves his Wings swiftly and continually, whether flying, or sitting on a Flower. Lig. Hist. Barb. He feeds, by thrusting his Bill into a Flower, like a Bee. Ibid. For which purpose Joh. de Læt, describing this Bird, (whether out of Oviedus or Lerius is not plain) saith, That his Tongue is twice as long as his Bill. Which Clusius hath omitted; because he took his Description from the Picture only. Gulielmus Piso observeth also the same. And it is very likely to be so, as a Part more apt, by its length, and flexibility, to thrust and wind it self to the bottoms of the deepest, and most crooked Flowers: in which, and not the upper and open parts of Flowers, it is, that the Honey-Dew which these Birds, as well as Bees, do suck, is usually lodg'd.

His Feathers are set in Gold by the the ThrygiansImbroyderers and sold at a great rate. Charlt. On. Zoie. The Indians make of them very artificial Images. Will. Orn. They take them by mazing them with Sand shot at them out of a Gun. Lig. Hist. of Barb.

Piso relates, Hist. N. lib. 5. as a thing known to himself, and many curious and credible men with him in Brasile, That there are there a sort both of Caterpillars and of Butterflys, which are transform'd into this Bird: and that in the time of Transformation, there is plainly to be seen half a Caterpillar or half a Butterfly, and half a Bird, both together. Yet the same Author saith, That this Bird buildeth her Nest of Cotton-Wooll, and layeth Eggs. That a Caterpiller should produce a Bird; and a Butterfly too, the like; and yet this Bird lay Eggs to produce its own kind, are three greater wonders than any thing that hath been said of the Barnacle. But we will rather suppose these men were themselves deceived, than that they designed to deceive others.

CHAP. II. Of WATER-FOWLES, particularly, of the Cloven-Footed.

Te HEAD of the JABIRU. The Bird is described by Marggravius, Piso, and Willoughby. He is bigger than a Swan. I will take leave to describe the Bill a little more fully.

'Tis above a foot and ¼ long; The Skull about three inches, and two broad. The Bill black, 13 inches long, an inch and ½ broad underneath. Both the Beaks are bended upwards and crooked all along. The upper, an inch and ½ high, consisting of one triangular Bone, having a sharp Ridge on the top, and is sharp-pointed. Its hinder edges are carved with oblique Furrows or Grooves. The Nostrils ½ an inch long, an inch and ½ before the eyes. The nether Beak an inch high, and concave, but one Bone, or if you please, two joyned together for the length of half a foot from the point.

The oblique Furrows in the Margins of the upper Beak, are a singular Contrivance of Nature, not only here, but in many other Birds, for the more safe reception of the nether Beak; vidt. least it should go awry either within or without the upper, as often as it is forceably pull'd to it, and so cause a dislocation, or a strain.

Another HEAD of the same kind and bigness.

The HEAD of an INDIAN HERON. I meet neither with the Animal nor with the Head any where described, or figur'd. The Skull is about three inches square. The Bill above ¾ of a foot long. The upper Beak from edge to edge near two inches over. Consists of one Bone, Triangular or Ridged at the top, a little crooked downward, Concave, and sharp-pointed. Its hinder Margins are obliquely furrow'd, as in the Jabiru. The nether Beak underneath two inches and ½. Consisteth of two Bones, joyned together for the length of not above an inch and ½ from the point, which is not above a fourth part of the length of Conjunction in the Jabiru. The edges of both the Beaks run along in a strait line.

Of the use of the oblique Furows, before. According to the length of the said Conjuction of the bones of the nether Beak from the point, the Bird may be conjectur'd more or less voraceous. For by how much this is the shorter, by so much more may the Skin of the Beak be dilated for the comprehending of the greater Prey: as is more remarkable in the Pelecan.

The HEAD of an INDIAN STORK. I find not the Bird, nor the Head£ any where describ'd, or figur'd. The Skull is four inches high, and almost square. The Skin of the Neck, as it is stuff'd up and stretched out with Wooll, is a foot about; standing out with a bunch in the usual place of the Crop. The Bill it self is above a foot long: and three inches and ¼ high. The upper Beak, from edge to edge, two inches over; is one triangular, and sharp-pointed Bone, ridged at the top, and a little crooked downward; but with strait Margins, and obliquely furrow'd behind, as in the Jabiru. The Nostrils ¾ of an inch long, and two inches before the Eyes. The nether Beak consisteth of two Bones joyned together for the length of three inches from the point; the edges whereof are a little crooked upwards. Underneath, above two inches over. The edges of both the Beaks are made rough, like a Saw, with numerous small and oblique Incisions directed backward, or looking towards the Throat.

The same oblique and small Incisions are visible in the Bills of divers other Birds of the Rapacious kind; in all made for the more secure retention of the Prey.

Of our Europæan Storks, several of the Parts are used in Medicine, at least put into the Materia Medica; as the Stomach, Gall, Fat, and Dung. Of the same also are prepared Oleum Stillatitium, Sal volatile, Aqua Antepileptica, &c. Vulgus, si decipi vult, decipiatur.

They sometimes (saith Mr. Willughby Ornith. of the Storke) devour Snakes and other Serpents: which when they begin to creep out at their Breeches, they will presently clap them close to a Wall to keep them in.

A BUNCH of black FEATHERS, of the Crest that grows on the Head of the lesser ash-colour'd or grey Heron. The length of those whereof Mr. Willughby makes mention, was five inches; but of these, above eight. The Turks value these Feathers at a great Rate. It is reported, saies Wormius, That in England it is death, to kill a Heron. But our Lawyers know of no such Law.

The BALEARICK CRANE. He differs, as to his outward shape, but little from the common: saving that on his Head he hath a Crown of thick Hairs or Bristles very full and spreading. See the Description and Picture of the Bird in Willughby's Ornithologia.

I once dissected this Bird, but found not the same kind of Windpipe (with curious flexures) as is described by Barthol. Hist. Cent. 4. and Mr. Willughby, and by them observed in the common Crane. They are therefore so far two different Species.

The HORN of the UNICORNE BIRD; In Brasile called ANHIMA. Described by Marggravius, and Willughby, out of him. His principal marks are these; Headed and Footed like the Dunghill Cock, Tail'd like a Goose, Horned on his Forehead (with some likeness) as the Unicorne is pictur'd; Spurd on his Wings; Bigger than a Swan. The Male, say Marggravius and Piso, as big again.

The HORN was given by Father Hieronymus Lobus. In the Bird which Marggravius describes, the Horn was but a little above two inches long. But this is above three, and about as thick as a Bodkin. The top also of this is not sharp, as figur'd (and I doubt feigned) by the same Author, but blunt; and, contrary to what is seen in Horns, rather thicker than toward the bottom. It is but of a softish and brittle substance, inferior to the softest sort of Horns. Considering which, and the bluntness of it, as well as smallness, compared with the Bird, it cannot be thought to be defensive or offensive, as a true Horn, but must have some other use.

Being taken in any convenient Liquor, saith Piso, to the quantity of about ʒij, it is often successful in Malignant Fevers, and against Poyson, by provoking sweat.

The SPUR of the UNICORNE BIRD. It grows as is above said, on the fore-Joynt of the Wings. Triangular, sharp-pointed, and an inch and ½ long. Said by Marggravius, mistakingly, to be strait; it being crooked (a little upwards) as a Cocks Spur; and thereby fit more effectually to wound.

The HEAD of the SHOVLER or SPOONBILL. The former Name the more proper, the end of the Bill being broad like a Shovel, but not Concave like a Spoon, but perfectly flat. The extremity of each Beak is a little hooked downward. And they are both made very rough within with numerous and crooked Striæ. A device of Nature, for the better holding of the Prey.

This Bird is of affinity with the Heron-kind, from which he scarce differs in any Part, saving the Bill. He feeds on Shell-fish. Wherewith having fill'd his Crop, he lets them lie there, till the heat of it makes them open: whereupon disgorging them, he picks the meat out of the Shells. Related by Gesner out of Aristotle, Ælian, and Cicero. Lib. 2. de Nat. Deorum.

The SEA-CURLEW. By the people of Brasile, called Guara. By Clusius and other Latin Authors, Numenius Indicus, and Arcuata Coccinea. Given by Dr. Walter Charlton. See the Description hereof in Willughby's Ornithologia. About as big as a Shoveler, long Leg'd, short Tail'd, with a Bill slender, long, and crooked like a Sithe. But that which is most remarkable, is the alteration of his colours, being at first black, then ash-colour'd; next white, after that scarlet, and last of all crimson, which grows the richer die, the longer he lives. Joh. de Læt lib. 15. c. 13. & Wil. Ornith.

The BRASILIAN MOOR-HEN, called Jacana. Given by Dr. Richard Lower. See Marggravius's Description hereof. The Colours not the same in all parts, as in that of Marggravius; the hinder part of the Back and Tail being here of a bright Bay or Chestnut, inclining to red: in his, only black and green mixed. Perhaps depending on the difference of Ages as in the Guara. The Membrane wherewith he saith the Head is cover'd, in this, growing on the Bill, is extended only over the Forehead like an inverted Peak. He saith, that on all the four Toes there grows a Claw, ½ an inch long: whereas the Claw of the hinder Toe or Heel is at least an inch and ½ long. On the fore Joynt of each Wing, grows a Spur, as in the Anhima; but not above ⅓d of an inch long, round, and exceeding sharp. Which is omitted also by Marggravius, but mention'd by Piso. She is remarkably distinguished from all other Birds, by the slenderness of her Legs and Toes.


The PHÆNICOPTER; So called from the scarletcolour of his Wings. By the French, Flammant, for the same reason. Given by Thomas Povey Esq;. There are an abundance of them in Peru. Joh. de Læt. In Winter they feed in France. See Willughby's Description. His Neck and Legs are exceeding long. When Scaliger therefore saith, Exercit. 233. S. 2. That he hath the shortest Legs of any Animal yet known; he would have said, the longest. But that wherein he is most remarkable, is his Bill. Which I shall describe more particularly.

The Figure of each Beak, is truly Hyperbolical. The upper is ridged behind; before, plain or flat, pointed like a Sword, and with the extremity bended a little down. Within, it hath an Angle or sharp Ridge which runs all along the middle. At the top of the Hyperbole, not above ¼ of an inch high. The lower Beak, in the same place, above an inch high; hollow, and the Margins strangely expanded inward for the breadth of above ¼ of an inch, and somewhat convexly. They are both furnished with black Teeth (as I call them from their use) of an unusual figure, sc. slender, numerous and parallel, as in Ivory-Combs; but also very short, scarce the eighth of an inch deep. An admirable invention of Nature, by the help of which, and of the sharp Ridge above mention'd, this Bird holds his slippery Prey the faster.

What Cardane affirmeth of the Phænicopter, That he moves the upper Jaw or Beak, I have observed, saith Wormius, to be true. Menippus the Philosopher also, Lib. de Homine. cited by Rondeletius, saith the same. But Wormius adds, That the cause is not so manifest, as in the Crocodile: yet shews not, in what respect. Hereof see Sect. 2. Chap. 3.

As for the Phænicopter, it must needs be said, That the shape and bigness of the upper Beak (which here, contrary to what it is in all other Birds that I have seen, is thinner and far less than the nether) speaks it to be the more fit for motion, or to make the appulse, and the nether to receive it. But there can be no determination of these matters, without Inspection into the Muscules and the Articulation of the Bones.

Another PHÆNICOPTER. The Tongue of this Bird, as Apicius saith, was a delicious Morsel amongst the Romans.

The GREATEST LOON. Colymbus maximus sive Arcticus Clusii. Given by Mr. Houghton an Apothecary in London. Described by Mr. Willughby. Ornithologiæ, p. 259. This is as big as a Goose: of a dark colour, dapled with white Spots on the Neck, Back, and Wings; each Feather marked near the point with two Spots. They breed in Farr Island.

The GREAT SPECKLED LOON of NORWAY. By the people there called LUMME. Described by Wormius, and out of him by Mr. Willughby. In the former, the Spots are fewer on the Neck, more on the Back: In this, more on the Neck, and fewer on the Back. There, each Feather hath two Spots; here, but one, near the point.

The Legs, both of these and the other Species of the Loon kind, are broad and flat, by which they are distinguished from all other Birds. Willughb. Ornith. p. 256. Their Claws are also broad, in shape almost like a mans Nail; as Mr. Willughby also observes. Ibid. They are called Colymbi, because they are great Divers. Their Legs are joyned to the Loins near their Rump; That they may both swim and dive with the greatest swiftness and ease. Ibid. And their Bodies being hereby extended so much the farther from the centre of gravity, it becomes the more laborious to them to walk, and so inclines them to keep more on the water, as their fittest place; P. 258: & 259. as the same Author much to this purpose.

The Skin of this Bird is sometimes worn on the Head and Breast to keep them warm; and preferred before the Swans.

The BILL of the GREATEST LOON. It belongs to the first Species, but the Bird was of lesser growth.

The two FEET of the GREAT NORWEGIAN LOON. Will. Orn.

The FOOT of the LESSER LOON, called the DIDAPPER or DOBCHICK. See the Description of the Bird in Mr. Willughby. All the Loons breed in Mona, Farra, and other Scotish Islands.

The FOOT of the SHAG, called Graculus Palmipes. See the Bird in Mr. Willughby. He is a little bigger than a Tame Drake. His Foot stands more sloaping than in the Loon; the inmost Toe being the longest. It is observable, that of all Web-footed Fowl or Palmipede's, only the Shag and the Cormorant, are known to sit and build their Nests in Trees. Willugh. Ornith; p. 248.

The PELECANE. Onocrotalus, from the noise he makes like an Ass. See the Description hereof in Aldrovandus, Willughby, and others. I add, That the shortness of his Trunk or Body, in respect to the other Parts, is observable; not being a foot long: whereas from the end of his Bill to his Rump, he's near an Eln long: and to the end of his Toes, he's above a yard and half. I shall describe his Bill a little more particularly.

The upper Beak, from the bottom of his Forehead, is fourteen inches long; behind an inch over, and convex or ridged; before, an inch and half over, and almost flat. It is composed of three Bones; the end of the middlemost is hooked like a Hawks Bill; the edges of the two utmost are sharp, and bended downwards; all made rough within with five or six edged-lines running through the length of the Beak: thus well contriv'd for the holding the most slippery Prey. The end of the nether Beak, is almost like the Prore of a Ship. 'Tis in length sixteen inches, being extended (I think further than in all other Birds) an inch beyond the Eye: whereas the usual Picture, makes it to end as much before, or on this side it. Partly by this unusual production; the swallow is the greater, as fit for so voraceous a Bird. It consisteth of two Bones, united together only at the end. To which, and part of his Neck, is subjoyned a Membrane vastly expansible; as appears in the Bird here preserv'd, capable of above two gallons of Water, and which Franciscus Stellutus, quoted by Mr. Willughby out of Joh. Faber, saith, he lets hang down and contracts again at his pleasure. It may not be improperly called the Crop, which in other Birds lies under the Neck, but in this is extended to the very end of his Bill.

'Tis probable, that the use of this Bag is not only for the reception, but also the maceration of his Meat. And that having taken his opportunity to fill it, by contracting it, presses the meat down into his Ventricle and Guts, by degrees, as they are able to subdue it. Besides the luxury of the Taste, which perhaps he enjoys all the while it lies in his Throat. 'Tis also probable, that the meat being herein warm'd, and made a little tenderer, the Female doth disgorge part of it, wherewith to feed her Young. And might occasion the Fiction, of this Birds feeding her Young, with her own Blood.

The HEAD of a PELECANE. Another of the same. Also the nether Beak of another.

The SOLUND GOOSE. Anser Bassanus. See the Description hereof in Gesner and Willughby. He is in bigness and Feather very like a tame Goose. But his Bill longer, and somewhat pointed, more like that of the Guilemot. His Wings also much longer, being two yards over. Near Colshill in Warwick-shire there was one found, Nov. 1669. (by some means fall'n on the ground) alive, not able to raise her self up again for the length of her Wings. Will. Orn. But they scarce breed any where except on the Rocks of the Island Bass in Scotland, Ibid from whence the Name.

She hath this strange property, that she will swallow and disgorge again a great many Fishes, one after another; and at last, return with one (in her Crop) to her young Ones: related by Gesner from an observing Scot. It seems probable, that she trys which, of many will best agree with her own stomach, and when she finds one more delicate than the rest, she carries that to her Young. When they come to build, they bring so great a quantity of broken Wood with them, that the People there supply themselves from thence with as much as serves them for firing all the year. Gesner out of H. Boethius.

They are extraordinary fat. Out of their Fat the Scots make a most excellent Oil to be used in the Gout, and other Cases: Not inferior to that Oleum Comagenum, so much celebrated by Pliny. Gesner out of H. B. and Turner. The young Goslins are by them also accounted a great Dainty. Wil. Orn.

The PENGUIN. So called from his extraordinary fatness. For though he be no higher than a large Goose, yet he weighs sometimes, saith Clusius, sixteen pounds. His Wings are extream short and little, altogether unuseful for flight, but by the help whereof he swims very swiftly. See his Description at large in the same Author; as also in Wormius, and Willughby out of both. I shall give a more full Description of the Bill.

'Tis black; from the corners of his Mouth four inches and ½ long. But the Horns, or horny portions, whereof it chiefly consists, are shorter; in the upper Beak, a little more than three inches long; in the nether, two. Again, in the upper, it is obliquely prolonged from the Margins to the Forehead; contrariwise, in the nether, it is obliquely shorten'd from the Margins to that part under the Tongue. The upper Beak is an inch high, between the corners of the Mouth as wide, but presently rises up into a sharp Ridge. Its Edges about the middle, a little convex; about the end, concave and sharp. They are double Grooved, sc. before and behind. In the end, 'tis crooked. The nether Beak behind as much over, as the upper; towards the end, more compressed. Hollow like a Trough. Its edges sharp, and convex before; behind, they are groov'd. In the middle, it bunches out underneath. The upper Beak, is out with seven or eight oblique and crooked Notches; the nether, with as many strait ones.

The height of the upper Beak; the sharpness, and the extuberance of the lower; together with the grooved Edges of both, do all give the Bill a sure hold, and wonderful strength. The three Grooves, as so many Joynts, keep the Beaks from distortion, when in case of missing the Prey, they are swifty and forceably clapt together. The sharp Edges of the nether Beak, serve instead of Teeth. The Bunch underneath, answersW in some measure, to the strength of an Arch. The hight of the upper Beak, to that of a Board, when set upon its Edge.

The Penguin breeds in Canada, in the Island called Newland, in those of Fero, and of the Magellanick-Sea, and is therefore by Clusius called the Magellanick-Goose. They work themselves, as the Coney, deep Buries by the Seaside. Wormius.

The AUK, RASOR-BILL, or MURRE. Alka Hoiari. See the Description in the forementioned Authors. She breeds on the Rocks of the Island Man in Scotland. As also in those of Fero. Scarce so big as a tame Duck. His Bill is like that of the Penguin. But the upper Beak is sharper Ridg'd: and the Horny part of it shorter. The nether hath a lesser Bunch. The Notches also on both are fewer; whereof one or more of them are white, as Mr. Willughby rightly observes.

The HEAD of an AUK.

The GUILLEMOT, so called especially in Northumberland; in Wales, the Guillem; in York-shire, the Skout; in Cornwall, the Kiddaw. Willugh. Ornithol. LOMWIA HOIARI. He's like the Auk, but bigger. See the Description hereof in Willughby; as also in Wormius. They build in Norway and Island. As also in Farra an Island in Scotland.


The PUFFIN; called also Bottlenose, Coulterneb, Mullet and Pope. Anas Arctica Clusii. Hereof see Clusius, Wormius, and Willughby. They are less than a tame Duck. Their Bill is much like to that of a Penguin, saving that the Horn of the nether Beak is not shorten'd, as there, but contrariwise obliquely prolonged from the Margins. 'Tis also shorter, and answerably higher, and therefore rather stronger. When they fight, they will hold by their Bills so hard, as sometimes to break one anothers necks, before they'l part. Whatever Willugh. Orn. they eat in the day, they disgorge a good part of it in the night into the mouths of their Pullen. They breed in Island, in the Isle of Man in Scotland, in those of Fero and the Syllies; also in Ireland, and other places; laying their Eggs under ground.

The Puffin, Penguin, and Guillemot; all want the Heel or hinder Toe. Have all black Backs, but their Bellies, which are much under water, are White. All lay but one Egg at a sitting: proper perhaps to other Birds of this kind. Willugh. Ornith.


The HEAD of the MAN of WAR; called also Albitrosse. Supposed by some to be the Head of a Dodo. But it seems doubtful. That there is a Bird called The Man of War, is commonly known to our Sea-men; and several of them who have seen the Head here preserved, do affirm it to be the Head of that Bird; which they describe to be a very great one, the Wings whereof are eight feet over. And Ligon, Hist. of Barbad. p. 61. speaking of him, saith, That he will commonly fly out to Sea, to see what Ships are coming to Land, and so return. Whereas the Dodo is hardly a Volatile Bird, having little or no Wings, except such as those of the Cassoary and the Ostrich. Besides, although the upper Beak of this Bill, doth much resemble that of the Dodo; yet the nether is of a quite different shape. So that either this is not the Head of a Dodo, or else we have no where a true figure of it. I shall describe it as follows.

The SKULL is four inches long; the Bill, seven; two and ½ high; one and ½ broad. The upper Beak is hollow. Is composed of six Bones. The uppermost whereof is four inches and ½ long, above ½ inch high, and convex. The middlemost on each side, also four inches long, and about ⅛ of an inch high or thick. The lowermost, above five inches long, and ¼ high. Their Edges are furrow'd with oblique and deep Grooves both before and behind. All these five Bones are resimated or bended upward, with some resemblance to a Saddle. The sixth, at the end of the Beak, is a wonderful strong Bone, crooked exactly like the Bill of a Parret, and hollow; by the bow, almost three inches, and near an inch over. Its Edges are very keen, and standing out with two sharp or pointed Angles. The Nostrils are ¼ of an inch long, and almost two inches before the Eyes. The nether Beak is composed of three Bones. The two hinder, four inches long, near an inch high, and bended answerably to those of the upper Beak. Their Edges are cut with deep Furrows. The third, at the end of the Beak, is hollow, above an inch long, near as high. Its Edges very sharp, and hard, and exceedingly convex or bended downward. Underneath, a round and sharp Pin grows out from it in a level towards the Skull, near an inch and ½ long. It was brought from the Indies.

The shape of this Bill shews it to belong to a Bird of Prey, and as is most likely, some great Sea-Fowl; which I will venture to call The Great Indian Gull. The strength of the end of the upper Beak is remarkable: as also are the sharp and hard Edges of the nether; and the Grooved Edges of both; the use whereof see in the Description of some other Birds, as of the Jabiru and the Penguin. The upper Beak seemeth to be composed of so many Bones, partly, that if a Fracture should happen to one, it might there terminate, and the rest be secur'd.

The GREAT GREY GULL, or the Herring-Gull. Larus griseus maximus. Perspicuously described by Mr. Willughby. Who only omits to say, that the upper Beak is bended upwards, as in the Bill above described; and (which is observable) that the Edges of the nether are not sharp, as is usual, but broad or expanded inward (and almost contiguous) as in the Phænicopter. They Will. Orn. are very numerous near Gravesend.

Another GREY GULL, whereof the Rump, Tail, and upper part of the Wings are very white. Given by Henry Whistler Esq;.

The TROPICK BIRD. So called, because said never to be seen but between the Tropicks. Avis Tropicorum. Well described by Mr. Willughby. He only omits the Denticulation of the edges of his Bill, or those small oblique Incisions, which, from their inward respect, are plainly made for the better retention of the Prey. Besides some very short Feathers on his Tail, he hath two Quills above half a yard long.

Another TROPICK BIRD like the former.

Another all over WHITE, except the fore part of the Wings. Both given by the forementioned Person.


The two Tail-Quills of the same.


OF EGGS, there is here a considerable number: which therefore I thought fit to put altogether in this Chapter. Their Figures, as they stand together, appear the more various. For some are almost Sphærical or Round as a Ball: others, as the most, are more oblong. Of these, some few are perfectly Oval, i. e. with both the ends defined with two equal Ellipses: but most are Conical, or with one end sharper than the other. Of these again, most have their smaller end but Blunt; some few, very sharp. Lastly, almost all both Blunt and Sharp are Convexly Conical, i. e. they are all along Convex, not only per ambitum, but between both ends: whereas some few are Plano-Conical, whose Superfice is in part level between both ends.

Their Colours are also various; as White, Pale, Livid, Ash-colour, Blew, Brown, Green. Their Spots, and Speckles, are also Iron-colour'd, Red, Bay, Musk-colour, Black, &c. the Causes of all which, both Figures and Colours, were no unfit subject of enquiry. But here I can do little more than shew, to what Eggs in particular any of them do belong.

The EGG of an OSTRICH. 'Tis very smooth, and white; all over prict as it were with extreme small brown Specks. Almost of a Sphærical Figure. About half a foot, by its Axis, from end to end. Round about, by the breadth, sixteen inches, i. e. near five inches and ½ strait over. Both the ends of an equal Convexity. Sometimes so big, saith Mr. Willughby, as to weigh fifteen pounds. The Shell is of answerable thickness, in regard to its bigness, to that of other Birds Eggs. They are sometimes set in Silver, and used as Cups.

Another white EGG, almost Sphærical. 'Tis scarce so long as a Hens Egg, yet is as thick, as that of a Goose.

A third white EGG, almost Sphærical. 'Tis scarce bigger than a little Nutmeg.

The EGG of a CASSOARY. The Shell underneath or within is white: without, it is all over rough-cast with a Testaceous Crust of a pale Green colour. It is of an exact Oval Figure, or with both ends equally Convex. In length, by its Axis, five inches, round about the breadth, eleven; i. e. a little above three and ½ strait over.

Another EGG of a CASSOWARY, like the former.

Another EGG perfectly Oval, or with both ends equally Convex. Exceeding white, as big as a Pigeons Egg.

Another EGG perfectly Oval, but somewhat lesser, and of a light Ash-colour.

Another EGG exactly Oval, and also of a light Ashcolour, but no bigger than a Nutmeg.

The EGG, as I take it, of the lesser DIVER or LOON. In bigness equal to a Hens. Of a pale wan colour. Obtusely Conical, so as to come very near to an exact Oval.

The EGG, I think, of the WIGEON. It is of the same Colour and Figure as the last described: but somewhat lesser.

Another EGG like the two former, but a little lesser. Inscribed, Arts: perhaps of the Anas Arctica or Puffin.

The Egg, as it seems, of the AUK or RAZOR-BILL. Of a pale and livid colour, with Iron-colour'd Spots sprinkled all over it. Obtusely Conical. In bigness, between those of a Turkey and a Hen.

The EGG, perhaps, of the biggest Arctick Loon. It is of a dark Green colour, besprinkled all over with Spots of a sad Bay. Both in figure, and bigness, like that of a Goose.

The EGG of a CROW. Of a Blew colour, besprinkled all over very full with dark brown Spots. Obtusely Conical. As big as a Pigeons.

The EGG of a GOLDFINCH. Of a whitish Ash-colour, besprinkled with dark brown spots. Yet not every where, but only on the thicker end. It comes near to an exact Oval.

The EGG, I suppose, of a HOOP. It is longer than a large Damascene Plum. Obtusely Conical. Of an Ashcolour, stained with spots of a sad or deep Bay, and of a dark Brown.

The EGG of the KITTY. In Colour, Figure, and Bigness, not much unlike the last described: yet somewhat lesser, and almost exactly Oval.

The EGG of the CADEY. Perhaps the Jackdaw, by some also called the Caddo. It is of a pale Blew, besprinkled with dark Spots.

An ash-colour'd EGG, speckled with Spots of a sad Red. Obtusely Conical; and as big as that of a Pigeon.

The EGG of the SEA-MOIT. In colour, almost like the last described. In bigness like to that of the Hoop.

An EGG in shape and bigness, like a Damascene Plum. Dyed with a full Blew, and sprinkled here and there with a few spots of a sad Bay.

The EGG of a REDSTART. Of a whitish Ash-colour. Speckled on the thicker end only, with a few spots of a sad Bay. In figure and bigness almost like an ordinary Acorne.

A pale wan coloured EGG, in bigness not much unlike the former.

The EGG of a WAGTAILE. Of the same bigness with the last, but more Conical. Of a white colour besprinkled with very small and numerous specks of a blackish tincture.

An EGG of the same colour with that of the Redstart, but more Conical.

The EGG of a THROSTLE. Of a pale Blew, and speckled with a few spots of a sad Bay. As big as a lesser Damascene Plum. But with one end sharp.

The EGG of a STONERUNNER. Of an Ash-colour, besprinkled with sad Bay spots. Conical, and sharp. Of the bigness of a little Walnut. Here are four of them.

The EGG of a ROOK. Painted all over with Green and dark Brown spots. Conical, and sharp. Somewhat less than a Crow's.

An Ash-colour'd EGG, besprinkled with sad Bay spots. Conical, and sharp. Almost as big as a Pullets.

The EGG of the SEAMEW; perhaps, of the lesser GULL. Of an Ash-colour tinged with blackish spots. In bigness equal to that of a Hen. But acutely Conical.

An EGG of a kind of Greenish Ash-colour. In bigness, and in shape like that of a Stonerunner. Here are two of these.

The EGG of the HORNPIE; perhaps, the SEAPIE. Of an Ash-colour mixed with a kind of Citrine, and stained with blackish spots. Almost as big as that of a Hen.

The EGG of a RED-SHANK. Of a kind of Straw colour, tinged with sad Bay spots. Most acutely Conical, or with one very sharp end. In bigness like to that of a Rook; but a little shorter.

The EGG, as I take it of the GUILLEMOT. Of a Green colour, stained with Black spots. Acutely Conical; and also, in part, level between both ends or Planoconical. Somewhat bigger than that of a Turkey.

The EGG of a LAPWING. Of a kind of Citrine colour, stained with large black spots. Sharp, and Plano-conical. A little bigger than that of a Redshank.

The EGG of the SEACOB; a kind of GULL. Of an Ash-colour, besprinkled with little black specks. In shape very like to that of a Lapwing. But not above half as big.

The EGG of a HEN, with a thick knob so growing on its greater end, as to appear to have been originally liquid.

The EGG of a SWAN with another within it. Given by Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich. Who hath also observed the like both in Hens and Turkeys. The utmost seemeth to be a little bigger than ordinary, sc. near five inches long by its Axis, and ten round about, or three and ⅓ strait over. In shape like a Turkeys. The other which is included sticks fast to the side of the greater; whether it did so originally, as also whether both of them contained White and Yelk, is uncertain. It is of the same figure, about four inches long, bigger than the biggest Hens Egg. The Shell of the same hardness and thickness as that of the greater.

'Tis plain, that the lesser Egg was first perfectly form'd. But not being big enough to provoke the Vterus to exclusion, new matter gather'd round about it for another Egg: and was the more easily supplied, because so little spent upon the former. And it may be noted, That Nature is so intent upon finishing her Work, that she may be observ'd much oftener to over do, than under do: you shall find twenty Eggs with two Yelks, or hear of twenty Animals with two Heads, for one that hath none.

From the Egg with the Lump at the greater end, it seems also plain, That the Shells of Eggs, although as hard as any Animal Stones, yet are not bred, as those, out of stony Parts visibly præexistent in liquor, and so cluster'd together: but out of a liquid substance, not much unlike to that which is separated by the Reins of Birds.

Of the figure of the Egg, it is observable, That it usually answers to that of the Body or Trunk of the Bird to which it belongs: as the Fruit is longer or broader, answerable to a tall or spreading Tree. And as it is a Transcript from the Original; so it self an Original for the next Copy. So those Birds that have a Rump and hinder Parts more Oval and spreading, as the Duck; or more Conical, as the Dunghill-Hen; breed, and are bred of Eggs alike shaped, viz. That so there may be sufficient, yet no superfluous Room, or Matter, for the Chick.

Of the Number of Eggs laid at one Breed, it is also worth the noting, That Land-Fowl, and of these especially, such as are Domestick, and whereof there is continually great destruction made, for the most part lay a considerable number of Eggs for one sitting. Whereas some Sea-Fowls, (as Mr. Willughby observes of the Penguin, and some others) lay but one. Because building upon the Rocks, where they are seldomer destroy'd, were they greater Breeders, there would not be room enough for the reception of the hundredth part of them.

The NEST of a little Bird of CHINA. Almost of a Semilunar Figure, and about two inches and ½ broad. Of a white substance, becoming soft, being moistened, and transparent like a Gelly; whereinto it seems to be convetrible, in part, being boiled: and by the Gentry of China is esteemed a delicate sort of meat; although, like that of Harts-Horn, it hath no Tast. Outwardly, it is more close and solid; within, consisting of parts loosly Netted together, as those in the middle of Harts-Horns, or some spongy Bones. See also a short Description hereof in Wormius.

The Birds breed in Coromandel, and build their Nests (as is supposed of the Sperm of Fishes) Gulielm. Piso. on the sides of the high Rocks; from whence the Natives fetch them, and sell them to the Chineses at a great rate. Mus. Worm.

The TREBLE NEST of an Indian Bird, made to hang down from the Bough of a Tree, with three Venters or Bellies, and three Necks all open one into another. See the Picture of such a like one in Willughby's Ornithologia.

The NEST of another East-Indian Bird, which, to avoid the rapine of Apes and Monkey's, she hangs down from the Bough of a Tree, by a very long Neck. See the figure hereof also in Mr. Willughby.

The NEST of a little BIRD of BRASILE, which she hangs also on a Tree out of the reach of Serpents. About ten inches in length. The Structure admirable. The upper part by which it hangs to the Tree is a flat Label, about four inches long, and three over. To this the other two Parts, sc. the Neck and Belly of the Nest, are suspended. The Neck is five inches long; below, an inch and ½ over; above, a little straiter. The Belly is likewise about the same length as the Neck, of an Oval figure, in the middle two inches and ½ over. The Neck is open, not above, but below, at the very end: for this and the Belly hang at the Label, as you would imagine a Sack of Corn hung up by the middle, quite double. So that the Bird first ascends by the Neck, and then descends into the Belly of the Nest. It is composed of Reeds and other parts of Plants curiously woven together, like a piece of Hair-Cloath.

A GREAT NEST of an other West-Indian Bird. Above three quarters of a yard long, besides part of it broken off. Where broadest, near a foot over, and almost flat. Narrowed from the bottom all the way to the top. It hath two Apertures. Above, about a foot from the top of the intire Nest, one larger and longer; below, sc. ½ a foot above the bottom, another perfectly round, and three inches over. It consisteth of the parts of Plants somewhat loosely woven together. The Invention seemeth very subtile. The entry above, for the Bird her self; her Eggs and Chicks hanging safe at so great a depth; the lower, till these are fleg'd, being in the mean time stop'd up with Feathers, Moss, or other like materials: but afterwards laid open for them, that cannot reach the top, to fly out at below.


The RIB of a TRITON or MAREMAN. About the same length with that of a Mans, but thicker and stronger; and nothing near so much bended. The Fish to which it belonged, was taken near Brasile. Of this kind, Wormius, in his Musæum, gives us divers Relations, together with the Descriptions of several Species. See also Joh. de Læt. L. 15. c. 12. of the same. And Barlæus, who saith, That in Brasile he is called Ypupiapra.

A BONE said to be taken out of a MAREMAIDS HEAD. It is in bigness and shape not much unlike that called Lapis Manati; but the knobs and hollows thereof are somewhat different.

One JOYNT of the BACKNECK-BONE of a WHALE. By Anatomists called a Vertebra. 'Tis onlyLess than one of those Parts or Joynts which answers to one single Rib on each side. It weigheth Thirty pounds Haverdupois In length, i. e. by the length of the Back-Bone, near ¼ of a foot; above a foot high; and three quarters of a yard broad, i. e. by the bredth of the Whale. The Hole in the middle of it, which the Marrow of the Back passeth through, near half a foot over. All its Knobs, are much alike those in Quadrupedes.

The PISLE of a WHALE. In length, above a yard. Near the Root ½ a foot round about, notwithstanding its being now dry and much shrunk. From thence it tapers to the very end, which is scarce one inch about. 'Tis now as hard as a Horn.

Part of the EAR-BONE of a WHALE. 'Tis as hard, and heavy for its bulk, as any Bone whatsoever. As big as a labouring mans Fist: The same Bone which in an Ox, is little bigger than a Nutmeg.

Part of a BONE said to be taken out of the Brain of a Whale, taken near the Bermudas. Given by Dr. John Wilkins, the late Bishop of Chester, to whom it was sent from thence. It seems to be part of the Brain-Pan, that was broken off and struck into the Brain, when the Whale was taken.

A ROUND BONE of a WHALE. Given by Dr. Walter Pope. 'Tis almost a foot Diametre, and in the middle about five inches thick. 'Tis rounded on the Edges, and thinner than at the middle, resembling a thick Holland Cheese.

Three more Round BONES of a WHALE; all of them lesser, and one ratably thicker than the former; the other thinner, like a white penny Loaf. The third the thinnest, almost like a Tansey.

Wormius Musæum. makes mention of a Manuscript, entituled, Speculum Regale£ but written in the ancient Danish-Tongue, as he saith is supposed, by King Suerron; in which are reckon'd up two and twenty kinds of Whales: of all which he gives a brief account in his Musæum. Of which, the last save one, is said to be sometimes almost an hundred and thirty Elns long. The last of all, liker a little Island, than an Animal.

Bartholine Hist. Cent. 4. also reckons up the same number; but with some different Names, and a different Account; which he gives from a Manuscript History of the Fishes of Iceland: which, saith he, a curious and observing Shepherd of Iceland sent to Wormius some years before his death, with all their Figures. But how these two accounts agree, I see not. I would not think, That Wormius did here put in the King, and leave out the Shepherd, to make the story better.

On the Snout of one of these Whales, called Hoddunefur, grow about five hundred horny flat pieces, which Taylors in Denmark use in making of Cloaths. Ibid. The same in substance, with that we call Whale-Bone, belonging to the Finns. In Island they are so commonly taken, That the hard Bones are there used for the impaling of Houses and Gardens. Mus. Rom.

The HORN of the SEA-UNICORNE. Given by Sir Joseph Williamson now President of the Royal-Society. It is an entire one, eight feet long, or about two yards and three quarters. Very beautiful in length, straitness, whiteness, and its spiral Furrows bigger and less, making about seven Rounds from the bottom to the top, or point. At the Basis or bottom, about seven inches round. From thence, for about a foot, it swells a little, and then again grows slenderer, all the way, and so ends in a sharp point. 'Tis also conically hollow at the Basis, for near three quarters of a foot deep.

The same Horn (together with the Fish it self, sometimes above 30 Elns long,) is described by Wormius. Musæum Wor. But I cannot, with him, call it a Tooth. In that, it performeth not the office of a Tooth, but of a Horn. Neither doth it stand as a Tooth, but horizontally. Nor is it fixed in the Mouth, where all Teeth stand, but in the Snout. The reason why he calls it so, is, because it is fastened in the Snout, as Teeth are in the Jaw. See also the Description hereof in Bartholine. Hist. Cent. 4. But in that he makes it to be Gyris Intortum, is not (at least as to this Horn) so clearly expressed: the Horn it self being strait, and not writhen, but only surrounded with spiral Furrows. The same is also transcribed by Terzagi out of Wormius, into Septalius's Musæum.

Of the Virtue hereof, Wormius mentions two Experiments. The one, upon its being given to a Dog, after a Dose of Arsenick: but he expresseth the quantity of neither. The other, upon twelve Grains hereof given after a Drachm of Nux Vomica. Both the Dogs lived; whereas two other Dogs having the same Doses, without the Horn, died. Both experiments are attested by several Physitians of Note.

The credit of these Persons is not doubted. But the question is, Whether these Dogs might not have liv'd without the Horn. As some Dogs that have been bitten by an Adder, have been observ'd to get over their Convulsions, and recover. It is also said in one of the Experiments, that the Dog which liv'd, vomited: and in the other, there is nothing said to the contrary. The question therefore is, Whether many other things, which will cause vomiting, may not do as well, as this so much celebrated Horn?

Whatever it may perform against Poison, it hath, saith Bartholine, been very successfully used by Physitians in Malignant Fevers. As in that, which at Coppenhagen in the years 1652, and 1653. was very brief: and which it carr'd off with very great Sweats. Barthol. Hist. Cent. 4. It was used also by Albertus Kyperus at Leyden in the Year 1655. in the like Case, and with the like success. Ibid. And that the sweating proceeded not meerly from Natures own strength over the Disease, but as she was helped by the use of the Horn; seems probable from what Bartholine further saith, Ibid. That a scruple or 3drachmab hereof being given in Carduus-Water, or other convenient Liquor, causeth a free and copious sweating, even in those that are not used to sweat, except with much difficulty.

Heretofore, the chief Bishops in Denmark, used to make their Episcopal Staffs of these Horns. Ibid. The Natives of Groenland, and other Places where the Sea-Unicorne is taken, arm the sharp ends of the thickest and longest of these Horns with Iron Beards, and so use them for the wounding and taking of Whales.

The Sea-Unicorne is it self a lesser Whale, and is that Species which the People of Island, where there are many, call Narwhal. The figure which Olaus Magnus gives of the Head, is fictitious.


The SAW-FISH. Pristis. Johnston hath given a good figure Tab. 4. N. 1. hereof, but without either Name or Description. And that of Wormius is defective, and in some particulars, out.

This here is a young One; from the end of the Saw to the end of the Tail, four feet. The Saw it self above a foot; near its Basis, two inches broad; at the fore-end, one. Armed, on each side, with seven and twenty Spikes, each ½ an inch long, bended a little backward, and with two sharp edges behind, as the Spur of the Unicorne Bird hath above.

His Head very flat, about three inches long; behind, almost four inches broad; before, two. His Eyes an inch long, as much behind the Snout, two inches distant. Above ½ an inch behind his Eyes he hath two Spouts, about ¼ of an inch wide, by both which (as some Fishes by a single one) he casts out the Water, which in taking the Prey, or otherwise, he receives into his mouth. Beneath, close by the Root of the Saw, are two oblique Nostrils, an inch distant, figur'd like the letter S. An inch behind these, his Mouth, two inches and ½ over. His Lips are rugged with extreme small round knobs. He hath no Teeth.

The Apertures of his Gills are five; placed obliquely, not on his sides, but his Breast, about four inches behind his Mouth.

His Trunk or Body presently behind his Head, becomes fives inches broad, and about three high; from whence it is again extenuated all the way to the end of his Tail.

He hath seven triangular Finns. On the bottom of his sides, two Gill-Finns, not behind the Gills, as in most Fishes, but for a good part before them; near eight inches long, above three broad, and almost horizontal. Three inches behind these, two Belly-Finns, two inches broad, five long, and as much distant. Directly over these, on the Back a fifth, four inches long, above three high. On the Back also, but near the Tail, a sixth, four inches long, and as high. The Tail-Finn, as it were half a Finn, being ½ a foot high, but underneath level with the Tail.

Cover'd all over with a tough and dark-colour'd Skin, somewhat rough, as you draw your hand forward: from the Belly-Finns to the end of the Tail, as it were pinched together into a little Ridge on each side. There are many of them in the Indian-Sea.

The reason why he hath two Spouts, seemeth to be the flatness and breadth of his Head or Mouth; in which the Water lying more spread, could not so expeditely be carri'd off by a single one in the middle, as by one on each side.

He is said to defend himself from the Whale with his Saw. Wherewith, by its structure, 'tis plain, that he fetches his stroak backward or side-ways, the Spikes being bended, pointed, and edged, and so made to prick and cut, that way.

The SAW or SPIKED SNOUT of the SAWFISH. 'Tis a very large one, four feet long, or above an El'n by three inches. Its Basis, excluding the Spikes, seven inches broad. On each side are seventeen Spikes, most of them two inches and ½ long, and figur'd as above described.

The length of the Fish before described, from end to end, if compar'd with the Saw is as four to one. Therefore the Fish, to which this Saw belong'd, was near five yards and half long. Again, the number of Spikes in the Saw of the Fish now describ'd, compared with those in this great Saw, is somewhat more than as three to two. Therefore had the said Fish liv'd to the Age of this to which the great Saw belonged, it would have been eight yards in length.

Five more such like SAWS, somewhat less.

The HEAD of the RAPIER-FISH; called Xiphias. By the Brasilians, Araguagua. He is pretty well described by Rondeletius. Grows sometimes to the length of five yards. The Sword, which grows level from the Snout of the Fish, is here about a yard long, at the Basis four inches over, two edged, and pointed exactly like a Rapier. He preys on Fishes, having first stab'd them with this Sword. Charl. Onom. Zoic. The Whale, saith Ligon, to shake off the Sword-Fish and Theshall, his two mortal enemies, leaps sometimes more than his own length above water. Hist. of Barb. p. 6. He is taken frequently in the German Ocean; as also in the Black-Sea; and sometimes in the Danuby.

The HEAD of the TUCK-FISH. Of the Sword-fish kind, but a different Species from the former. Whether it be any where describ'd, seems doubtful. The hinder parts of the Head are here broken off. The Snout is not so flat as in the Rapier-fish, but thicker and rounder, more like a Tuck, from whence I take leave to name it. 'Tis half a yard long; near the Head, two inches over; about the middle, one. Not with a flat point, but one perfectly round. The upper part hereof is smooth, the nether rough, the smooth and rough parts continu'd obliquely from the Point to the Root. Both the Chaps are also rough in the same manner, in the place of the Teeth, which this Fish hath not. The nether Chap hath also a different shape from that of the Rapier-Fish: this being not above four inches over, that half a foot; yet both are a foot long. It is composed of two Bones, so joyned together, for the space only of an inch and half, as to make a sharp point.

Marggravius and Piso (and out of these Johnston) describe an American-Fish by the name of GUEBUCU, of kin to this, the Head whereof is here describ'd. But cannot be the same, unless both the Pictures which they give, and Marggravius's Description (who particularly saith, That the Snout is sixteen inches long, the nether Chap, ten) be false. For in this Head, the nether Chap is broader, and comparatively not near so long.

The HEAD of the UNDER-SWORD-FISH. It is described by no Author that I have perus'd. The Fish seems to be a smaller kind. The Head is of a triangular figure, having one acute Angle below, and a blunt one on each side. An inch and quarter high; the Forehead an inch over, flat, and scaly. In length 'tis about two inches and a quarter. The Eyes, proportionably, exceeding great, sc. three quarters of an inch over. The Snout half an inch broad, not above ¼ of an inch long, a little ridged in the middle. The Chaps, instead of Teeth, are rough with many little Asperities, almost as the skin of a Scate.

The Sword grows in a level, not from the upper but the under Jaw, from whence we may give the Fish his Name. In length three inches; near the Jaw half an inch over, from whence growing narrow all the way, it endeth in a Point like that of a Sword. It is not round, but flat, as that of the Rapier-Fish, and in like manner two-edged. It seemeth to be composed of two Bones, but very firmly coherent edge to edge all the way. Whether this Fish be Viviperous, is uncertain; yet being of the Sworded-kind, I have ventur'd here to describe the Head.

A pair of the MANATEE-STONE'S. Taken out of the Head of the SEA-COW, by the Indians called Manati. Bigger than the biggest sort of Walnuts; with several knobs and hollows, like as in the Ear-Bone, but much greater. It is said by Joh. de Læt to be much commended against the Stone. There are two of them in every Head.

The Head of the Manati is like that of an Ox or Cow, from whence the English Name; his Eyes little; his Body long, like that of an Otter; his two Feet like an Elephants. Sometimes he is about thirty five feet or twelve yards long, and four broad. Charl. Onom. Zoic. out of Hieron. Benzon. Hist. N. Orb. l. 2. c. 14. He feeds not on Fishes, but the Grass on the banks of the Creeks and Bays. Traph. Disc. of Jam. Calves and suckles her Young (as some other Fishes) with two Duggs. Ibid. A certain Indian King kept and fed one of them with Bread six and twenty years in a Lake near his House, which grew tame, beyond all that the Antients have written of Dolphins: He would sometimes carry ten people on his Back, with ease, a cross the Lake. Charl. On. Zoic. out of Petr. Martyr. They breed in Hispaniola, Jamaica, Brasile, and other places.

The BALANCE-FISH. Zygæna Libella. Curiously pictur'd in Salvian. Where also see the Description. He hath his Name not unaptly from the shape of his Head, very different from that of all other Fishes, being spread out horizontally, like the Beam of a Balance; his eyes standing at the two extremes, as the iron Hooks do at the end of the Beam. He grows sometimes to the length of four or five yards: but this is a young one. They breed in the Mediterranian, especially, saith Bellonius, near Smyrna.

The HEAD of a great BALANCE-FISH. It is two feet ½ over, or from eye to eye. The Head of the lesser now mention'd, is five inches over, the Fish, 20 inches long. That therefore to which this great Head belong'd, was ten foot long.

The SKULL of the MORSE: so called by the Muscovites; by the Danes, Rosmarus. He hath four feet, and his Body shapen not much unlike the SEA-CALF. But groweth sometimes to be bigger than an Ox. In his upper Jaw, he hath two remarquakble TUSKS, bended a little inward. In this Skull, the exerted part is five inches long, and four round about at the Root. His other Teeth are undescrib'd. They are sixteen, eight on each Jaw. Not Grinders but Punchers, or somewhat answerable in shape to the Tusks of a Dog. In the upper Jaw, the longest; standing on each side, two or three of them, within side of the Tusks. They have a small flat on their insides, against which the Teeth of the under Jaw work; which are much smaller, and flat-sided. The shape of these Teeth seems no way fitted, and their strength very superfluous, for the eating of green Leaves at the bottom of the Sea, as this Animal is supposed to do.

The Figure which Olaus Magnus gives of this Animal, is fictitious. But that in Joh. de Læt (as to the Head at least) is a very good one: from whom Wormius borrows his. One of the Cubs is accurately described by Everh. Vorstius, quoted by John de Læt, by Wormius, and by Terzagi in Septalius's Musæum. This Animal, when he goes, drags his hinder part after him, as the Seal. They always, saith Scaliger, Exer. 218. S. 4. come on Land in Companies; and when they sleep, one of them, as among Cranes, is set to watch. They climb upon the Rocks on the Sea-side by the help of their great Tusks, wherewith, as with two Hooks, they hold themselves from sliping. They breed numerously near St. Lawrence Isle.

Their Tusks are used by the Turks and Tartars for the making of Sword-Handles. Musæum Wormianum. I have a Girdle, saith Wormius, Ibid.. composed of Plates made of these Tusks; which being worn, is an infallible Remedy against the Cramp: Spasmo proculdubio immunes reddit.

A piece of a MORSE-HIDE. Than which, saith Wormius, I believe there is no Animal hath one more close and solid. I add, nor perhaps any that hath a thicker, being above half an inch thick.

A PISLE, said to be that of the MORSE. 'Tis above a foot long, and seems to be only the exerted Part. At the Glans, half a foot about, now it is dry. The Muscovites, saith Vorstius, Quoted by Læt, l. 2. take the Powder hereof to bring away the Stone.

The MALE or WHITE SHARK. Canis Carcharias mas. See the Description hereof in Rondeletius. This is about two yards long, and near ¼ of a yard over, where thickest. But they are found sometimes seven or eight yards in length, and more. One hath been taken, saith Gesner, from an other person, near four thousand pounds weight. The sharpness and multitude of his Teeth especially, and the widness of his Mouth, are remarkable. They will often bite off the Legs or Arms of those that venture into the Sea in a Calm; and sometimes swallow them up whole. Ligon's Hist. of Barb. p. 5.

Their Teeth generally stand in a six-fold Row; but Bellonius observes one with four Rows only. There are some other Fishes which have as many, and the Scate hath more: but take their Number and Bigness together, and they are more considerable. In Septalius's Musæum, there is one, saith Terzagi, (in words at length) with a thousand and two hundred Teeth. But neither hath this here, nor had any other that I ever read of, near half so many.

Of his Optique Nerves, Rondeletius observes, That they are not, as in other Animals, but plainly Cartilaginous.

The Goldsmiths in France, saith the same Author, set the Teeth of the Shark (which there they call Serpents Teeth) in silver-Cases; and the Women hang them about their Childrens Necks, to make them breed their Teeth the better. The Brain of the Shark, saith Wormius, Out of Læt. is highly commended by some for the Stone. The people of Island, saith the same Authour, boil them for Lamp-Oil. They are found sometimes upon our own Coast, near Cornwall.

The LONG-SNOUTED SHARK. So I call it, because it is much longer, than in the above-mentioned; so as to be as it were the beginning of a Horn. The Body of this likewise, in proportion, is much shorter and thicker. Rondeletius seems to give the Figure of this particular Species.

There is no sort of Animal, saith Aristotle, Hist. An. l. 2. c. 1. near the end. about us, which hath a double Row of Teeth. So that he never saw a Shark, nor divers other Fishes that are commonly known, and such as are not unlikely to breed about Greece. That he includes Fishes, is plain by the Context.

The GILL-FIN of the long-snouted Shark.

The JAWS of a SHARK. There are six or seven pair of these here preserved. Terzagi mentions one pair in Septalius's Musæum, that were wide enough to have swallowed any Man.

Two great TEETH of a SHARK. They are both curiously indented, like a Saw, on each edge: as also the Teeth are in younger Sharks, but not so visibly. One of these is above an inch and half long. But one of those in a Shark of above two yards in length, is not half an inch. The Shark therefore, to which This belonged, was about eight yards long.

What the Teeth of a Shark wants in thickness, they have in breadth, whereby they are the more terrible; both pricking with their Points, and cutting with their Edges at the same stroak.

Part of the BACK-BONE of a SHARK.

The TOOTH of a PICKED-DOG. Not much unlike that of a Shark. The difference is, That the exerted part of this is bended, not inwards, but side-ways.

The SPOTED HOUNDFISH or SEA-PANTHER; Galeus Asterias; because of the Stars or Spots upon his Skin. But the radiation of the Spots in the Figure commonly given, is fictitious. See Rondeletius's Description. He hath a rough Skin, as have all of this kind. Yet this Author saith, he hath a smoother Skin, than the Galeus lævis: which, however comparatively taken, it may be true, is not well expressed of either. The said Roughness is caused by an infinite number of most hard and sharp Prickles, composed in the same manner as the Scales of Fishes.

The Female brings forth often times twice in one month, and so is said to Superfœtate: which, saith Aristotle, Hist. An. lib. 6. c. 11. & l. 5. c. 10. seems rather to be, because her Eggs are hatched (in her Womb) one after another.

The PICKED-DOG. Galeus Acanthias. Because he hath two strong and sharp Spikes growing on his Back, behind the two Finns, and pointing towards his Tail. See the Description in Salvianus and Rondeletius. Besides the two Finns which grow on each side the Anus, the Males, saith Salvian, Hist. 42. have also two Appendices, one on each side the Anus. But betwixt the Anus and the Tail there is no under-Finn; by which he differs from the rest of the Dogkind. He is said scarce to grow so big, as to exceed twenty pounds in weight. His Skin is rough with the like Prickles, as in the former; so small, as scarcely visible without a Microscope. But easily felt by drawing your hand towards the head. The shape also of the Teeth is odd and unusual, being armed with little sharp Hooks on each edge. They are taken sometimes upon our English Coast.

The Anatomy of the Galeus (the Male) is given us by Sir George Ent, in Dr. Charleton's Onomastic. Zoic. Some of the most observable Remarks, are the peculiar shape of the Pancreas, and especially the Spleen, having a Label produced from one side, above twice its own length. Likewise the Purse at the farther end of the Duodenum, into which it opens only by a very small round Hole, not so wide as to receive the end of ones little finger: all which are described and figur'd. He hath also growing on the lower Eye-lid, a thick and firm Membrane, wherewith he often winkles or covers his whole Eye: the same with that called the Periophthalmium, common to very many Birds.

The Description of the Viviparous Eggs in the Female; which are not unlike to those of the Raya, is given by Rondeletius. Bellonius hath seen an indifferent One, to bring forth thirteen young ones at a Birth. So soon as ever she hath brought them forth, they swim along with her, and if any of them are afraid of any thing, it runs immediately into the Mouth, say some, into the Womb of the Dam: when the fear is over, returns again, as if by a second Birth.

The Skin is used for the polishing of Wooden and Ivory Works.

The HEAD of a DOLPHIN, about a foot and ½ long. The Dolphin therefore to which it belong'd, was above two yards and half long. In the Skin, 'tis hard to find any passage of sound for Hearing. And Aristotle denies that the Dolphin hears. But Rondeletius truly saith, that he doth, and that the whole structure of the Internal Ear may be seen in the Skull. See Bellonius's Description and Figure of the Dam and her Fœtus.

The HEAD of a DOLPHIN, lesser than the former.

The TAIL of the DOLPHIN. It is expanded (as also in the Porpess) in a way peculiar, not uprightly, as in other Fishes, but horizontally: by the help of which, he makes his Gamboles above the Water. And at the same time takes his Breath: as Mr. Ray hath well observed of the same use in the Porpess. It is also of use to cast him forward by strong and repeated jirks, whereby he is so admirably swift, as it's said, above all other Fishes. Phil. Trans. N. 76. p. 2275. There is also another Dolphins Tail here preserved of the same bigness.

The SKELETON of a PORPESS, or Sea-Hog. Tursio Plinii. Phocæna Rondeletii. The Description and Anatomy of the Animal is given us by Bartholine (Hist. Cent. 2. ) By Mr. Ray (Phil. Trans. N. 76. ) By Dan. Major (Miscel. Curios. German. An. 4. ) And lately more largely by Dr. Edward Tyson. Some of the particulars more remarkable are, That the Fat, which is an inch thick, encompasseth the whole Body, as in a Hog. That the Fibers which run through the Fat from the Membrana Carnosa to the Skin, do obliquely decussate one another like a Lattice. And I may here observe, That the like Decussation is made betwixt the white and red Fibers of all Muscules.

'Tis further noted, That the Fat is nothing else but Oil contained in a great number of little Bladders. I add, That all these Bladders are the continuation of the Fibers which decussate, in a finer Work. And that there is no difference betwixt the said Fibers and those of the Membrana Carnosa, saving their Relaxation, (as when a Spung swells with water) by the interposition of Oil.

The Stomach remarkable, consisting of three Bags. The Guts eleven times the length of the Fish. The Glands of the Kidneys so distinct, that each having a white substance in its centre, and out of that its Papilla, seemed to be another little Kidney, about the bigness of a large Peas. And I shall here take notice, That the whitish substance within every Gland, and the same which is in the Kidneys of other Animals, is truly Carneous or Muscular, by which the conveyance of the Urinous parts of the Blood into the Pelvis is promoted.

The Paps are placed one on each side the Pudendum. The Ovaria (it being a young Fish) not above an inch long, and thick as a Goose-Quill. The Diaphragme, without the usual Tendon in the centre. The Heart, with two Ventricles and two Auricles. The Foramen Ovale, closed. The Lungs consisting of two great Lobes. The Larnyx very prominent, oddly shaped, like an old fashion'd Ewer. The Spout with strong Muscules; and Papillæ for the issuing of Snot. The Eye with the Musculus Suspensorius, as in Bruits. The Brain large, weighed above lbj averdupois, the Fish lbxcvj. The Musculus Psoas, and two others on the Back, very large and strong.

The Teeth (96 in all) so placed, that those of one Jaw, are received into the distances of the other. Stand not in distinct Sockets, but all in one common Furrow. The Ear-Bone is oddly seated in a hollow, and encompassed with Muscules. The Drum well braced, but no Incus stapes & Malleolus to be seen. The Brain-Pan five inches broad, and but three long; the Brain answerable. The Back-Bone is composed of sixty Vertebræ. The same number, as is before observed to be in that of a Crocodile. The Bones of the Fore-Finns, resemble those of an Arm with Hand and Fingers. Of the Tail, like those of two feet joyned together.

From the Nose to the Tail-end about an Ell long, and roundish, the Eyes and the Gape of the Mouth small, the Back and upper parts black, the Belly white, the Tail horizontal: much like a Dolphin, saving that she is shorter snouted.

The SEA-CALF or SEAL. Phoca. Vitulus Marinus; From the noise he makes like a Calf. See Rondeletius's Description. His Head comparatively not big; shaped rather like an Otters; with Teeth like a Dogs; and Mustaches like those of a Cat. His Body long, and all over hairy. His fore-Feet, with Fingers clawd, but not divided; yet fit for going. His hinder Feet, more properly Finns, and fitter for swimming, as being an Amphibious Animal. The Female gives suck, as the Porpess and other Viviparous Fishes. This here is about a yard long. But sometimes they are as big, saith Mr. Ray, as a Heifer of two years.

The Skin of this Fish is commonly used for the covering of Trunks. They are innumerable in the Atlantick-Sea; especially the Bay there called The Seal-Bay. Læt. l. 13. Our Mariners and Fishermen often take them in the Isle of Wight, as they lie asleep upon the Shore. Charl. Onomast. Zoic. As also about Cornwall.

Another SEAL like the former, only somewhat thicker. Given by Mr. J. Houghton, Ph. L.

The LONG-NECK'D SEAL. I find him no where distinctly mention'd. He is much slenderer than either of the former. But that wherein he principally differs, is the length of his Neck. For from his Nose-end to his fore-Feet, and from thence to his Tail, are the same measure. As also in that instead of fore-Feet, he hath rather Finns; not having any Claws thereon, as have the other kinds.

The SKULL of a SEAL. Given by Henry Whistler Esq;. The Teeth are shaped somewhat like a Dogs. The tops of them all are flat, being doubtless filed off. The processus of the Os Frontis which makes up the Orbit of the Eye in Land-Animals, is here wanting; and the said Bone pinched up much more narrowly: Both to make room, as it should seem, for a very large Eye. The passage into the Ears stands very oddly. In Dogs, Cats, and most other Land-Animals, forward and outwardly. But here it stands just oppositely, sc. behind and inwardly.

The FORE-FOOT of a very great SEAL.

The VIVIPAROUS EEL-POUT. Mustela marina vivipara. (the Male, Lupus marinus Schonfeldii.) 'Tis well pictur'd by Adam Oleareus, Tab. 27. f. 2. who calls it a Sea-Wolf (Ein See-Wolf). As also by Johnston; but not described. But in Gesner's Paralypomena 'tis both figur'd and described by Ge. Fabritius under the Name of Klipfisch (i. e. Rock-Fish,) so called by the people near the Baltick (where he breeds. ) Fabritius is particular only as to the Teeth, and is also mistaken in some things. I shall therefore add the Description I drew up before I met with his.

'Tis a yard long. The Head ½ a foot long, and almost as high; being compressed on the sides, three inches and ½ over underneath, her Forehead but a little above two. Her Snout a little Convex. The Eyes very high, an inch long. The Nostrils before the Eyes ¼ of an inch. Both the Chaps blunt-angled before, from the Corners of the Mouth three inches long, between the Corners, as much.

The Teeth all very thick, like those of Quadrupedes; both in figure and scituation, very unusual. In the upper Jaw, five before; not Incisors, or Cutters, but thick Punchers. To the Roots of which, within side, grow as it were nine little Teeth. Behind, are three Grinders; one of which, on each side, is fasten'd obliquely inwards, half an inch broad, and above an inch long. The third, and the greatest, stands betwixt them in the middle of the Palate. Each of these having deep Incisions, seem, as it were, eight or ten Teeth. In the under Jaw, are two Punchers or Claviculars, each of them having two sharp Processes within side. Behind, there seems to be only one Grinder on each side, half an inch broad, and above two inches long, arched inward, and with sixteen or eighteen Incisions looking like so many Teeth.

Her Gills open almost from the top of her Head to her Throat. The Fins are four. The Gill-Fins about five inches long, and as broad, placed so low, as to meet in the Breast, and so to supply the Breast-Fins. The Back-Fin is extended from Head to Tail; before, an inch high; behind, above two. The Belly-Fin reaches from the Anus (which opens a foot behind the Head) to the Tail, about an inch deep. The Body, where highest, above ½ a foot, the Back a little convex, grows slender all the way to the Tail, the extremity whereof is here wanting. She is cover'd with a tough Skin, now of an Iron-colour, besprinkled all over with round spots.

That which is most remarkable in this Fish, are his Teeth: which are so made, as to be fit either for Ravine, or for the eating of Grass and other Herbs on the Rocks, and under Water. They seem also to be made for the Cracking of Shell-Fish. As likewise for Rumination: which may as well be ascrib'd to this Fish, as to the Scarus.

This Fish is one, amongst divers other instances of Aristotle's error, where he saith, [Greek text]. De Part. Anim. l. 3. c. 1.

The tops of this Fishes Grinders are commonly sold for Toadstones. As Dr. Christopher Merret hath also observed in his Pinax.

The SCATE, or Angel-Fish. Squatina, sive Angelus Marinus. The figure in Johnston is tollerable. But the Description very short and imperfect. That of Rondeletius is better, yet not full. And either the Fish he describes is a different Species, or his Description of the Teeth is not true.

This is above an Ell long. His Head about ¼ of a yard long, and near as much over, (here) with several Angles or Ridges: His Mouth five inches over, his Lips almost Semilunar.

Each of his Jaws are armed with about six and thirty Rows of most sharp Teeth, and in every Row there are four Teeth. So that in all they are about two hundred fourscore and eight, all couched a little inward.

About three inches behind his Nose-end stand his Eyes, as it were on the top of his Head, and three inches and ½ distant. Proportionably very small, sc. not above ½ an inch over. About an inch and quarter behind his Eyes, and a little lower, he hath two Spouts, one on each side, above an inch long, and convex before. His Neck ½ a foot over. His Back before, three inches above a foot, expanded (here) on both sides, as if it were shoulder'd. His Middle or Wast about eight inches. The lower part of his Back, ten inches, spread like a pair of Buttocks. From his Shoulders to the bottom of his Buttocks about a foot and ½. The length of his Tail, as much: the forepart whereof above four inches over, growing slenderer all the way to the end.

He hath seven Fins. His Shoulder-Fins with Cartilaginous Rays, expanded ½ a foot out like a pair of Wings, and almost square. His Buttock-Fins prolonged hinderly ½ a foot, stand continguous to the Tail on both sides. On the top of his Tail, two lesser; three inches high, and couched backward. At the end a forked one ½ a foot long, and almost as high. From hence half a foot forward, the Skin is as it were pinched up into a little Ridge or Doublet on each side.

Above he is very rough with innumerable small Prickles, especially felt upon drawing your hand forward. And the edges of the four side-Fins are all thorny. But underneath the Skin is so thick or closely cover'd with little hard round knobs, as it seems almost smooth.

This Fish hath two Spouts, like the Saw-Fish, because of the breadth of his Head. His Teeth admirable for taking sure hold of the most slippery Prey. Those Doublets on the sides of his Tail, seem to add strength to the Muscules which move the Tail-Fins. And so in some other Fishes. By the posture of the Fins he seems to make at the Prey, not by a forward stroke, but by ascending as a Dog to his Meat, or descending as a Hawk when she stoops. With the broad Fore-Fins, saith Oppian, the Female shelters her Young, as a Hen her Chickens with her Wings. But Aristotle affirms, That she gives them protection as doth the Dogfish, by receiving them into her mouth. He also saith, That of the Cartilaginous kind the Scate only beareth twice in a year, sc. Spring and Fall.

Salvianus Histor. 50. saith, That the Skin of his Back is smooth; deceived by the Authorities of Aristotle, Epicarmus, Athenæus, and Pliny: witnesses enough to prove an Error. The Skin of this Fish is used for the polishing of Wooden and Ivory Works. He is taken, saith Mr. Ray, sometimes near Cornwall.

Another SCATE. 'Tis a young one, but in shape altogether like the former, saving that the Shoulder-Fins are here produced, more like a Wing, into a sharp Angle before.

The HEAD of a SCATE, about the bigness of that above described. Sometimes they grow to the weight of a hundred and sixty pounds.

The HEAD of the GREAT MAID. Caput Rajæ Oxyrrhynchæ majoris. See the Description of this and the other Kinds in Rondeletius, and Bellonius. They all differ from other Fishes, in having a broad and squat Body, with a long slender Tail appendent, but not so slender, as in the Cat-Fish. The end of the Snout in this, is all beset with little sharp Hooks pointing backward. And with the same Hooks, both the Jaws: but far bigger, and standing in several Rows, eight, ten, or twelve in a Row.

The Skin of the Raja, being artificially reduced to a monstrous shape, is by some shewed, and is commonly taken, for a Basilisk.

The EGG of a THORNBACK. Ovum Rajæ Clavatæ. Or rather the Bag or Case of the Egg. Hereof see Rondeletius. 'Tis very smooth, and (now) black and horny. Seven inches long, and four over. From each of the four Corners is stretched a sharpe ended Membrane two inches long. In the middle it swelleth up on both sides: so that in shape 'tis just like a Pulpit-Cushion. There are some other lesser ones of the same shape and colour.

In the upper part of the Womb, saith Rondeletius, are a great number of Eggs of several sizes, consisting only of a Yelk, as in the Ovary of a Hen. These successively ripening, are found in the lower part, consisting of Yelk and White, and cover'd with the said horny Case. Out of every one of these mature Eggs, another Fœtus is also successively generated. Whereby it is intelligible, How this Fish produceth but one at once, and yet so numerous a breed.

The SKREW-GUT of the RAJA, described by Steno's Son. Sent by Dr. Swammerdam with some other particulars mention'd in the first Section. It winds between parallel lines like a Screw or Stair-case.

The knobed TAIL of a THORNBACK. Of an ashcolour, and about a yard long.

The spiked TAIL of a THORNBACK, almost black. The knobs of both are so hard, that they will file Iron or Brass. The Skin of this Fish is used for Knife-hafts, &c. .

The smooth CAT-Fish. Pastinaca marina lævis. Fabius Columna, Lib. de Aq. & Terrest. hath described two Species of this kind: but both of them seem to be different from the Fish here. It is somewhat phantastically stuffed; yet I shall give the Description as well as it will admit.

From the tip of his Snout, to his Tail, a foot and three inches, about a foot over, and ½ a foot (being, I suppose, thrust out somewhat more than the natural dimension by the stuffing) in height. His Eyes ½ an inch long, two and ½ inches distant, three and ½ behind his Nose-end. Just behind his Eyes, and a little more distant, he hath two Spouts, one way, an inch and ¼ over. His Snout prolonged forward an inch and ½ with an Obtuse Angle; and extended towards the side-Fins, wherewith it is also joyned by the mediation of a Skiny-Border ½ an inch broad. His Mouth very little, not an inch and ½ over; curiously rough-cast like a file, underneath, and behind his Snout-end two inches and ½. Over his upper Chap hang two little Labels above ½ inch long.

His Gills are five on each side, but towards the middle of his Belly. He hath four side-Fins. His fore-Fins are stretched out two inches in breadth, extended in length towards the Tail, almost a foot. The hinder-Fins are almost two inches broad, and above an inch and ½ long.

The Tail a foot and two inches long, at the Root about an inch and ½ over, the extremity very small like a Shoomakers Thread. The Skin not very thick, nor stubborn, (now) of a yellow colour on the back, on the Belly strawcolour'd: every where very smooth, excepting on his Tail, where there are some few very short prickles.

Whether this be not a young Fish, and upon that account only wanteth the Radius (as the sharp Saw upon the Tail is called) to me is uncertain. With this Radius he is said to strike and kill his Prey, for which he lies as it were dormant, till it swims within his reach. Ælian, cited by Rondeletius, saith, That he sometimes flies. Which that he may do a little above the water, as the flying Fishes, seems possible by the horizontal production of all his Fins, and their extension all along his sides.

The Chineses and Moors eat this Fish greedily.

The nether LIP of the smooth CAT-FISH, two inches long.

The BRASILIAN FROG-FISH. Rana Piscatrix minor. In Brasile, GUACUACUYA. The figure which Johnston gives is tolerable; but his Description very defective. The length of this is eight inches. His Mouth open makes a Circle ¼ of an inch over. His Lips, in the usual place of Teeth, are rough; as also is his Tongue. He hath a black Horn on his Forehead, stooped forwards, round, an inch and ½ long, one third over at the bottom, pointed, and having little Spikes round about it. What Johnston means by the Cuteus Nervus, appears not. At the top of his Head, just under the Horn, stand his Eyes a ¼ of an inch over, and (here) no more distant. The Nostrils a little before the Horn.

His Body two inches and ½ long, and four broad; before, Semilunar. His Back convex, his Belly flat; with a Border or Fin all along each side ½ an inch broad. Behind are subjoyned a pair of Fins almost two inches long, and an inch and ½ wide. In the middle of his Belly are two other lesser close together, above an inch long, but not more than ¼ broad.

The length of the Tail four inches and ½. At the root 'tis round, and an inch over; at the end, with the sides compressed, and ½ an inch high. The Tail-Fins three, one above, another just under it, the third at the end much bigger. The Skin of his Belly and Tail underneath, whitish, thin, and rough. Of his Backside, Fins, and Tail above, black, thick and set with short spikes arising from a round Base radiated like a Star. He seems, by his shape, to be near of kin to the Thornback; and therefore to be less appositely Nam'd.

A lesser Brasilian Frogfish of the same kind.

The TRUMPET-FISH. So called from the figure of his Bill, which is an entire Pipe, shaped almost like that of the Snipe-Fish. Acus Aristotelis. Well described by Rondeletius; saving, that he describes the Body to be Sexangular all along. Whereas from the Head to the Anus it is Septangular. The Scales are also engraven with small lines almost of an Elliptick figure. Salvianus errs in saying he is not scaly. Another also of the same Species.

The Female, saith Rondeletius, hath a Canale extended from her Anus, in which the Eggs are hatched into young Ones. Of the use of the Bill, see the Snip-Fish.

The lesser TRUMPET-FISH, or Viviparous Needle-Fish.

The HORSE-FISH. Hippocampus. A small Fish. So called, because his Head is shaped like a Horses, and his Tail divided by several Incisures, somewhat like those of Caterpillars, called TEXT. Given by Mr. Scotto a London Merchant. It hath the same number of Fins, and in the same place, the same kind of Bill, the fore-Body Septangular, and the Tail square, as the Trumpet-Fish. And is, therefore probably, also Viviparous: and so I have ventur'd to place it here.

Another HIPPOCAMPUS taken in the Mediterranean.

A STURGEON. Acipenser. Sturio, because one of the greatest of edible Fishes; for Stur, in the Danish-Tongue, signifies Great. Wormius. See Wormius his Description. Especially that of Salvianus, with his curious figure. The like in Besler. The parts by which he is best distinguished, are his very long and sharp Snout, his little Mouth, to be seen only when he lies on his back, and his thick and bony Scales; which stand in Rows so, as to make the Fish almost Pentangular. The figure of most of the side Scales is Rhomboidal. It is affirmed by Moufet, L. de Re Cibaria. That the Scales of a Sturgeon turn towards the Head; borrowing his Error herein of Pliny.

Lately, a piece of a Sturgeons Gut was shewed me by Dr. Edward Tyson, which he had cut off of a great One sent to my Lord Major. It is very thick, strong and Muscular. And the inner Coat made of Fibers, so loosely woven together, as to look like a Net; and that above the eighth of an inch in thickness. In which a plenteous Chyle is conveniently lodged, and thence gradually transmitted to the Lacteal Veins.

Scaliger saith Exerc. 182. S. 2. of the Guts of a Sturgeon, that being taken out and cut all to pieces, those pieces will still move. Which may partly depend upon their great thickness and muscularity; the like being observable in cutting the Heart and other Muscular parts of divers Animals.

The Sturgeon is taken in most great Rivers, as well as in the Sea. He hath sometimes been seen, saith Bellonius, six yards long. The bigger he is, as all other Fish, the better meat. The Italians Salvian. prefer the Belly before the Jole. His Liver very delicate. At Hamburge and Dantsick they eat (or did in Moufet's time, who reports it, eat) Sturgeon roasted. In the same Author, see a most excellent Pickle for this Fish. The Eggs being salted and made up into a Mass, were first brought from Constantinople by the Italians, and called Caveare. Of the way of making it, see Gesner. The pickled pieces made of the Chine, are by some called Schinalia. Of the long Bag Salvian. which grows next the Chine, the people that live near Tanais make Glew.

The HEAD of a great STURGEON.

MOON-FISH. Mola Salviani Luna; Because the Tail-Fin is shaped like a Half-Moon, By which, and his odd trussed shape, looking as if he were only the Head of some great Fish cut off from his Trunk, he is sufficiently distinguished from all others. Well described by Rondeletius and Salvian; and by this latter, very curiously pictur'd. The Gill-Fins, as he observes, are so postur'd, as not to move from Head to Tail, or vice versa, but from Back to Belly, & è contra. The use whereof seems to be, To enable him to make a more direct and sudden descent; that so when any Ravenous Fish makes full speed at him, he may in an instant strike himself under his way, and so escape him. It may also be noted, That being a tall Fish, and with his sides much compressed, he hath a long Fin upon his Back, and another answering to it on his Belly: by which he is the better kept upright, or from swaging on his sides.

Another MOON-FISH of the same Species, but somewhat lesser. Neither of these is above ½ a yard long. But that which Salvian describes, was above an hundred pounds weight. They are taken, as Mr. Ray saith, about St. Ives and Pensans in Cornwall.

CHAP. II. OF OVIPAROUS FISHES, particularly such as are NOT-SCALED.

The HEAD of the RIVER-WHALE. Caput Siluri. Johnston gives the figure of this Fish, but without a Description. That of Rondeletius is not full. This Head is ½ a foot long, as broad, and half as high. The Snout flat. Both the Chaps before of a Semilunar figure. Armed with an innumerable company of prickly Teeth, standing like those in a Card wherewith Women Comb Wooll. The nether Chap stands out above an inch before the upper. The Eyes round, and for such a Head, very small, scarce the third of an inch over. Distant three inches and ½. An inch above the corners of his Mouth, he hath two strings, smooth and round, here (for they are broken) ½ a foot long, about the thickness of an Earth-Worm, taper'd and bended backward; outwardly nervous, inwardly Cartilaginous or Grisly. His Gills descending almost from the top of his Head, meet under his Throat.

What may be the use of these strings is uncertain, and to be collected only from observing their communication with other parts, and the manners of the Fish. But the intent of their structure is less obscure; the Nervous part serving to draw it too and fro; the Cartilage, as the spring in a Pendulum Watch, to stint the motion and make it more steady. And being flexible, it dœs the same as a joynted Series of many little Bones.

The little SEA-UNICORNE. Monoceros minor. It was sent from Brasile, I find it not described nor pictur'd in any Author. Nor is it certain whether it be Oviparous. Yet I have ventur'd to place, and shall describe it here.

'Tis ½ a yard long, almost ¼ high, with its sides very much compressed, being not above two inches and a ½ over. High-Bac'd, like a Perch. And also (which is unusual) bow-Belli'd. His Head hath some resemblance to that of a Baboone; from the top to the bottom four inches and ½. His Mouth, which stands below, not much above an inch over. His Teeth, in both Chaps, the thickness of a midling Needle, the eight of an inch long. His Gills subtended to his Eyes and Mouth like the segment of a Circle. His Eyes stand near the top of his Head; and are an inch over.

From the top is prolonged a smooth (now) blackish, round, taper'd, strait Horn, couched a little down below the level, two inches round about the Root, and three inches long. It seemeth not to have any Bone within it; nor is it inserted into any, as in the Unicorne of the Cetaceous kind before described; but is the Skin it self prolonged and hardened (as the Cuticula turns to Cornes) into a kind of horn.

The Fins are seven. The Gill-Fins two inches long, and one broad. The Back-Fin is extended from Head to Tail, above an inch and ½ high. The Breast-Fins ¼ of an inch before the Anus, near two inches long. The Belly-Fin, like that of the Back, and extended from the Anus to the end of the Tail. That at the end of the Tail triangular, two inches and ½ long, three high. The Anus, if you measure by a perpendicular from the Gills, opens, oddly, not above an inch and ½ behind them. He is cover'd with a (now) blackish, thick and tough Skin, and when you draw your hand forward, also rough.

The SHIPHALTER. Echeneis. Remora. Johnston hath given an indifferent figure of it. But I meet with no tolerable Description any where.

'Tis about ¼ of a yard long. His Body before, three inches and ½ over; thence tapering to the Tail-end. His Mouth two inches and ½ over. His Chaps ending somewhat angularly. The nether a little broader, and produced forward near an inch more than the upper. His Lips rough with a great number of little prickles. His Eyes round, ¼ of an inch over, an inch behind his Mouth.

His Head squat, adorned with a kind of Oval Coronet, somewhat Concave, five inches and ½ long, above two broad, cut traversly with three and twenty Incisions or long Apertures, making so many distinct Membranes, with rough edges, joyned altogether with a Ligament running through the middle of the Coronet, and perforated on each side the Ligament.

The Gills wind from an inch and ½ behind the Eyes down to the Throat. The Fins seven. The Gill-Fins above four inches long; The Breast-Fins as long. About a ¼ of a yard behind the Coronet a fifth extended on the Back above ¼ of a yard. A sixth like it on the Belly. The Tail-end, like a Spear, a little compressed. The Tail-Fin three inches and ½ long. The Anus open about the middle of the Fish. His Skin is (now) brown, smooth, and tough, or like tan'd Leather.

Perhaps the same Fish, which Ligon Hist. of Barbadoes. saith, always swims along with the Shark, and frequently sticks to some part about his Head. At least, it is very probable, that this Fish is able to fasten himself to any great Fish, Boat, or Ship, with the help of the Coronet or Sucker on his Head; which seems to be most fitly contrived for that purpose. In some sort answerable to the Tail of a Leech, whereby she sticks her self fast to the smoothest Glass. Or to those round Leathers, wherewith Boys are us'd to play, called Suckers, one of which, not above an inch and ½ diametre, being well soaked in water, will stick so fast to a Stone, as to pluck one of twelve or fourteen pounds up from the ground.

Of the stupendious power which this Fish is supposed to have, there are many concur in the story; as that he is able to stop a Ship in its career under full Sail: and what not? and great pains is taken to assign the Cause; and to prove, That though the Moon be made of a Green Cheese, yet is not the only Nest of Maggots. Rondeletius alone, in ascribing it to his easily altering the position of the Helm, and so the motion of the Ship, coming near to good sense: especially if he had proved, That the Name of the Fish, and the Story, were not Things much older than the Helm of a Ship.

'Tis plain, that the Tradition had a very early beginning, when little light Boats were the Ships which people us'd. To the side whereof, this Fish fastening her self, might easily make it swag, as the least preponderance on either side will do, and so retard its Course. And the Story once begot upon a Boat, might still, like the Fish it self, stick to it, though turn'd to a Ship. Assigning as great a power to this Neptune in the Sea, as the Poets have done to Apollo the God of Life in the Heavens; who yet appears by the best accounts of him put together, to have been at first no better than a Crafty Mountebank.

The TOBACCOPIPE-FISH. By the People of Brasile, and by Marggravius who describes it, called Petimbuaba. He hath only omitted the Line, which, like a very small Chain, runs along both sides, as in the Sea-Scorpion, from Head to Tail: Both the Body and Snout are long and slender, from whence its Name. 'Tis also pictur'd, and in some sort described by Piso.

The PRICKLED TURBUT. Rhombus aculeatus. So called from his figure and the prickles on his Back or brown side. Described by Rondeletius. The two strings that hang at the nether Chap, are here wanting. He is said, having hid himself in Mud, with these, to Prey upon little Fish, which seeing them rigle, make at them, supposing them to be Weeds.

The little GLOB-FISH. Orbis minor. So called from his Orbicular figure. Described in most Musæums. Most curiously figur'd in that of Calceolarius. He is armed with long, round, hard, and sharp Spikes or Needles all round about, almost like those of a Hedg-Hog; and is a sort of Porcupine-Fish.

'Tis probable, That the Fish swims with these Needles all closely couched down round about, for that otherwise they would hinder her swimming. But if at any time she is pursu'd, she immediately advances her Pikes, and bids the enemy come at his peril.

This and the other kinds are found, especially, in the River Nile.

The SEA-PORCUPINE. Histrix Piscis. Johnston hath figur'd it (Tab. 45. ) but not well. Neither do I find any tolerable Description of it.

This here is above a foot long, near half a foot over, and as high, round, and almost of an Ovale figure. His Chaps about ½ an inch long, shaped somewhat like the Bill of a Sparrow, each of them one single Bone, without any Teeth, but sharp-edged; at the corners of the Mouth an inch over. His Eyes ½ an inch over, an inch behind his Mouth, and two and ½ distant.

The Gills but ¼ of an inch long, Convex before, very high, viz. in the same level with the Eye. As also the Gill-Fins, which are about two inches long, and three broad. Two inches and ½ before the end of the Tail, a third an inch and ¼ broad and two inches long. An inch and ½ before the end of the Tail underneath, a fourth somewhat less. The Tail-Fin above two inches long, an inch and ½ high, with its extream edge Convex.

He is cover'd with a Skin on the Back (now) of a brownish yellow, on the Belly whitish. Armed all round about, excepting his Tail, with round, hard, and most sharp Needles, about an inch and ¼ long, ½ an inch distant one from another, each having three Roots (now) visibly spread under the Skin, one on each side, and a third before.

'Tis most probable, That to these Roots are fasten'd so many Muscules, whereby these little Pikes are govern'd in their motion, and kept steady in their posture of defence.

Another SEA-PORCUPINE like the former.

The FROG-GLOB-FISH. Orbis Batrachoides. Figur'd by Johnston under the Title of Gestachelt meer Taube, Tab. 24. But I find it not described to any purpose.

This is seven inches long, three broad, and as high. His Forehead above an inch and ½ over, by the eminency of his Eye-Brows a little hollow. His Eyes round, above ½ an inch over. His Mouth very broad and semilunar, like that of a Frog; from whence I take leave for his Name. His nether Chap a little broad and more forward than the upper. Without any Teeth, but rough like a File. The Gills ½ an inch long, an inch and ¼ behind the Eyes. The Fins are five. The Gill-Fins above an inch long, almost as broad. Before the end of the Tail, one above about an inch long, that underneath broken off. The Tail-Fin above ½ an inch long, near as high. The Anus opens an inch and quarter before the Tail-end.

He is cover'd all over with a very hard and tough Skin, (now) of a yellowish straw-colour. Armed round about with strong Spikes about ¼ of an inch long, couched backward, and fixed with three Roots, as in the former. But not, as those, round, but flat with two edges like the point of a Sword.

It may further be noted of these Spikes, That being fixed in the Skin, both here and in the other kinds, so as to couch and point backward, the fish needs not to tack about, but is at the same time in a posture of defence, and of flight, for its surer escape.

The EGYPTIAN GLOB-FISH. It differs from the rest, especially by the smallness of its Prickles, which are rather like the little Thorns on a young Rasperry-Bush. He is not armed with them, as Rondeletius saith, all over; the Skin behind the Gills for the length of ¼ of an inch, and on the lower part of the Tail, being bald.

The HARE-GLOB-FISH. Orbis Lagocephalus. I find it not any where pictur'd or describ'd. 'Tis above a foot long, ½ a foot high, almost five over. His Head almost like a Hares, from whence I have Nam'd him. His Forehead plain and almost square, an inch and ¼ broad. His Eyes round, above ¼ of an inch over, and stand high. Three quarters of an inch before the Eyes, two holes like Nostrils. From thence to the Nose-end a little above an inch. The end above ½ an inch over, and round. His upper Lip stretched thence to the breadth of ½ an inch. Each Chap as it were divided into two great Teeth ¼ of an inch broad.

The Gills an inch and ¼ long, behind the Eyes an inch, below them ½ an inch. The Fins are five. The Gill-Fins stand obliquely between the Back and the Breast, an inch and ½ long, and three broad. Three inches before the Tail-end, a third almost two inches long and one broad. Underneath, a fourth somewhat less. This, which may be noted, being couched backward, the other foreward. The Tail-Fin two inches and ½ long, and as high, with its utmost edge Convex.

His Skin Membranous and limber, on the top of his Head, Back, upper Sides and Breast, and round about his Tail, smooth and bald. On his Belly and lower part of his Sides and Breast, armed with little short Prickles, about the third of an inch distant, and fixed with little Roots, as in the former.

From the Crown of his Head are drawn two Lines almost to those holes like Nostrils. From the hinder part of the Head, two more all along the Back and Tail, in the figure of the Letter s. And two others from the Gill-Fins towards the Anus, and from thence to the end of the Tail. By these Lines, were there no other marks, it is easie to distinguish him from all the other Species.

An OVAL COMPAGES of BONES, said to be the Sceleton of a Globe-Fish.

The RED-GOURNET. Pavo Salviani. Cuculus, from the noise he makes like a Cuckow when he is taken. Well described by Rondeletius. But his figure, especially in making him with a long Snout, answers not, unless it be of another Species. For the Forehead of this is square, and the Head almost cubical, like that of the Scorpion-Fish. From which this chiefly differs in not having the Fins of the Back prickly or spiked, and having a Line running from the top of the Back on each side the Back-Fin to the Tail, like a small linked Chain.

The LONG-SNOUTED GOURNET. Cuculus Rondeletii. By which Author 'tis well described. It differs from the former Species, chiefly, in having a much longer head, and a saddle-Nose.

The STAR-GAZER. Uranoscopus. Because he looks directly against the Sky: whereas, as Rondeletius observes, the Ray and several other fishes, although they have their Eyes standing on the top of their Heads, yet the Pupils of their Eyes are not directed upwards, but side-ways. The Fish is accurately described by the same Author. Saving, that he hath omitted the arching or bowing of his Body with the Head and Tail upwards: unless both the shape of the Fish here be forced, and his own figure thereof false.

This Fish, when alive, hath a slender Membranous string, which he projects and draws in, at pleasure, as a Serpent doth his Tongue. With this he duckoys little fishes, and then preys upon them. For plunging himself in Mud (Rondeletius saith, he hath seen him) and then lifting up his head a little, he casts out the said string; which the little fishes taking for a Worm, and nibling at it, he immediately plucks them both in together.

The SQUAR-FISH. Piscis quadrangularis. I think it is not described or figur'd by any. There are two square fishes described by Wormius, the former of which he supposeth to be made so, not bred. But neither is this, as that is, spiked behind; nor as the other, horned before, besides other differences: 'Twas sent from the East-Indies.

'Tis about fifteen inches long, four high, in the middle three and ½ over. His Forehead square, by the eminency of the Eye-brows, a little hollow; two inches and ½ over. His Eyes near an inch. His Nose blunt, not very steep, an inch and ½ long. Two small holes in the place of Nostrils. His Mouth exceeding little, ½ an inch over. His Teeth also very small.

The Gills are strait, an inch and ¼ long. His back a little Convex; towards his Tail, and on his sides blunt angled. So also his Belly, but plain or flat; and considerably rising up towards his Tail. He hath five Fins. The Gill-Fins are two inches in length, and two in breadth. They stand a little obliquely. Like these, a little before the Tail, one above, another under. The Tail-Fin three inches long, and three and ½ high.

Some part of both the Chaps and of the Tail are cover'd only with a Skin. The rest of the fish with a kind of Crust: yet not altogether so hard as in the Crustaceous kind. This Crust is all over adorned with innumerable little round knobs reduced, for the most part, into hexagonal figures, subdivided into equilateral Triangles.

Wormius calls this Crust a Leathery Skin: but not rightly; as any one that compares it with the true Skin upon his Chaps and Tail, whereof he takes no notice, may easily judge. That it may be bent, proves it not a Skin; for so may the Crust of a Lobster. To which this seemeth to stand in the next degree, as that doth to a shell. Or to speak properly, it seems neither a Skin, nor a Crust alone, but a Medly of both together, or a Crust upon a Skin: Nature having here, as in many other examples, united two extreams by a third Thing in the middle.

Another SQUARE FISH stained with black Spots. Given by Mr. John Short.

The CONEY-FISH. Piscis Triangularis. Described by Marggravius. Wormius also supposeth his first Square-Fish to be the same. But neither of them are particular enough.

'Tis above ½ a yard long, above ½ a foot high, the Belly flat, and almost ½ a foot over. From whence his sides rise up into a sharp Angle. His Head somewhat like that of a Coney; from whence his Name. His Eyes great, sc. an inch and ½ long; and stand high. His Forehead almost square, and by the eminency of the Eye-brows a little hollow; an inch and ¼ broad. Half an inch before the Eyes two little holes like Nostrils. His Nose descending almost perpendicularly, three inches deep, and blunt-ended. His Mouth not above an inch over. The Teeth ⅓ of an inch long, and sharp: ten in the lower Chap, in the upper twelve. His Back arched between the Head and Tail, and, as is said, very sharp. On each side his Belly he hath a strong sharp Spike ⅓ of an inch long, standing near, and pointing toward his Tail.

His Gills are strait, above an inch long, and parallel to his Nose. The Fins five. The Gill-Fins here broken off. A little before his Tail, one above, another below, both two inches long, an inch and ½ broad. The Tail-Fin three inches long, and two and ½ high. Excepting his Chaps and Tail, which are naked, he is cover'd all over with the like Crust, as the former. On the upper part of the Tail, also grows a distinct Crust, of an Oval figure.

The Chaps and Tail of this Fish, and the rest of the kind, are both left naked, for the more easie and convenient motion of the one in eating, and of the other in swimming. And for the same reason, the Gill-Fins do also stand upon a naked Membrane.

The Female-CONEY-FISH. The Nose here descendeth not so steeply. The Belly not so broad. The Crust every where, except the middle of the Belly, stained with a great number of round black Spots. Hath not many of the triangular subdivisions. Nor the Oval Crust upon the Tail.

Another of the same Species, with that now described.

The HORNED CONEY-FISH. Piscis triangularis cornutus. Johnston hath figur'd it. Tab. 45. But without either Description or Name. It differs from the fish last described chiefly by its Horns, which he hath upon the top of his Forehead, ½ an inch long, near an inch about the bottom, and pointed; almost like an Horses Ears when he pricks them forward. His Teeth are also smaller, his Mouth lesser, and more naked. His Belly narrower, and so his sides more compressed. The Tail-Fin longer. And the Oval Crust on the Tail, not above but beneath.

ANOTHER of the same Species, with two Oval-Crusts, one on the top of the Tail, the other underneath.

A THIRD, without the said Oval-Crust, and the triangular subdivisions.

Two more HORNED CONEY-FISHES. All five of one unmixed ash-colour.


The HEAD of the CUCUPU-GUACU; so called by the people of Brasile, where it breeds. Described by Marggravius. Who saith it is sometimes two yards long, and a yard and half about. The Mouth of this Head standing quite open, makes a circle of a yard in compass. So that, probably, 'tis the biggest of Scaled-Fishes, excepting the Sturgeon. Of all our European Fishes, it seems to come nearest to the Cole-Fish or Black-Cod.

The SCALES (perhaps) of the same Fish. They are almost circular, above three inches in Diameter, and answerably thick. Like other Scales, they are horny, transparent, and elastick or springy. That part of their edge which is inserted into the Skin, bluntly Toothed. They have a great many exceeding small Striæ, hardly visible, but by holding them up against the light.

The FILE-FISH. CAPRISCUS. It was sent from the Bermudas. Curiously pictur'd and described by Salvian. [Note: Hist. 71.] I call it the File-Fish, from the likeness which the foremost Bone upon his Back hath to a file. There are three of them: which, saith Salvian, he raises and depresses at his pleasure; yet so, as not one alone, but altogether. And although you press the foremost, and greatest never so hard, it will not stir: but if you depress the last and least of all never so softly, the other two immediately fall down with it: just as when a Cross-Bow is let off by pulling down the Tricker. For which reason also the fish is called, at Rome, Pesce Balestra.

Another thing peculiar to this fish is, that his Scales (as Salvian calls them) are separated by cancellated lines, or Lattice-wise. I add, and that they are all incrustated, and rough-cast with little round knobs. So that the cover of this fish, is near a kin to that of the Square-Fish; that being only one entire Crust, this divided into many little ones.

It may be noted, That where Salvian describeth this fish to be compressum & latum, atq; fere orbicularem, he hath not properly expressed his shape. For he is not Broad, but Tall; and much nearer to a Rhombus or Diamondsquare.

This fish seems to be the same which the People of Brasile call GUAPERUA; described and pictur'd by Marggravius and Piso, and out of them by Johnston. Tab. 34.

The TALLEST FILE-FISH. This seems to be that Species particularly described by Salvianus. It differs from the foregoing only in being taller and narrower: and in having the Tail-Fin with longer horns.

The PRICKLE or longest FILE-FISH. It is a young One. Differs from that of Salvian. In that on the sides hinderly, grows a little short Prickle upon the centre of every Scale, pointing backward. It is also ratably much longer and lower, his Nose a great deal shorter, and less steep, and his Tail-Fin less spread.

Another LONG-FILE-FISH of the same Species, and about a foot in length. But the Prickles above-said are here worn off.

The STREAKED FILE-FISH. Capriscus striatus. This differs from the last, In that its Scales are not prickled, but streaked with many small Lines; forward, entire; but hinderly composed of many little knobs.

The SNIPE-FISH. Scolopax. It was taken in the Baltick-Sea. I find it no where well described.

It is a little fish, when at full growth, as Rondeletius, who had seen three of them all small, and full of Eggs, well observes. This here, about three inches and ½ long,¾ of an inch high, the sides much compressed, being not ¼ of an inch thick. The Orbits of his Eyes very great, sc. a ¼ of an inch over. His Forehead as much.

He hath a tubular or pipe-like Snout, resembling that of the Hippocampus, or the Horse-Fish. It consisteth of only one hollow Bone, strait, and from his Eyes above an inch long, or one third of his whole length. At the root, above ¼of an inch high; at the extremity, ⅒. Where he hath an exceeding little Mouth; which openeth not before, but above.

His Gills large, behind the Eyes ⅕ of an inch, from whence carry'd to his Snout or Bill, they describe ¼ of a circle. The Fins four. The Gill-Fins almost ½ an inch long, in the same level with his Mouth and the bottom of the Eye. The Tail-Fin as long, ⅕ of an inch high. Before and above the Tail a fourth, a ¼ of an inch long, ⅕ broad.

A little before this Fin, stands a white and very sharp Spike, or Saw, above an inch long, couched a little backward, and armed with a double row of small sharp Teeth, all pointing upward. To this great One, are subjoyned two lesser, by one common Membrane, as in the File-Fish.

His Skin grey with some few rays of red; possibly more in the living fish. He is scaly, and rough with a single Row of very small Prickles near his Eyes, with a treble one on his Belly and Sides; hardly visible without a Glass.

By the great length and structure of this Fishes Bill, he should seem, upon dilating his Throat at his pleasure, to suck in his food, and so to use it as a Sirynge. Withall, his Mouth not being open before, but on the top of his Bill-end, like a Gutter-Trough, doth much promote the current, of all that comes in at it, to his Throat. And so in the Trumpet-Fish.

The three Spikes on his Back (whereof Rondeletius and others only observe the greatest) being associated in the same manner, and having the like mutual proportion, as in the File-Fish; it may reasonably be supposed, that they have also the same Motions, depressions and erections, as, in speaking of the said fish, hath been described. And that therefore, while the fish swims secure, they are all couched down close to his Back, that they may not hinder his course: but that when ever he is pursued, he strait erects them all, and by the help of the lesser, keeps the great one tite up against his Enemy.

The SQUARE ACARAUNA; by Mariners, The Old Wife. It hath some marks of kindred with the tall Acarauna, described and pictur'd in Marggravius and Piso. But hath also divers others of distinction from it; as the different position of the Spurs, the different shape both of Head, Body and Tail, &c. as may be observed by comparing the Descriptions and Figures of both together. The tall Acarauna is figured also by Johnston, Tab. 32. out of Marggravius; but without any Inscription of Number or Title.

This here was brought from Suranam. Eight inches long and ½, above three high, about one and ¼ over. His fore parts and Tail are (now) of a pale straw-colour; all the rest are of a blackish brown. He is cover'd all over with Scales engraven with small parallel Lines: except on his Forehead and Chaps before, where his Skin is only ruged as you draw your Finger downward.

The Crown of his Head rises up into a blunt Angle, his Forehead flat, above ½ an inch broad. His Eyes round, ½ an inch over, and stand high. A little before them, two small holes like Nostrils. His Mouth also stands high, and is extreme small, scarce ⅓ of an inch over. His Teeth contiguous, like small Needles.

On his upper Jaw grow four little Prickles on each side. On each side his nether, two great Spikes or Spurs, hard, and very sharp, about an inch long, pointing obliquely downward, and bended a little like a Cocks Spur. From the Root of these several little short Prickles run in a strait Row to the Eyes.

The Gills behind make a strait Line, and an Angle, from whence they are produced forward. The Fins seven. The Gill-Fins hang under the Spurs, an inch and ½ long near an inch broad. The Breast-Fins also an inch and ½ long, ½ broad. The Back-Fin from the top of his Head, the Belly-Fin from his Anus are carry'd to the Tail-Fin, so as to stand betwixt two parallel lines, making the fish almost square; from whence I have Nam'd it. They are both stretched out beyond their roots with two sharp Angles. The Tail-Fin an inch and ½ long, and higher, with its utmost edge Convex.

The Spur above describ'd, is a dangerous, and as it seems, a malicious Weapon; wherewith the fish strikes side-ways, and as it were under-hand, not suffering, in its doged humor, any other fish to consort with it.

The SWALLOW-FISH. So called from the length of his Gill-Fins, which reach to the end of his Tail, like a pair of very long Wings. By some, the Flying-Herring, from a likeness in the shape of their Body. Perhaps Rondeletius's Mugilis Alatus. But by Salvian called Hirundo, by whom it is well described. Histor. 62. That Line (saith he) which in other fishes gœs either from the Head or Branchiæ by the sides to the Tail; here runs from the Belly-Fins along the Belly to the Tail. Johnston also describes it out of Aldrovandus, but omits the just number of seven Fins. In the figure also which he gives, the Belly-Fins are wanting. And the Orbits of the Eyes, which are extraordinary great, he representeth little.

His Gill-Fins he useth as Wings, wherewith he flyeth, for escape, above the water, when pursu'd by another fish; especially, as Piso saith, by the Dolphin. But as they fly (as the same Author) they often become a prey to Water-Fowl. Hundreds of them are sometimes seen above the Water at once. When they fly, they make a kind of Stridor, as some Fowls with their Wings.

KITE-FISH. So called also from his Wings or Gill-Fins, which, what they want in length, they have in breadth and strength. Figur'd by Rondeletius, and accurately described. Saving, that he mentions but seven of his eight Fins.

This fish seems to be the same with that which Marggravius describes by the Name of PIRABEBE.

Another KITE-FISH of the same Species. Figur'd by Johnston, Tab. 17. N. 9.

Of the GILL-FINS of the FLYING-FISH, it is further observable, That they are fastened very high near their Backs; that so at the same time their Bodies may be in some part sustained by the Water, and their Wings have a little scope to play above it, for their easier advance into the Air.

The BEARDED-LOACH or GROUNDLING. Gobites Barbatula. It is a small fish about five inches long, bearded with six small Threads, three on each side. Yet Bellonius mentions but four. Nor doth Gesner picture more in his corrected figure. See them both.

The MAILED-FISH. Cataphractus Schonveldii. It was brought from Guiny. But is also often taken in the Mouth of the Elb. It is well described by the Author of the Name. And by Johnston well figur'd, Tab. 46. But in Tab. 24. but scurvily, unless it be another Species. It is a small fish about five or six inches long, with a broad squat head, and thence taper'd to the end of the Tail. His Scales are as it were doubled, by which he becomes of an angular figure, with about eight Angles before, and six behind. His Nose-end armed with two Prickles standing together in a semilunar figure; supposed to be venemous.

The TAMOATA pictur'd and described by Piso, seems to be the same with this fish.

Another MAILED-FISH of the same Species.

The MAILED-FISH of Brasile. It hath a near resemblance to the former; from whence I have Nam'd it. I find it no where describ'd. 'Tis ½ a foot long. His Head an inch and ¼ long, and near as broad. On the hinder part of his Head he hath three Angles, one on each side, and a third in the middle. The Forehead almost flat. His upper Chap Elliptick. The Orbits of his Eyes round, ½ of an inch over, an inch behind his Nose-end, ¼ distant. A little before the Eyes, two large holes like Nostrils. His Mouth a little prominent, near ½ an inch over. His Lips in the place of Teeth, only rough. His lower Jaw and Belly flat. His Body before, an inch and ½broad, an inch and ¼ high, his Back round, the Sides ending in two Angles. His Tail taper'd, and with the Sides a little flat.

One half of the Gills opens on the sides, the other underneath in the Breast. The Fins are eight. The Gill-Fins of an unusual structure, having their utmost Spine or Bone very rough, thick and strong, above an inch and ½ long, flat and crooked, almost like a Reaping-Hook, seven or eight times as big as any of the rest of the Fin-Bones. The Belly-Fins much less, and above an inch behind. Just over these the Back-Fin. On the Tail one above, underneath, and at the end: But the two first are here broken off.

His Head is cover'd with a brown and rough bony Helmet. His Back, Sides and Tail with Scales of the same colour, but a little lighter, rough, engraven with small parallel Lines, and of a Rhomboidal figure. His Breast and Belly only with a thin limber Skin.

The BRASILIAN NEEDLE-FISH; by the People of Brasile called TIMUCU. Acus Brasiliensis. Marggravius hath described and figur'd it well. 'Tis a long slender fish, from whence its Name. It hath also a pair of Chaps like a long Bill. He only omits the two scaly Lines which run along the Belly and Tail of the Fish, which every where else hath a naked Skin.

The CHAPS (perhaps) of the GREENLAND NEEDLE-FISH. The Teeth which stand in single Rows on the Edges of the Chaps are thick and strong, yet very sharp. In the lower Chap, near the two edges, are two furrows, into which the Teeth of the upper Chap strike. The two Bones which compose the Chap, are joyned together by an indented Suture, most curious to look upon. The fish seems next a kin to the common great Needle-Fish, or the Girrock, which is described by Rondeletius, Aldrovandus, and others, and pictur'd by Johnston, Tab. 15.

It is an Observation of Aristotles, Hist. Anim. lib. 2. c. 17. That most fishes having no Gullet, but their Stomachs standing just behind their Mouths; it often comes to pass, that while the greater pursue the lesser, [Greek text], their Stomachs come out into their very Mouths. Some resemblance whereof, in a low degree, may be felt by those that with an eager Appetite first begin to eat; the Gula rising up a little as it were to meet the meat half way; which, upon its retreat, it sucks in after it. Which hath happened in some with that violence, as to have endanger'd their being choaked.


The Rough HORNED-LOBSTER. Given by Dr. Thomas Allen. I call it so, from the many pointed knobs which he hath all over his Back. Squilla Crangone. Described by Rondeletius. See also the figure hereof in Gesner, p. 1099.

This fish, instead of the Plates on the Tail of a common Lobster, hath so many Fins, which for the far greater part of them are naked, or without a Crust upon them.

All Lobsters use their Tails, as Fins, wherewith they commonly swim backward by Jirks or Springs; reaching sometimes ten yards at a Spring. For which purpose, whereas the Gill-Fins of other fishes, which are their Oars, are a little Concave backward; these have the Plates of their Tails when they bend them down, as they use to do, a little Concave forwards.

Another HORNED-LOBSTER with a smoother Back. These fishes are the most pleasant meat of all the Crustacious kind; except perhaps the Punger.

A CLAW of the GREAT LOBSTER. Astacus Leo. 'Tis above a foot long, and a foot and three inches round the middle. So that, ratably, the Lobster it self must have been about a yard in length.

TWO more of the same, a little lesser.

The CLAW perhaps of a rare sort of CAMARUS, with the inner Joynt forked.

The MOLUCCA-CRAB. Cancer Molucensis. The best figure hereof is given by Besler, who alone shews the Eyes; yet not so clearly as could be wished. Not ill described by Joh. de Læt. That which Clusius makes to be the fore part, he makes the hinder: and Wormius doth the like; and saith, it is plain, from the position of the Legs; With both whom I agree. And to what Wormius saith, I also add, the position of the Eyes; for from Clusius's Description, it would follow, that they stood in the hinder part of the Crab. Here are eight or nine of them; the entirest and largest, given by Henry Whistler Esq;.

The Eye of this Crab, hath a horny Cover. But stands almost flat, or in the same plain with the rest of the shell. 'Tis pleasant to look on, being latticed like the Eye of a Butterfly. The latticed-work is discernable to a naked Eye, but much better through a Glass.

The People J. de Læt. l. 2. that live near the River Chovacoêl in Nova Francia, pile their Shafts with the Tails of this Crab, which breeds there abundantly.

The CLAW of the PUNGER, or the VELVET-CRAB, called Pagurus. It is one of the biggest sort; and the best meat of any. Linschoten reports, That some (but he saith not of what kind) in India, have been found so big, that whensœver they got any man with in their Claws, it cost him his life.

The PRICKLED-CRAB. Hippocarcinus, or Cancer asper, because of the Spikes that grow upon his Back. They breed near Norway.

Another with a great number of Center-shells growing upon its Back.

It is noted by Aristotle, De Part. Anim. lib. 4. c. 8. That all Lobsters and Crabs have their Right Claw, the greater and stronger. Crabs have no Tail, nor need it, saith the same Author, Ibid. as Lobsters do to swim with; because they live much upon the Land.

CRABS-EYES. Oculi Cancrorum. A Crustaceous-stone so called, growing as is commonly (but I doubt falsely) said, in River Crabs. Especially, saith Cerutus, Mus. Calceol. Sect. 1. in the Female, at that time, when the new shell begins to grow.

Both the Powder and the Magistery of Crabs-Eyes; and the Claws, and Distilled-Water of Crabs, are all used in Medicine.

The NAKED-SHRIMP, commonly called The Souldier-Crab. Cancellus. Here are two of them housed; one in a Sea-Snail-shell; the other in that of a common Wilk. It is accurately described by Aristotle. Hist. An. lib. 4. c. 4. His fore part is armed with crustaceous Plates, as the Lobster, but rather resembles the Shrimp. His hinder part is naked, or without a Crust: from whence I take leave for the Name: Neither the usual English Name, nor the Greek, [Greek text] (according to which the Latin) being sutable to the shape of this Animal, a quite different kind from a Crab.

Two NAKED-SHRIMPS unhoused, or without a shell.

This Animal, because his hinder part is naked, always houses himself in some empty shell, or other capable Body. When he hath filled one shell with Excrements, saith Bellonius, or grows too big for it, saith Aristotle, he transplants himself to another. Those that house themselves in the shell of the little long Wilk, or the Purple-Wilk, are called Little Souldier-Crabs, those in the great Wilk-shell, the Great Souldier-Crab: and so, if in other shells of like bigness.

The INMATE-CRAB. Pinnophylax. Because it is said to watch for the Prey, and to give notice to the Pinna when to apprehend it. 'Tis shaped like a Crab; but seldom grows bigger than a Chesnut. They are of a lovely white, and some with rays of a light Red or Pinck-colour. One difference betwixt the Cancellus and this, is, That that always chooses an empty shell, this hospitates with the living Animal in the same shell. He cohabits not only with the Pinna, but also the Muscle, Oyster, and Scallop.

The PREKE or POULPS. Polypus. See the Description in Rondeletius and others. 'Tis a Naked-Fish, having eight Fingers or Arms spread out almost like the Rays of a Star-Fish, and the Mouth in a manner in the middle of them. Their Arms serve them both to swim with, and to Attaque the Prey. When they are pursu'd by a fish, they presently cast forth a black Liquor, which they have always ready in a Bag, and wherewith they darken the water, and so make their escape. Being boiled with Wine and Spices, they are, saith Moufet, Lib. de Re Cibariâ. a very excellent meat.

The SMOOTH STAR-FISH or SEA-PAD. Stella marina lævior. It was sent from the East-Indies. I find it not described. When alive, it is of a flesh-colour. It hath five Arms or Rays, each an inch broad, and proportionably very long, sc. above five inches; the Trunk being not above an inch and ½ Diameter. The upper or convex side is wrought all over with very little lenticular knobs, almost like a Chamæleon's Skin; with small Concavities interjected, like those in Poppy-seed. Underneath, each Arm is furrow'd, the Margins of the Furrows being set with a kind of curious Fring. The Margins of the Arms wrought with Lenticular eminencies set in a straight Row, and besprinkled as it were with little Century-seed.

All Stars have their Mouths in the middle underneath, as the Sea-Urchin. They feed upon Shell-fish. And seem, saith Rondeletius, to have no other passage for their Excrements, but their Mouths. Whereof I much doubt. They take the Prey, as the Polypus, and swim very swiftly, by stretching out or contracting their Arms at their pleasure.

The BRANCHED STAR-FISH. Stella marina arborescens. A rare kind. It was taken in the Bay of Mastachuset in New-England. See the Descrisption hereof in Rondeletius, and out of him in Wormius. As also in the Philosophical Trans. Num. 57. under the Title of Piscis Echinostellaris Visciformis. Before I had perused these, I had drawn up a Description of my own, which I will take leave to subjoyn. It is above a foot Diametre. The Mouth, in the middle, is divided into five Lips. The figure both of this and of the Trunk or Body is pentangular. The Diametre of the Trunk almost three inches. The sides grow thin from the Mouth to their Edges, which are so many exact Hyperbola's.

From the five Corners of the Trunk, as many Branches being produced, are presently each divided into two others, about an inch in compass; round, but by a double Row of little knobs, seeming to be square. Each of these, are again subdivided into lesser and lesser Branches. The last whereof, are scarce thicker than a Horse-Hair. In number, by a moderate estimate, above a Thousand.

As he swims, he spreads and stretches out all his Branches to their full length; but so soon as he perceives the Prey within his reach, he hooks them all in, and so takes it as it were in a Net.

The PRICKLED STAR-FISH. Stella marina hirsuta. Perhaps Rondeletius's Pectinata prima. It hath five Arms, each Arm pointed, and also slender or narrowed next the Trunk, but spread in the middle. Two inches and ¼ long; the Trunk it self not above ½ an inch Diametre. The upper part hath a rough shag of short Prickles; the other, of longer: where also the Arms are furrow'd. These innumerable Prickles upon their Arms, are all movable, as in the Sea-Hedg-Hog.

Three more PRICKLED STAR-FISHES; which indifferently answer the second, third, and fourth of Rondeletius.

The CROWN'D-STAR-FISH. Stella marina Coronalis. It was taken in the Danish-Sea. I meet not with the Description any where. 'Tis a little One. It hath five short Arms, bluntly pointed, about two inches long. The Trunk two inches and ½ over, the five Sides whereof are Hyperbolick. The upper part rises up like a Crown, adorned with round Knobs of the bigness of a green Peas, with other little ones, on both sides like Pins heads, ranged into five even Rows from the ends of the Arms to the top of the Star; in some sort, as precious Stones are set upon a Royal Crown: from whence I have named it. The spaces also between them are beset with little knobs. The edges of the Arms and Sides are in like manner set round about with lesser upon greater. Underneath, the furrows of the five Arms meet in the middle, paved with little Stones almost like Teeth; the broad Margins, with other round knobs or stones.

These Stones, are in colour, substance, and nature congenerous, with those which are commonly called Crabs-Eyes.

The HIGH-CROWN'D STAR-FISH. It differs from the former, in being much taller, and in having no Knobs, but only Spikes, the one half whereof are ranged into certain correspondent Orders.

A FLAT SPIKED STAR-FISH, taken in the German Ocean.

Little STAR-FISHES with five Arms, taken in the British Seas.

A STAR-FISH with six Rays or Arms. They are almost like those of the smooth Star-Fish; excepting, that two of them are as short again as the rest. Whether a monstrous Production, or a distinct Species, I cannot say.

A STAR-FISH with TWELVE RAYS; by some called Sun-Fish. 'Twas taken in the British-Sea. The Basis of each Ray is much slenderer than by the figure in Johnston is represented. Neither is it shag'd only on the edges, as in the same figure, but all over.

SECT. VI. OF SHELLS. CHAP. I. Of whirled and single SHELLS.

There is a large Treasure of Shells in this Musæum: in all, great and small, about six hundred. The Reduction of all which to the Order of Nature, whoever shall go about, will find to be no little Task. Nor can it be perfectly done here, because as yet the Collection it self is not perfect. According to the best Method I can at present think of, I shall here place them. And that it may be the better judged, how far it is natural, or not, I shall afterwards digest them into Schemes. Most of them are Strangers in England and the British-Seas, and therefore I must be allowed a little more than ordinary liberty for the English Names.

Note, That when I speak of the Right or Left Lip of a Shell, I mean, as it is held with the Mouth downwards.

The FROG-WILK. Murex Coracoides. Described and pictur'd by Johnston out of others. As are also most of those that follow, which are only named. It hath three Appendices on each side, like fingers or feet, and one at the end.

The BROAD-LIPP'D WILK. Aporrhais. The Lips of this are pale and even. Of this kind, three great Ones are here preserved, one of them above a foot in length.

The BROAD-LIP'D WILK, with wrinkled Lips, and dyed with a deep purple. See a curious figure of this in Calceolarius's Musæum, Sect. 1. under the Title of Conchilium Muricatum. This Shell, saith Cerutus, Ibid. the Indians use as a Trumpet, both in their Wars, and in Hunting.

The MARBLE WILK. Murex marmoreus, from its mixed colours, which make it look like spoted Marble. Of these, here are five.

The ORIENTAL WILK. Murex Orientalis. The right Lip of this is even. Here are four great Shells of this sort, near a foot in length.

Another ORIENTAL WILK, with the right Lip undulated.

Betwixt the three sorts of Shells above mentioned, there is this difference, That the right Lip of that commonly call'd The Oriental, is only expanded; that of the marbled, expanded or spread, and turned outward; of the Broad-Lip'd, spread outward, and as it were Finger'd.

A SHELL like the ORIENTAL, with a KNOBED Turban or Whirle.

Another of the same sort with an EVEN Whirle. It is a small shell, not above an inch and ¼ long. Forward, somewhat flat, and white as Milk. Hinderly, stained with tauny spots. The left Lip is turned or spread out. The right, at the bottom wrinkled, and stained with a light purple. Towards the Cone or fore Corner, is gather'd into an open Angle. The Whirle is smooth, not very high, maketh six Rounds.

The LONG-MOUTH'D WILK. Murex Labris parallelis. Both the Lips of this are plain or even on the Surface. I call it Long-Mouth'd, because the Mouths of all that have been nam'd before, are very wide.

The LONG-MOUTH'D WILK, with oblique furrows on the left Lip. Here are four of this sort: whereof one is near ½ a foot long. Each of the inner Rounds of the Whirle or Turban, is one third part lesser than that next without it.

The SPIKED-WILK. Murex Aculeatus. This, of all the rest, hath the Name, Murex, most properly given it; from the spiked Instrument used in War, so called. The Spikes of this are round. Here are three of these Shells, one of which is ¼ of a foot long. Well figur'd by Olearius. Tab. 32. f. 5. And better by Besler.

The SPIKED-WILK, with doubled or PLAITED Spikes. Here are two of this sort, one of them near ½ a foot long. Both the Lips are a little drawn outward, and so the Mouth almost Oval, both the corners thereof pretty long, the left Lip spread outward, the right wrinkled; the main Body somewhat Conical, the Whirle low, consisting of six Rounds; both striated, and armed with plated Spikes standing in a spiral Order.

The BOSSED or KNOBED-WILK. In the place of spikes it hath round knobs. Here are five or six, all lesser ones, about the length of a Katharine-Pear; so that 'tis probable they grow not much bigger.

The CONICK SNAIL. Cochlea Cylindrica; so it is commonly called by Zoographers, but very improperly, the figure hereof being Conical. Here are about fourteen of this sort. Whereof some have a plain, others a knobed Turban. Some are all over white, or yellowish, others are stained white and black, or blackish-bay, white and brown, or white and yellowish. In some the colours are laid in spots, in others undulated, and in some others Lattice-wise. Rondeletius saies, That this Shell seldom exceeds the thickness of the Thumb. Yet one of these is above ½ a foot long, and the Base above three inches over. The rest are small, all of them plain Cylinders. Not unelegantly express'd in some variety of figures by Olearius, Tab. 31. and Fig. 3. of Tab. 32.

The Whirle maketh nine or ten Rounds: which hold the same proportion one to another, as in the Long-Mouth'd Wilk. In the Kingdom of Congi, and some other places in the East-Indies, these Shells go for Money.

The CONICK SNAIL a little convex, and with the Rounds of the Turban also convex.

Another Convex Conick Snail, with the Rounds of the Turban Concave.

The GREAT PERSIAN WILK. Concha Persica major. Of this sort there are four here preserved, of which, two are above ½ a foot long.

This Wilk yields a purple juyce, anciently used for deying. The Cover of this Shell is called Onyx or Unguis, because in shape like the Claw of a Carniverous Bird. The best of these Opercula or Covers are found in and brought from the Red-Sea.

The lesser PERSIAN WILK, with furrow'd Lips. Of this sort there are five here preserved of a middle size. The Great Persian Wilk is knobed, and hath only one Series of wrinckles. This even, and with a double Series of wrinckles a cross one to the other. Each of the outer Rounds of the Whirle is double the thickness of the next within it.

The lesser PERSIAN WILK with even Lips. 'Tis a small shell, scarce bigger than the Kernel of a Filbert. The Mouth is almost Oval, each Corner ending in a small Channel. Both the Lips are turned outwards sideways, and as far as the end of the Turban. The Back is speckled with white, red, and blew. The Turban not high, nor hath more than three Rounds.

The PERSIAN WILK, with the Rounds of the Whirle plated and interrupted; so as the Plates of the several rounds do anticipate one another. Of these here are three.

The FLAT-LIP'D SNAIL. Cochlea sinistri Labri angulo duplici. Not described. In a manner half a long Oval. The left Lip is flat, whereby it hath a double edge. Deep within, 'tis stained with a shining Bay. The left Lip near the Turban almost an inch broad; before, it ends sharp. The Turban maketh but about two Rounds. Both this and the Body are beset with knobs in a spiral order, and are cover'd over with a pale purple Crust.

The short FLAT-LIP'D SNAIL. 'Tis white within; yet the left Lip is stained with two Bay spots. The Back of a light ash-colour. The Knobs of this have no Incrustation. The Rounds of the Turban are three.

The WRINKLED-SNAIL. Cochlea rugosa. Here are two of these, whereof one is near ½ a foot long. Each of the outer Rounds of the Turban is twice as big as the next within it. One of these is curiously figur'd by Besler.

The HOOK-NOS'D SNAIL. Cochlea Rostro recurvo. So I call it, though it is not properly the Nose or Beak of the Snail, but of its shell. The Turban is pretty high. Both this and the Body are wrought with knobs and lines in an oblique and spiral Order.

The SNAIL with the SPIKED TURBAN. Cochlea Turbine aculeato. This shell is described and figur'd by Fabius Columna. In his Purpura. But better in his Book de Aquat. & Terrestr. Yet in some things he hardly reaches it. The Mouth is a kind of long Oval. The right Lip is spread, and as it were doubled outward. The Back faced with smooth Plates like so many more lips, carry'd obliquely from the left Lip to the Turban, and there set with short but very sharp Spikes. The spaces betwixt these are ½ an inch broad, wrinkled with very small furrows, and curiously stained with pillars of white and brown lines meeting together in several Arches, as if it had been done by a Painter.

The SHORT-NOS'D SNAIL, with a low and plain or even Turban.

The DIPING-SNAIL, Cochlea Immerso Turbine. Not described. In other Snails the Rounds of the Whirle stand either in or else above a plain; here, they dip or run down within the shell. Here are divers of them; all very smooth, and of an Oval figure. One of a white colour, besprinkled with an innumerable company of small brown specks; about the bigness of a little Horse-Plum. The rest are smaller.

The LONG-MOUTH'D SNAIL. Cochlea Labris parallelis, s. Cylindrovalis. The figure hereof is betwixt Cylindrical and Oval. One half only of the left Lip is turned outward, and uneven with oblique furrows. The right Lip plain. The fore-angle of the Mouth crooked. The Rounds of the Turban furrow'd, not high, four or five in number. The Back is painted with a mixture of yellow, bay, blew and black specks. It is about two inches long. There are some more of the same Species that are less.

The NAVLE-SNAIL. Cochlea Umbilicalis. The Turban of this is smooth. The end of the inmost Round is produced like a Navle, whence its Name.

Another sort of NAVLE-SNAIL. The Turban of this is set with short doubled or plated Spikes. It is almost a foot in length.

The OVAL LONG-MOUTH'D SNAIL. Scarce bigger than a Filbert Kernel. The Lips are parallel. The right turned or doubled outward. The left uneven with three oblique furrows. The Back speckled with white and red. The Whirle hath four Rounds pretty high.

The PURPLE-WILK with solid Spikes. Purpura aculeis solidis. This and the other kinds commonly found in the Dead-Sea.

The PURPLE-WILK with long plated Spikes. Purpura Aculeis plicatis longissimis. By Ferranto Imperato, called Echinata. Olearius gives a good Figure, Tab. 29. fig. 1. Fab. Columna the Description, with the Title of Purpura muricata sive Murex Rostratus parvus. I will add my own a little fuller. The main Body is not much bigger than a good big Nutmeg. But hath a Horn no less than two inches and ½ long, near the Mouth ¼ of an inch over, and sharp-pointed. Almost a Pipe, but a little open underneath by the length. Along the right Lip and the Turban it self, in three Rows, stand several long sharp plated or gutter'd Spikes triangularly. But on the Turban they a little anticipate each other. As also do the Plates of the several Rounds. The right Lip is in some sort toothed, the left turned outward.

The PURPLE with REDOUBLED SPIKES, i. e. with the greater doubled Spikes collaterally subdivided into lesser. Of these there are four. Two of them white, described by Columna with the Name of Purpura sive Murex Pelagius marmoreus. Another, ash-colour'd; and a fourth, brown.

All Purples have a Canale or Gutter'd Horn long or short, in which is lodged that part which is called the Tongue; but performs the same Office as the Gills in other Fishes. Fab. Column. Purpura. The Animal creeps and directs its own way with its Horns, like a Snail: yet hath it not four, but two only. Mart. Lyster de Cochl.

The Purple Tincture it yields, is contained betwixt that part which is called the Papaver and the Neck. Aristot. Hist. Anim. lib. 5. c. 15. It is of a different degree; in some, more upon the Red, like that of Cochinele; in others, more upon the Blew, like that of Violets. It was anciently (pressed out of the living Musæum Worm. Animal, and) used especially for the deying of Silks. But is now grown out of use, as is likely, from the great abundance of a sort of Fucus, which the Italians call Roccella, wherewith Silk-Dyers do now make very rich Purples of all varieties, with less labour and charge. Fab. Colum. Purpura.

That little Shell called Blatta Byzantia, is the Operculum or Lid of the Purple.

The SQUARE-WILK. Buccina Rhomboidea, i. e. It hath in a sort four equal sides, with unequal Angles. I find it not describ'd. The Mouth almost Oval, both the Corners a little gutter'd. The right Lip is first turned outward, and then doubled or returned back again inward; and the edge a little toothed. Just opposite to this Lip, is laid upon the shell a kind of list, and doubled down in the same manner. Upon every Round of the Turban also are certain edged pieces in two opposite Rows. By these and the list above said the shell is made square. Both the main Body and the Turban are wrought over with knobs great and small standing in oblique and spiral Orders.

All WILKS that have the Rounds of the Turban thus edged, are betwixt a Purple and a common Wilk.

The LONG SQUARE WILK. Neither do I find this described or figur'd. Both the doubling of the right Lip, and the opposite List, are less close, than in the former. Neither hath it any of the larger knobs.

The LONG THICK-LIP'D WILK. The right Lip of this is swoln or stands thick outwardly; and on the Rounds of the Turban are many edged pieces.

The same sort of WILK, with few edged pieces on the Turban.

The THIN-LIP'D WILK. The fore Corner of this ends in a gutter'd-Horn. Columna describes and pictures it with the Name of Bucciunm Rostratum. Lib. de Aquatil. & Terrest.

The GREAT THIN-LIP'D WILK. Strombus magnus. This sort hath edged pieces on the Rounds of the Turban. The biggest of turbinated-shells: this here is almost ½ a yard long, and above ½ a yard round about.

The TRIANGULAR WILK. No where describ'd that I find. The Mouth almost Oval. The fore Corner hereof ends in a gutter'd-Horn bended a little upward. The left Lip only turned outward. The right is first bended outward, and then doubled or returned inward. From thence at the distance of ⅓d of the circuit of the shell, is laid a a List, in shape imitating the said right Lip. At the same distance, a pretty broad-pointed knob. By both these and the right Lip the shell is made Triangular. The knobs on the right Lip and List, are white, the other parts tawny, and as it were wrinkled. The Turban, which hath six rounds, is also a little angular.

The COMMON WILK. This sort is short-snouted, or hath no horn. Of this sort are several here preserv'd.

It is affirm'd by Aristotle, Hist. An. lib. 5. c. 15. That you may know how many years a Wilk is of, by the number of Rounds in the Turban. Of the manner of laying their Eggs, see Bellonius. They are desired by some, as a rare sort of Meat. The best are in clean Creeks. That which Mr. Lyster describes, De Cochl. Mar. Tit. 1. by the Name of Buccinum maximum, is fished out of the Sea at Scarbrough.

A Wilk, saith Nicolaus Myrepsius, being burnt, powdered, and mixed with old Oil to the consistence of Glew, and so the Head, first shaved and rub'd, anointed therewith, is an admirable Remedy against Baldness and Morph of long standing. 'Tis usual to give Drink to Children that have the Chin-Cough, out of a Wilk-shell; and it is observed, saith Wormius, Musæum. to do them good.

The WILK-SNAIL. Buccicochlea. So I call it, because, in Figure, it approaches to the Wilk; to the Common Snail, in the thinness of its shell. Columna Lib. de Aquat. & Terrest. describes and figures this with the Title of Buccinum exoticum variegatum.

The WILK-SNAIL winding, from the Mouth, towards the right Hand; whereas almost all other shells wind the contrary way. The Mouth is white as Milk, and almost Oval. The left Lip spread and turned outward. The Rounds are Convex, as in the Wilk. In number six, speckled with yellow Bay and blew spots. The shell is as thin as that of common Land-Snails. Of kin to that shell described by Mr. Lyster under Tit. 1. lib. de Cochl. Mar.

The BELLY'D-LONG WHIRLE. Turbo Ventricosus. This shell runs all into a Whirle or Turban. It is also belly'd, i. e. swells out a little betwixt the Mouth and the Cone. And the left Lip is uneven with oblique Furrows.

The WHIRLE-SNAIL. Turbocochlea. The rounds of this sort wind from the Mouth to the right Hand, and that very obliquely, in number six, speckled with Chestnut spots in Rows. The Mouth very long, and one Lip ridged. 'Tis thin like a common Snail-shell. Columna Lib. de Aquat. & Terrest. describes and figures one pretty like this by the Name of Turbo alter minor.

The SMALL WHIRL-SNAIL, with numerous rounds, and also winding from the Mouth toward the right Hand. There are about fifty of them in a Bottle. They are of a brown colour; and thin as the shell of the common Snail. Their Mouth almost round. The right Lip hath a little Angle. It hath nine rounds with very small transvers Striæ. Columna describes and figures one like this with the Title of Turbo Terrestris non descriptus. Mr. Lyster Lib. de Cochl. calls it Buccinum pullum; and very aptly compares it, both as to shape and bigness, to an Oat. He saith it is found in England in the Cracks of old Trees, and in Garden-walls.

The BELLY'D-LONG WHIRLE, with small spiral Furrows.

Another BELLY'D-LONG WHIRLE, with little knobs in spiral Orders.

The LEVEL-WHIRLE, or the SPIRE. Turbo planus sive ver Conicus. The rounds are all knobed, and the right Lip gather'd into small wrinkles.

Another KNOBED SPIRE, with the right Lip plain or even. Here are several little Ones of this sort.

The SMOOTH SPIRE, with high or swelling rounds. Here are two sorts of these; one with oblique, the other with spiral small Furrows. This shell is described by Mr. Lyster. Lib. de Cochl. Mar.

The SMOOTH SPIRE, with flat rounds. Here are also two sorts of these; the one furrow'd, the other not, described and figur'd by Columna under the title of Buccinum Persicum eburneum nitidum maculosum. Of all these here are several small Ones.

The Natives of Brasile make a sort of Musical Instruments with these kind of shells. Joh. de Læt.

The LOOSE WHIRLE. Penicillus. The one half of it windeth loosely like a Worme; the other is a small long Turban.

The SHORT WHIRLE. Trochus. This is somewhat more prolonged than some others of this kind, the Base broader, and the Rounds in a level. Of this sort here are two great Ones, curiously stained with Crimson waves from the Base (which is about four inches over) to the Cone. It is of kin to that which by Columna is called Turbo Persicus maximus.

Another level SHORT WHIRLE, also somewhat longer than the rest, and with the Rounds in a level, but the Base narrow.

A thin level SHORT WHIRLE, shorter than the former, and with flat rounds. Here are two sorts of this; the one with smooth, the other with ruged or knobed rounds.

A fourth WHIRLE of the same kind, with high rounds. Here are also two sorts of this; the one smooth, the other ruged.

The BELLY'D SHORT WHIRLE with spiked rounds. 'Tis no where described that I find. The Base two inches broad, the Cone as high. The Mouth almost round, and within of a Pearl colour. The whole shell without whitish. The Base all over wrought with round, and obliquely radiated wrinkles. The rounds are knobed, and the under edges of every round with flat doubled Spikes. Here are two more of the same sort, with the Spikes ground off.

Another BELLY'D SHORT WHIRLE, almost smooth, having only very small wrinkles, without any Spikes.

The CONCAVE SHORT WHIRLE. Trochus centro latè concavo. Hitherto undescrib'd. 'Tis two inches broad, an inch an ¼ high, being Belly'd, and having the Cone much depressed. As also the Mouth, which is therefore a flattish square. Both the Base and the Rounds are wrought with small spiral and radiated wrinkles running across. It hath five or six rounds, somewhat swelling. Not, as in most other shells, contiguous in the centre, but thence receding, leave a wide space in the middle of the shell, representing in some sort a pair of Winding-Stairs. The ridges also of the rounds are wrought with Tooth-Work, answering to the Sculpture on the edges of a Stair-Case.

There are several sorts of short Whirles or Trochi, saies Mr. Lyster, Lib. de Cochl. Mar. found in England, as at the Mouth of Umber, and in Lincoln-shire by the Sea-side.

The LITTLE ROUGH WILK. Nerites Turbine rugoso.

The LITTLE KNOBED WILK. Nerites Turbine tuberato.

The GREAT ROUND-MOUTH'D SNAIL, with a Pearl colour. Cochlea cælata. Here are three of these; of which two, are each above ½ a foot wide. Their pearly gloss, on the outside is artificial; within, natural. The natural colour without is sometimes green, with white and bay spots.

One way whereby it receives a bright pearl colour, is by being steeped in Vinegar; which eats away the rough and duller surface.

The GREAT NAVLE-SHELL. Umbilicus marinus Indicus major. It is the lid of the Cochlea Cælata; and hath its Name from its shape. Very well described by Wormius.

The LITTLE NAVLE-SHELL, with wrinkled edges.

A SECOND, with the Convex side more plainly winding like a Navle.

A THIRD, with the same side besprinkled with a great company of small round knobs.

The little Navle-Shell is well express'd by Olearius, Tab. 33. Fig. 7. Here are several of them kept in a Glass.

Not only this, but other turbinated shells have their lid. Which, as Mr. Lyster well observes, is as it were another Valve.

Spirit of Nitre droped upon this Shell, riseth up with a strong efferrescence. The admirable Virtue of this Shell is experienced, saith Wormius, Musæum. by men of very good note, in stainching of Blood; the flat side hereof being only applied, with Spittle, to the Forehead. 'Tis usual to lay a cold Key or Stone in the Neck. But if the same, especially a good big Pebble with one side flat, like a Painters Mullet, were apply'd to the Forehead, I should expect as good advantage from that, as from the application of this shell.

The Women in France, saith Bœtius, Lib. de Gem. & Lapid. nimio Mensium fluore laborantes, commonly take this shell reduced to a fine powder, which they find to be a very good remedy, and keep it as a Secret.

The LESSER ROUND-MOUTH'D SNAIL, with a shorter knobed Turban.

The SPIKED or TOOTHED SNAIL. Cochlea Echinophera sive Echinis plicatis. Of an ash-colour. The Mouth round. The Turban short, having only three rounds almost flat. The Base wrought with circular wrinkles. The utmost round, as it were toothed with short flat-doubled Spikes.

The FINGER'D SNAIL. Cochlea Dactylata. Not yet described. The Spikes of this are doubled and redoubled, yet not flat, but thick and round, so as to resemble so many little Fingers. Without, it is of a sad brown. Within, of a Pearl colour. The Mouth round. The Turban low, making only three rounds, which so recede from the centre, as to leave an empty space in the middle of the shell. 'Tis all over rough with small plated Spikes, and pointed wrinkles in a spiral Order.

The HIGH-CROWN'D SNAIL, with a semicircular Mouth.

The LOW-CROWN'D SNAIL, with a semicircular Mouth.

The HALF-LIP'D SNAIL. So I call it, because one half of the inner Lip being spread outward, the other half seems as if it were clip'd off. Of this here are two sorts; one with the upper, the other with the nether half deficient.

Another SNAIL like the former, saving that the inner Lip is whole, and the Turban somewhat higher.

Another SNAIL with the Turban somewhat lower. Of this here are two sorts; one with the rounds of the Turban even or smooth; the other, wrinkled.

The SEMICIRCULAR MOUTH, TOOTHED on both sides. The Teeth of the outer Lip are the lesser; they stand not on the edge of the Lip, but deep in the Mouth, just over against the inner Lip: where the white parts of the shell on both sides are defined or circumscribed by a Circle, whose centre is at the edge of the inner Lip. Outwardly, the shell is speckled with white, red, and black Spots, and ruged with spiral wrinkles. One like to this is described by Columna with the Name of Cochlea marina marmorea.

The BLOBBER-LIP'D SNAIL. Cochlea Labrosa. The Mouth of this is also Semicircular, the outer Lip being round and spread out a little; the inner strait, like white Marble, its inner edge toothed, and spread outward almost as far as the Navle of the shell; from whence I have nam'd it. The Turban is low and almost flat. It maketh scarce more than two rounds, which therefore immediately run from great to small. On the outside 'tis ruged with transverse wrinkles, and speckled with red and black spots upon white.

The toothed Lips of both these last Shells, most probably, serve as Joynts to hold their lids, so much the more close and steady.

The FORE-WHIRLED SNAIL. Cochlea Turbine antico. This is no where described. 'Tis smooth, of an ash-colour. The outer Lip is spread a little backward; and toothed within: as is also the edge of the inner Lip. Both the corners of the Mouth are placed on the circumference of the utmost round. Whereby, contrary to all other shells I ever yet saw, it hath the Turban or Whirle made before. 'Tis much depressed, consisting of five flat rounds. The assertion of Aristotle, Hist. Anim. lib. 4. c. 4. That the Turban always stands behind, is here proved false.

The FLAT-WHIRLE. This Snail is a perfect Helix, all the shell lying as it were between two levels. Of this kind Mr. Lyster Lib. de Cochleis. Tit. 26. describeth three sorts. Of which he observes, That upon the sprinkling a little Salt or Pepper, or the like, into their Mouths, they yield a Crimson liquor.

The same Author Ibid. p. 1. hath observed some particulars of the parts of Snails; as their Horns, Eyes, (as he supposeth them) Teeth, Anus, Lungs, milkly Veins (which are all they have) parts of Generation, &c. Which last, saith he, are so like, as to make it seem very probable, That they are Hermaphrodites. In the time of Coition, they strike a sort of small testaceous Needles (Spicula testacea) into one an others Necks. For what cause, or in what manner, he could not so well observe.

No Shell with a Turban, hath less than two rounds, nor hath any, saith the same Author, Ibid. of English Shells, above ten.

The slick SAILER. Nautilus lævis. This sort is brown on the Back, and black on the Belly. Curiously figur'd both in Calceolarius's Musæum, and by Besler. Here are two of them, whereof one is near ¼ of a yard long.

One half of the same sort of shell cut down the middle. By which it appears to be divided by about 40 oblique transverse Partitions.

The Animal is of kin to the Polypus. Famous for the Art of Navigation. He rises to the top of the Water with his Shell inverted; and being there, returns it. Then having a thin Membrance spread against the Wind for a Sail, two Feet for the Rudder, and two for the Helm, he sails along. If any fear arises, he pulls all in, and filling his shell with Water, immediately sinks himself to the bottom of the Sea. Arist. Hist. Anim. l. 9. c. 37. Scal. exercit. Rondeletius out of Oppianus. Bellonius. And out of him Septalius's Musæum.

The PEARLY SAILER, 'Tis both within and without of the colour of the best Oriental Pearl. This sort is brought from India and the Persian-Gulf. Hereof Necklaces are sometimes made. As also Images and Beads used at Devotions.

The SPIKED SAILER. The Back and Belly of this are flat with two ridges, and on each ridge grows a row of short Spikes.

The MAILED SAILER. Nauticlus Laminatus. I meet with it no where. Both within, and especially without, of the colour of the richest Pearl. It is composed of a considerable number of Plates, as if in Armor. Yet the Plates continuous; furrow'd along the middle, and produced with a blunt Angle, almost like a Widows-Peak. From under each of which, emergeth a kind of little Tongue, like that of a Shoo-Buckle.

VENUS-SHELL. Concha Veneris. Because beautiful. Or else, saith Terzagi, quTEXTd partem Veneris Imperio subditam referat. The first I shall name is that with Blobbed-lips, or having as it were a white thick Facing. They are also furrow'd, and stained with Chestnut Spots. But the Back with a Purple.

VENUS SHELL, with the right Lip furrow'd, but neither of them faced or turned out.

A SECOND of this kind with the left Lip furrow'd.

A THIRD, with both Lips furrow'd.

The HIGH-BACK'D VENUS-SHELL. Of this kind, here are three of a Chestnut or Bay-colour; one stained with Green, another with Brown, a third with white spots. And a fourth, white, speckled with yellow, red, and purple.

The NAVLED VENUS-SHELL. 'Tis also somewhat high-back'd, and with each Lip furrow'd. On the thicker end, it hath some resemblance of a little Turban or Navle.

The LONG-VENUS-SHELL. Of this sort here is one stained with white spots upon a Bay ground. The rest of the same Figure, are somewhat rough, having, as 'tis likely, been steeped in Vinegar, or some other ways corroded.

The BUNCH-BACK'D VENUS-SHELL. Described and figur'd by Columna under the Name of Concha utroq; latere se colligens. It hath a transvers Angle or Ridge in the middle. Where also, there is a distinct piece, most closely inlaid into the Back of the Shell. The Lips also are both even.

The VENUS-SHELL with smooth or even Lips, and without any ridge on the Back. The little white Ones of this kind, are those which are particularly called ENTALIA. With these, saith Rondeletius, the French adorn their Horses Bridles, and other parts of Equipage. Of these and Jet mixed together, they also make Bracelets, and other Ornaments, for Widows in Half-Mourning. Many of this sort, striated, are found, saith Mr. Lyster, near Hartle-pool in the County of Durham, where the People call them Nuns.

Divers other lesser VENUS-SHELLS of several kinds, and stained with several colours, are here collected.

The Italians use this Shell for the polishing of Paper, and other things. Wormius. The people living near the Red-Sea gather them in abundance, and sell them to those that trade to Memphis; for with these the Egyptians smooth their Linnen Cloth. Bellonius. Goldsmiths cut them in two, and make Spoons of them. They are commended against those Ulcers in the great Corner of the Eye, which usually turn to Fistula's, because of their admirable drying quality without heat. Rondeletius. Yet we have no reason but to believe, that most other shells may be of equal Virtue. But if we observe, it is usual for people to have a high esteem of those things, even as to their Medicinal Virtue, that look prettily, or that are rarely to be had. Whereas, it is plain, that Nature generally supplyeth us with the greatest plenty of those things, which are the most useful.

The round SEA-URCHIN or BUTTON-FISH. Echinus orbicularis. Here are several Species hereof. The first I shall name is the Edible Button-Fish. These have very great Prickles, with Seats or Bases proportionable, in five double Orders. And the shells are orbicular. See the full Description in Rondeletius.

They were anciently eaten raw before Supper, as Oysters are now, and as much esteemed.

The ROUND BUTTON-FISH, with ten Orders of midling Prickles. Of these Prickles it hath five Orders of bigger, and five of less, all Conical at each end, and bounded by ten more. Of this kind, here are some more, others less round. Some also that are White, and others Redish.

The ROUND BUTTON-FISH, with the least sort of Prickles, and disposed into ten Orders. Of this sort here are White, Brown, and Green. These, Mr. Lyster saith, are found in the English-Seas.

The GREAT OVAL SEA-UR CHIN. Echinometra Aristotelis. See the Description hereof in Calceolarius's Musæum. The greatest, and so as it were the Mother of all the other kinds; from whence its Name. This here is near ½ a foot long. Its Figure is not orbicular, but comes near an oval or flatish Heart.

The MARE-MAIDS-HEAD, or lesser Oval SEA-URCHIN. Echinus Spatagus. This differs from the former, only or principally in being much less; seldom exceeding the bigness of a Hens Egg. These are shells rarely found.

The Sea-Urchin maketh its progressive motion with its Prickles which it useth instead of Feet. Arist. H. Anim. lib. 4. c. 5. And it is affirmed, by Moufet, particularly of the Great Oval, that it moveth in a spiral line.

The SEA-EAR. Auris marina. It hath its Name from its Figure, somewhat like a Mans ear. The inside is of a Pearl-colour, the outside brown and ruged with many small radiated and spiral wrinkles running across. There are several Holes on one side it, through which the Animal admits and expels the water at pleasure. Here are three of them, whereof two, are each about five inches long. This shell is found in abundance near Garnsey Island. Lyst. lib. de Cochl. The Goldsmiths in France Bellonius. split them into thin Plates, wherewith they beautifie Cabinets, and other Works.

The VAULTED-LIMPET. Patella concamerata. No where described, that I know off. It seems to be of the Limpet-kind, or to stand betwix this and the Sea-Ear. It is in a manner a half Oval split by the length, which is an inch and half. It hath a Navle, as the Sea-Ear, winding to one side. The Back is rough, and of a whitish ash-colour. Within, very smooth and of a pale purpleish white. The hinder half is vaulted with a most white Plate, joyned to the sides ¼ of an inch below the edges.

The EVEN OVAL LIMPET. See the figure hereof in Johnston. That part which may be called the Navle, stands a little above the convexity of the shell. The Seat of the Animal is shaped so, as in some sort to resemble the Stag-Beetle. The edges thereof curiously angul'd, particolour'd white and bay. The edge of the shell is perfectly Oval, and the inner Margin of a pale blew. Here are two fair Ones of this sort, about three inches long.

The PEARLY OVAL LIMPET. The inside hereof is of a curious pearl colour, with some rays of purple. It hath a greater convexity than the former, and is waved all round about.

The OVAL LIMPET, with very deep furrows round about. Whereby the edges also are very angular. The Seat of the Animal white. Columna Lib. de Aquat. & Terr. c. 50. seems to have described this by the Name of Lepas sive Patella maxima striata.

The LEVEL-LIMPET. Patella Plano-convexa. The sides of this lie level betwixt the edges and the top. 'Tis also furrowed, but not deeply. Yet the edges are more angular than of the former. The Seat of the Animal is white, surrounded with a kind of double Glory. The outer Margins are of a blackish shining Bay. There are several small ones of this sort, having the inner side streaked with black and yellow.

The CONICK-LIMPET, with the top high, and the sides and edges level round about.

The CONICK-LIMPET, with part of the edge raised toward the top or Navle of the shell. This sort I meet with no where. Without of an ash-colour, rough with wrinkles in rays, and waved Circles. Within smooth, the Margin white, about ¼ of an inch broad; the Seat of the Animal yellow spread out both ways.

The Animal it self is headed and horned like a Snail. See Bellonius's Description. Our Fishermen use the ordinary kinds to bait with, who find them every where in our Seas on the Rocks near the shore. Lystri lib. de Cochl. If they feel themselves touched, they stick so very fast to the Rock, that they can hardly be loosened thence without a Knife. Wormius.

CHAP. II. Of SHELLS Double and Multiple.

Note, That when I speak of the Base, I mean, that part on which the Teeth, Joynts or Hinges stand. When of the Navle, the peeked end of the shell, which for the most part stands behind the Base; as also that part which answers to it, where it doth not. When of the sides, not the Concave and Convex, but the edges produced from the Navle on the right and left.

The SEA-WING. Pinna. Each Valve is very like in shape to the Wing of a large Fowl, from whence I name it. Where broadest, near ¼ of a yard over. In length two feet: being the largest and longest of all the shells that I know. The two Valves are naturally ty'd together with a sort of Tow; whereby they are also fastened to some Stone or other Body under Water. The Animal is very good meat.

The SEA-OYSTER; in distinction from the common, which may be called the Shore-Oyster. Ostrea Pelagia. Here are several of this sort, all of them but small. Rondeletius saith, that in India they are sometimes a foot long.

The CHESTNUT-OYSTER. I meet with it no where described or figur'd. It is near two inches and ½ long, of an Oval Figure, and somewhat writhen. The outside is of a dark-brown, very uneven with large Oval Furrows. The inside of a dark-Bay; from whence I name it. Held up against the light, it looks like a deep Tincture of Safforn or Myrrh. The Seat of the Animal is rough with small frizled or undulated Wrinkles, surrounded with a smooth Margin, on one side above ½ an inch broad, after an odd fashion turn'd or spread outward, Convex inward, and entirely encompassing the Navle of the shell. Here are three or four smaller Ones of the same Species.

A SHELL with the Base a little cover'd. Ostrea Basi Cooperta. I find it not described. It's somewhat doubtful whether a Limpet or an Oystershell. I think the latter. The Navle stands obliquely. But the sides make equal or similar lines from the Base. Somewhat above an inch in length, very Convex, the Margin oval. The Base is as it were shaded with a transverse Plate ⅛th of an inch broad. The inside, blew; the outside speckled below with tawny and black spots, above with white and purple, with very small lines running across or Net-wise.

The PLAIN ROUND ESCALLOP. Pecten Valvis rotundis & Æqualibus.

The ROUND FURROW'D ESCALLOP, with smooth Shells or Valves.

Another of the same sort, with rough shells.

The LONG ESCALLOP. These and the other kinds seldom exceed the bigness of the palm of the Hand. But Linscholen P. 90. saith, That by Malacca are shells found like Scallops, so big, that two strong men can hardly draw one of them, with a leaver, after them. Scallops will move so strongly, as oftentimes to leap out of the Catcher wherein they are taken. Arist. H. A. lib. 4. c. 4. Their way of leaping or raising up themselves, is, by forcing their under Valve against the Body whereon they lie. Scal. exerc. 219. S. 1. They are taken amongst other places, near Portland, and at Purbec and Selsey, where they are excellent good. Rondeletius prefers them, for Meat, before Oysters.

COKLE. Pectunculus. Here are of these, both White, Red, and speckled with various Colours.

The CORALLINE SCALLOP. Concha Corallina. I call it a Scallop, because it seems to be but another sort without ears. This is only waved. See Rondeletius's Description. He saith 'tis rarely found, and seldom, except in the Dog-days, after long Southern Winds, cast on the shore.

The CORALLINE-SCALLOP both waved and wrinkled; the Wrinkles and Waves standing not across, but the same way.

The long GAPING COCKLE. Chama. 'Tis thiner and more easily broken than most other shells. The Valves are seldom or never close shut. The sides are produced from the Base by similar lines, as in the Cockle, and the figure of the shell oblong: from whence I have taken leave for its Name. Whether the Anatomy of the Animal would suggest a better, I know not. This here is about an inch and ½ long; and of an ash-colour.

Of this, and probably all the other Species, it is omitted by those that describe them, that from each of the two Joynts at the Base, is produced a kind of bony Epiphysis, about ¼ of an inch long, thin, sharp and flexible: whereupon some of the muscular parts of the Animal seem to be fastened, for the restraining the opening of the shell from any inconvenient degree.

The BLACK GAPING COCKLE. This is somewhat lesser than the former, and of a rounder Figure, radiated, and the edges wav'd. As thin as the former, and hath the like Epiphyses.

This sort, when the South-Wind blows, rise up to the top of the Water, and setting their two shells wide open; with the one under them, as a Boat; and the other, on one side as a Sail, they scoure along. Bellon. H. Anim. lib. 15. c. 12.

The Broath of this Shell-Fish is affirmed by Dioscorides to be both Laxative and Diuretick. They have a kind of biting taste, like Pepper; and are therefore called, by the French, Des Flammes: and the Italians, for the same reason, call them, Peverazas. Bellonius.

The SHEATH-FISH; commonly so called from its similitude to the sheath of a Knife. Solen. Unguis. As the Sea-Wing is the longest, so this is the most expanded of all Shells; though usually call'd A long Shell, but improperly. For it may be noted, that the length of a shell is properly from the Navle to the edge directly opposite; the breadth, between the two sides thence produced, which in this Shell are the two ends: as if you should crush the two ends of a mouldable substance of an Oval figure, till you made the two sides become the two ends. Some of these are ½ foot wide, or more.

This Shell is found on the shore near Scarbrough after long Winter-Storms. Lyster. de Conch. The Animal shines much in the dark, especially when the shell is full of liquor, the drops whereof glister where ever they fall; by virtue of which, it is most probable, that the Flesh it self becomes shining. Pliny.

The ROUND-OYSTER, with similar sides produced from an oblique Navle. The Convex is very white, and finely wrought with circular, and radiated lines across.

The MULTARTICULATE OYSTER with a bended Base. The Convex is smooth, and stained with Chestnut upon white. Its Base is in a manner semilunar, produced a little forward from the Navle. Upon this Base are fourteen, sixteen, sometimes twenty small Joynts, standing obliquely, and also in a bended line answerable to the Base. To the two ends whereof, the Seat of the Animal is contiguous. The fore-edge and Margin are furrowed and toothed within. Here are four of this sort.

The BROAD-OYSTER, with similar sides.

The FISTULAR OYSTER. Concha Valvis Fistulosis. Described by Columna with the name of Concha exotica margine in Mucronem emissa; who hath also figur'd it well. It hath not only several Furrows or Gutters reaching from the Navle to the edges round about, but the Furrows are also cover'd over, and so properly fistular; whence I have nam'd the Shell. The circumference or edge is also prolonged into several Peaks, which have some kind of likeness to Sword-points. But Columnas name is somewhat obsurdly given, unless instead of divers, there had been one only.

The MULTARTICULATE OYSTER, with a strait Base. Described and figur'd by Columna with the name of Concha [Greek text]. Here are two of this sort. The chief marks hereof are, that it hath a great number (twenty or more) of slender Joynts, about ¼ of an inch long, placed parallel, upon a strait Base.

The ASSE-FOOT OYSTER. Ostrea Gaderopoda, So called from its Figure. Described by Bellonius. Its chief Characters are, that it hath very great Joynts, like the eyeteeth of a Man, and upon a strait Base. It grows not loose, as other Oysters, but fixed to the Rocks under Water: and therefore in those Seas only, which ebb and flow not, Bellonius. as the Ægean, the Hellespont, &c.

The CORALLINE-OYSTER. Spondylus Echinatus & Corallinus. I meet with it no where. 'Tis of an unusual Figure. The Base hereof is strait, and an inch and ½ over. In each end hereof is a roundish cavity, doubtless for the reception of answerable Joynts. An inch and ½ or more beyond this, the Navle, which is a little bended upward, smooth within side, and scaly without. The inner part of the shell is exceeding white, smooth, hard, and thick. The outward Crust thiner, yet also very hard, wrinkled, spiked, and of the colour of red Coral. Part of it is broken off.

MOTHER of PEARL. Concha Margaritisera. See a true, and good Figure hereof in Calceolarius's Musæum. It is naturally within of the same colour with that of a Pearl. It is sometimes seen with a pearly Knob growing within it, as in this here, near the centre. But the Pearls themselves grow within the Animal: within the Flesh (as Athenæus Quoted by Rondeletius. affirms) as that sort of Kernel in a Hog, called Grando. Although more probably in the Stomach, as Bezoar, and the like, in other Animals. Philos. Trans. N. 101. As Eggs in the Belly of a Pullet, saith Tavernier. Indian-Voyage. The Shell is said to be found near the Island Borneo sometimes so big, as to weigh forty seven pounds. Charl. On. Zoic.

Take Mother of Pearl, the small White Venus-Shell of each equal parts. Pour upon them, being first powdered, the juyce of Lemons, and let them stand together (a day or two) then filtre the liquor, and keep it, as the best wash for the Face in the World. Prævot. lib. de Med. facilè paralilibus.

MOTHER OF PEARL, with the backside cover'd all over with those little Shells called DENTALIA, as having some little likeness to Teeth: that is to say, White, Smooth, Conick, and bended Tubes, which grow to this and other Shells. See Gesner of Entali & Dentali, p. 940. The inside of the Sea-Ear, of some sorts of Limpets, and of divers other Shells, are commonly sold in Shops for true Mother of Pearl.

ORIENTAL PEARL, round, and with a good Water.

PEARLS of the bigness of a large Peas, and perfectly round, but without a Water.

ROUND PEARLS, of divers Colours, sc. White, Ashen, Brown, Red, and Bay.

PEARLS of divers Figures, sc. Oval, Cylindrical, Flat, Conick, Twins, and three and four together.

WELSH-PEARL. Given by the Honourable Mr. Boyle. They are most of them flatish, and of a shining blackish colour.

Heretofore, the most rich fishing for Pearls, was at the Island Margarita. Whence their Name. Gesner. At this time the chief Fishings in the East-Indies are three, the Persian-Gulph, on the Coast of Arabia the Happy, and in the Island Ceylan. In the West-Indies, five; along the Islands Cubagna, and Manguerita, at Camogete, Riodela Hacha, and St. Marthas. They fish in twelve-fathome Water, five or six leagues off at Sea, Spring and Fall. Tavern. Indian-Voyage.

Of Pearls we have these following Preparations, and probably the first, of all, the best, if perfectly ground.

Pulvis, Essentia, Flores, Sal, Tinctura, Magisterium, Liquor, Arcanum, Commune Butyraceum Plumaceum Riverij.

The PEARLY OYSTER. Concha Cœlata. 'Tis shaped much like the Mother of Pearl, but is somewhat oblong. It hath also a pearly-colour within-side; but of a more leadenwater.

The SQUARE-MUSCLE. Concha Rhomboidea, s. Musculus striatus Rondeletio. That part where the Valves joyn, i. e. the Base, is long, not rounded, but strait, and standeth erect or perpendicular, by which it may be distinguished from other Shells. It lies in the deeper parts of the Sea, and is rarely found.

The RUGGED-OYSTER. Not described, that I know. The Joynts hereof very shallow. The Navle very oblique. The Sides thence produced, dissimilar. The Back cut with round Furrows; and the Furrows edged, and beset with a number of little short prickles. It is of a dull ash-colour, roundish, and somewhat bigger than a Half-Crown.

The SAND-MUSCLE. Tellina. They live much in the Sand; for which reason, unless they are shaked long in water, before they are boyl'd, they are very gritty. Rondeletius. At Rome, they are esteemed a pleasant Junket. Wormius. Wormius.Here are several shells of this sort.

The TOOTHED-MUSCLE. It is of a roundish Figure, and the edges, especially before, toothed almost like a Saw.

The GREAT WAVED-MUSCLE. Well described and figur'd by Columna with the Name of Concha Maxima marmorea exotica imbricata. It is also called Concha Tridachna: because it contains as much meat, as a Man can swallow at thrice. A certain number put for an uncertain: for some of them hold meat enough almost to fill a mans belly, being a foot in length, or rather in expansion or breadth; this here ¼ of a foot. The Back is waved with broad and deep Furrows, and the edges indented answerably. It is Bellonius. commonly found in the Red-Sea.

The LONGISH-MUSCLE, with rough Wrinkles or Rays.

ANOTHER with smooth Rays, i. e. Concha Rondelet. Striata 3.

The ROUNDISH radiated Muscle.

The PLAIN LONGISH MUSCLE. This hath no Rays on the Back.

The PLAIN BROAD MUSCLE. Of these here are two sorts£ the one less, the other more expanded. This latter is by Rondeletius called Concha longa; mistaking what is properly the breadth, for the length of the shell. Of this Rondeletius. Shell, is commonly made a sort of Lime.

The BROAD-MUSCLE, with deep Joynts.

The TOOTHED BROAD-MUSCLE. Described and figur'd by Mr. Lyster, Lib. de Conch. Tit. 35. with the Name of Tellina intus ex Viola purpurascens, &c. 'Tis a little shell not much above an inch broad, the edge indented round about with curious small Teeth; and having within-side a faint purple blush.

ANOTHER little broad Muscle, without Teeth, or evenedged.

A BLOBLIP'D-SHELL, which seemeth to be a kind of Muscle. I find it no where. Here are several single shells of this sort, but not one pair: which makes me somewhat doubtful what to make of them. Most of them have about an inch of expansion. The Concave in the inside, is triangular, with small strait transvers Wrinkles, one Angle obtuse, two acute. From the two longer sides of the triangle, the Margin is spread out, and on one side as it were doubled backward. It hath also one, sometimes two Joynts, very deep, and for so small a shell, remarkably strong.

The Natives of Brasile use Muscle-shells for Spoons and Knives. Barlæus, de rebus gestis in Brasilia. The ashes of Muscle-shells, saith Wormius, are of a Caustick-nature. As if it were peculiar to this shell. Whereas the shells of all sorts of Shell-Fish, being burnt, obtain the like. Most of them, being so order'd, and powder'd, make excellent good Dentifrices.

Hitherto go the Double Shells, or with two Valves. There remain some which are made up of several shelly pieces conjoyn'd to make one Concave-shell: as

The Conick CENTRE-SHELL. Balanus major. Described by Rondeletius, and others. It is in shape somewhat like a Tulip, the several shelly Plates which compose it, being pointed at the top, and standing together, as so many leaves. They always grow fixed to some other Body. When boyl'd, they are a delicate sort of Meat.

The SPUNG-CENTRE-SHELL. Balanus Spongiarum. So I name it. Commonly, but somewhat absurdly, called Lapis Spongiæ. For being well observed, they appear to be little Centre-Shells, which probably never grow very big; and wherein the leaves seem to be a little more separate, than in the former Species. They look just like small petrifi'd Buds of Trees.

A small Centre-Shell, growing upon a Branch of Coral.

The FLAT CENTRE-SHELL. Balanus compressa. Commonly called the BARNACLE-SHELL; and CONCHA ANATIFERA. Because supposed to be the Egg of the Barnacle. And by some Hector Bœthius quoted by Gesner, and our Countryman Dr. Turner. it is confidently deliver'd, that in the Orcades there are certain Worms grow in Hollow-Trees, which by degrees obtain the Head, Feet, Wings and all the feathers of a Water-Fowl, which grows to the bigness of a Goose. Scaliger also describes this (supposed) Bird within this shell. Exercit. 59. toward the end. And with respect to so worthy a Person as Sir Robert Moray (who never meant to deceive) I my self was once induced to publish his Description of the same. Philos. Transac. N. But having examined the Shell it self, I am of Opinion, That all that is said of a Bird, is fabulous. Bartholine Histor. Cent. 6. would have it to belong to a kind of Cancellus. But I rather agree with Columna, that it is a sort of Centre-Shell; as being fixed in like manner upon it's Base, and composed of several shelly parts.

Of these Shells two Species are here preserved. One of them consisting only of five shelly pieces. Two greater, almost like little Muscle-shells. To these are joyned, edge to edge, and oppositely, a much lesser pair, sc. in such manner, as their Base stands over the Cone, and their Points descend half way towards the Base, of the greater pair. Both these pairs are on one side hem'd in with a fifth piece, narrow, long, and inwardly Concave, almost like a Larks Heel. The Neck to which they are fasten'd is here wanting. This Species is figur'd, and in some sort described by Wormius. But the Figure in Calceolarius's Musæum answers not.

The FLAT CENTRE-SHELL with the Scaled Base. Balanus compressa & Squamata; so I call it. This Species is in some sort figur'd by Rondeletius. But his Description worth nothing. 'Tis near an inch long, and ¼ of an inch broad at the Base, where it is somewhat narrower than in the middle. Whitish, and with some Rays of blew. It consists of five greater pieces, whereof the middlemost pair, the greatest and the longest. The lesser pair are joyned to them edge to edge, reaching half their length, but not oppositely with their Points downward, as in the former Species, but upward. The fifth piece not joyned to this lesser pair, as in the other Species, but to the opposite edge of the greater. Round about the Base of the Shell several little pieces, some bigger and some less, stand after the manner of Scales, with their points also forward. So that it looks almost like a great Bud crushed flat. 'Tis joyned to a Neck about ¼ of an inch over; an inch, sometimes more, or less, in length; of a brown colour, rough, and composed of an innumerable company of small Knobs, almost like those on some Fishes Skins. Several Shells, by the like Necks, commonly grow all together in a Cluster.

I have seen some of these Shells perfectly formed in all their parts, not much bigger than a Cheese-Mite.

Thus far the Titles and Descriptions; the Schemes follow, which take in all, save one or two of the Sub-Species: and wherein the Order is a little more corrected.

SECT. VII. OF INSECTS. CHAP. I. Of Insects with Naked-Wings:

The Bigger HUMBLE-BEE. Bombylius major. First, With a broad-Belly, colour'd with Ashen, White, and Brown.

Another, with a Broad-Belly, Yellow and Citrine.

A Third, with a Long Tawny-Belly, and Brown Wings.

The Middle HUMBLE-BEE, with a Scarlet Breast, and Wings spoted with white and brown.

The Lesser HUMBLE-BEE, painted with Citrine and Iron-colour.

A WILD-BEE, with her Follicle or Bag, near the bigness of a Wrens-Egg.

Another sort of WILD-BEE, with their BAGS. They are about ½ an inch long, of a Cylindrical Figure, very thin and transparent, like the inner Coats of the Eye. Admirably placed, for warmth and safety; sc. length-ways, one after another, in the middle of the Pith of an old Elder-Branch, with a thin boundary betwixt each Bag. The little Bees are somewhat thicker than the Flying-Ant; and their Bellies marked with four or five white Rings.

Another sort of WILD-BEE, which breeds in the stocks of old Willows. Curious to observe. They first bore a Canale in the Stock, which, for more warmth, they furnish afterwards with Hangings, made of Rose-Leaves, so rowled up, as to be contiguous round about to the sides of the Canale. And to finish their Work, divide the whole in to several Rooms or Nests, with round pieces of the same leaves. Hereof see in the Philos. Trans. Num. 65. the Observations of Dr. Edm. King; whereto some others are added by Mr. Willughby, and explained by Figures.

Some parts of the NEST of another WILD-BEE. Not much unlike the first of those not inelegant figures, which Johnston gives under the Name of WESPENSTOCK.

The under or hinder Wings of a Bee, are the least; that they may not incommode his flight. Mouf. de Insect. cap. 1. The Honey-Bag, is the Stomach, which they always fill to satisfie, and to spare; vomiting up the greater part of the Honey, to be kept against Winter. A curious Description and Figure of the Sting, see in Mr. Hook's Micrography. In windy Weather, Bees often hold a little stone in their hinder Feet; which serves as a Ballast to make them sail through the Air more steadily. Ibid. The History of Bees, the best that Aristotle hath given us, Hist. An. lib. 9. c. 40. of any one Animal. Of their Polity, Generation, Conservation, Diseases, and Use; see also Moufet, Butler, and a late Treatise of Mr. Rusden. All that Authors speak of the Spontaneous Generation of Bees, is fabulous. The ashes of Bees are put into most Compositions for breeding of Hair.

A WASPES-NEST. Vespetum. Given by Sir Jonas Moore, who received it from New-England. See the Figure of one in Johnston. 'Tis above a foot high, and near a foot over. Composed of a great number of little Cells, as in the Wild-Bees Nest, and encompassed with a Cover of the same stuff. All wrought about the Branch of a Tree.

Both this, and the Bees-Nest now mention'd, consist of the small Fibers of Plants, cohering, altogether as in Paper; as may be seen by a Glass. So that the Stuff may not be improperly called BEE-PAPER.

Another WASPES-NEST, like the former. Given by Dr. Thomas Allen.

A LONG-OVAL FOLLICLE (perhaps of a sort of Hornet) with this peculiar, That the Silk is cover'd with a kind of brown Crust, marbled with blackish Veins.

A NESTED FOLLICLE, or one within another. Here are three of this sort, not fortuitous, but according to Nature. The utmost, is about an inch long, brown, and composed of Stiff-work, with a great many small Interstices: so that it looks just like an Oval-Net. Within this, lies loose another much smaller, of a light Ash-colour, and made like other Insect-Bags.

The Polish'd FLESH-FLY; that which is of a blewishblack, like Steel.

Another FLESH-FLY with a strong Proboscis or Trunk, tawny Wings, black Eyes, bunched Back, brown, long, and sharp Belly, forked Tail, Chesnut Feet, the hinder the longest.

The GOLDEN-EYE. Musca Chrysopis, as Moufet calls it. The Eye of this Fly is very curious, not only with its golden colour, but in being most elegantly latticed, like that of a Butterfly. Whilst alive, they have a very stinking scent.

The OX-FLY. Musca Boaria. Asilus.

The WHAME. Musca Apiformis. Tabani species.

The WASP-FLY. Tabani species altera.

The TWO-BRISTLED-FLY. Musca Bipilis. He hath two Bristles upon his Tail, standing level. Moufet describes five Species.

The THREE-BRISTLED-FLY. Tripilium. Of these Moufet also describes five sorts. Here are two of them; One greater, the other less. They are most in May and June before and after the Rains.

Flys, at the end of their Proboscis, have a Piercer wherewith they broach the Skin. Mouf. de Ins. c. 10. They go only, saith Moufet, with four Feet, using the two foremost instead of Hands. Ibid. This latter part of his Assertion is true; but the former, contrary to common Observation.

The Hair of the Head being often wet with the water of common Flys distill'd in Balneo Mariæ, will grow to a very great length. Id. c. 12. Almost all Flys, being chew'd and swallow'd, cause violent vomitings. Id. c. 12. out of Arnoldus.

Two FLY-NESTS; with some of the Flys. They are all black, with four Wings, the Horns and hinder Legs both long, and the end of the Tail thick. Of kin to the M. Bipilis.

The Nests are fasten'd or wrought, one, upon a head of Cypress-Grass; above ½ an inch long: the other, on the top of a Branch of Fern; and is about an inch long. Both oval, and white like Wooll; very porous and compressible, like a fine Sponge; and perforated with several little round Holes. Cuting one of them down the middle, I found, within, the more elaborate Work, consisting of a great number of little oval Cells, as in a Wild Bees-Nest. These Cells are placed in their length transversly to that of the Nest. In each of which, each Fly is bred a part from the rest.

The Great BUTTERFLY. Papilio major. This is of the second magnitude. The Wings are painted with citrine and black, both in long streaks and spots.

The Great PLUMED BUTTERFLY. The Wings are painted with black and scarlet Rings. In the place of Horns, he hath a pair of Plumes in his Forehead.

Another, with LONGER PLUMES. The Wings of this are spotted with black and tawny.

The lesser BUTTERFLY, with scarlet Wings; the foremost of which are far shorter than the other.

Another, having the Wings speckled with red, yellow, brown and black spots.

Of the larger, middle, and lesser kinds, Moufet reckons up and describes five and thirty sorts. Latter part of C. 14.

That which seems to be a Powder upon the Wings of a Butterfly, Is an innumerable company of extreme small Feathers, not to be discerned without a Microscope. See Dr. Powers Microsc. Observ. and Mr. Hook's Micrography.

Butterflys, as most Insects, saith Moufet, are very Diuretick (urinas egregiè movent) and with more safety. Cap. 14. 'Tis worth the trial.

The Great ADDERS Boult; from the strait long figure: Dragon-Fly, from the colour and bigness. Water-Butterfly, because they most frequent Rivers and watry places. Perla, from its colour. Libella, from its figure, when the Wings are spread out. In this, the Bases of the Wings are spoted, the Belly almost triangular, the Tail pointed, painted with black and gold-colour.

Another GREAT ONE, with silver Wings, a golden Mouth, a green Forehead, Chesnut Eyes, a round Belly painted with citrine and black.

A THIRD, with citrine Wings, a green Back, and a yellow Belly. It is furnished both with Horns and Plumes in the Forehead.

The Middle ADDERS Boult. It is of a dark-Green. The Head small, the Chest or middle part short, the Belly very long and slender. Moufet reckons up in all about 20 sorts.

The LANTHORN-FLY of Peru. Cucujus Peruvianus. A quite different Species from that described by Moufet. And, with respect to his Wings, is no way of kin to the Beetle or Scarabeus-kind, but rather the Locust. I find it no where described.

'Tis above three inches long, and thick as the Ring-finger. His Head, in bigness and figure, admirable; near an inch and half long, in the thickest part of it above half an inch over. From the Eyes forward it first swells or bellies out, afterwards contracts into a smaller, yet blunt end. 'Tis also crowned with a broad blunt knob, and the end resimated or bended upward. In its Circumference it hath seven low Ridges or Angles, marked with so many black lines, an eighth line being added betwixt the two uppermost Angles. The greater part hereof (now) betwixt yellow and straw-colour. Yet stained with brown and red streaks and spots, neatly ranged, especially on the top and both sides. It seems, at least in the fore part, to be hollow, and almost like a Bladder blown up.

The Eyes, for the bigness of his Body, very small. Of a dusky-colour, yet glossy, and Sphærical, looking just like two brown Seed-Pearls. Under these stand two small round parts, open at top, which seem to be the Roots of a pair of Horns: unless any will conceit them to be his Ears. Both these and the Eyes are guarded with a semilunar Ridge.

The other parts, being more or less spoil'd, cannot be perfectly describ'd. His Proboscis sufficiently strong, about ½ an inch long, and as thick as a stitching or Taylers Needle. The Feet all broken off. His Body an inch and ½ long, not much exceeding the length of the Head; about ¾ over. Composed, besides the Shoulders, of about ten Rings. He hath four Wings, almost like those of the Locust; the uppermost somewhat stronger and stiffer than the other. Both Pairs are of a dun-colour, sprinkled with dark-brown spots. They are extended considerably beyond the Body; yet the ends are worn off.

That which, beside the figure of the Head, is most wonderful in this Insect is the shining property of the same Part, whereby it looks in the Night like a little Lanthorne (Lamphorne. ) So that two or three of these fasten'd to a stick, or otherwise conveniently disposed off, will give sufficient light to those that travail or walk in the Night.

A BAULME KRICKET. Cicada. It is the fourth in order described by Moufet. The upper Wings of this Insect also are stiffer than the other, like those of the Locust. But that which is most remarkable, is the broad Hood which is spread over his Head and the top of his Shoulders. It is a Stranger here in England.

This Insect, saith Moufet Lib. de Ins. after others, feeds only upon Dew; and hath no Excrement; which is most unlikely. It is by some given inwardly instead of Cantharides, both as a safer, and more effectual Diuretick. And so far also a better Remedy in Veneris languorem. Cap. 17. p. 133.

A Great WINGED-LOCUST. Given by Sir John Hoskins. It seems to be the second Male described by Moufet. In length almost three inches. The Face perpendicular, from the Mouth to the Crown of the Head ½ an inch. The Wings Membranous; the upper pair, the stiffest, stained with dark brown spots, and a few Rays of Red. It is one of that Swarme which some years since destroyed all the fruits in the Island of Tenariffa.

Of the Winged-Kind, Moufet reckons up about a dozen Species. Of their Generation, and the Description of the Parts thereunto subserving, see the same Author. The Description and Figure of the Lungs in Malpighius. De Bombyce p. 28. Tab. 4.

Locusts hurt the Corn, Meadows, and Hort-Yards, not only by eating, but also by their Dung; and an ill-natur'd Spittle, much of which they spew out of their Mouths, as they eat. Moufet out of Valleriola. 'Tis probable, That the Spittle (if they spew any) is not ill-natur'd; because the Jews were permitted to eat this as a clean Animal. Yet may prove hurtful to the Corn, as a Nest fit for the breeding of small Worms, or other Animals, which may disease it.

The Ethiopians, and divers other Nations, eat them, being first salted and dryed. Mus. Wormian.

The FEN-KRICKET or CHUR-WORME: Because towards Night, when he comes out of his Buries, he makes a noise like that of a Kricket. So great, saith Moufet, as to be heard above a mile off. Gryllotalpa: so called by the same Author, for that with his fore-feet, which are very strong and broad, and shaped like those of a Mole, he continually digs up, and makes himself Buries in the Earth. His hinder Feet are very long, wherewith he leaps; and by which, as well as by his Hood, he borders at least, upon the Grashopper-Kind. His Hood or Mantle, which Moufet I think omits, is about ½ an inch long; extended forward, over part of his Head; behind, over part of his Wings; before Concave, behind Convex.

His Eyes protuberant, yet not great (as Moufet would have them) but very small if compared with his Body: in colour, shape, and bigness like a Strawberry-seed.

His Wings, saith the same Author, are longer than his Body. Whereby it appears, that he did not take notice, That this Animal hath four Wings, whereof the uppermost pair are not above ¾ of an inch long. The other indeed are prolonged above ¼ of an inch beyond the Tail. Each of these apart is most curiously foulded up inwards with a double Roll, so as to end in a point; having their middle Rib (as I may call it) which covers the two Rolls, flat and edged, and divided with transverse lines at right Angles. Their being thus folded up, is a contrivance to secure them from being torn, as he runs to and fro under ground.

CHAP. II. Of Insects with sheathed-Wings.

The TINGLE-WORME. Proscarabæus. He's remarkable, especially, for his Teeth, which are two great Hooks bended inward, almost as in the Squill-Insect. He differs from the Scarabæus, chiefly, in that the Vaginæ or Wing-Covers are very short, reaching but about ½ way toward the end of the Tail. His Wings, notwithstanding Moufet calls them Alarum rudimenta, are very perfect, and by a treble fold lodged under their Crustaceous Covers. He also omits the Description of his Eyes, which, through a Microscope, are a curious sight.

This Insect£ with the least touch, drops a kind of Oily liquor from his Mouth; for which cause Moufet calls it The Oil-Clock. Cap. 23. Being bruised, it yields a fragant smell. Id. out of Toxites's Onomastichon. They are numerous in Heidleburge and other parts of Germany.

The Great BULL-CHAFER. Taurus volans maximus. Johnston out of Marggravius in some sort describes four Species of Bull-Chafers, of which, as I take it, this is one. I meet also with the Picture of it in Olearius. Tab. 16. Fig. 2. He hath three Horns. The first is only the Snout produced and bended upward, and is therefore moveable with the Head. In length, according to the figure in Olearius (for it is here broken off) about an inch and ½ forked at the end, and with one upper branch a little before the Eyes. The Head very little. Upon his Shoulders he hath two immovable or unjoynted Horns, about ¾ of an inch long, ¼ of an inch over at the Base, directed forward, and with their points inward, like a Bulls-Horns. From the end of his Snout or fore-Horn to the end of his Tail he is about five inches long, over his Back above two and a ¼; the bigest of Insects yet known. His fore-Feet are armed with Spikes, as so many Claws; wherewith, 'tis likely he digs himself Buries. Of his Wings it is Observable, That at their utmost Joynt, they are laped up, or doubled inward towards the Head, and so kept safe under the Wing-Covers; being, when out at their full length, almost twice as long as the hinder Body or Section of the Animal. The like is observable of the Wings of some other Beetles. His Horns, Legs, Back and Wing-Covers are all black; his Belly brown.

Another Great BULL-CHAFER. Of the same sort.

The Lesser BULL-CHAFER. Nasicornis Triceros minor, so it may be called. 'Tis all over of a shining-black. Above two inches long, almost one broad. The Snout-Horn is not bended upward, as in the former, but downward, ⅔ds of an inch long, and edged above. On the top of his Back or fore-Section he hath two other little Horns, about ⅛ of an inch long, thick as those of a Snail, and bended down as the former.

The HEAD and Fore-SECTION of the same Animal; but of one far bigger.

The TODDY-FLY. Taurus volans Marggravii Quartus, or Nasicornis Diceros. This here came from Guinea. 'Tis very well described by the said Author. Except, that he doth not well compare the Eyes to a Hemp-seed: for they are not only Sphærical, but as big as a well grown green Peas. But that shelly-Guard, which, as it were, hoops in the Eye, and hides the greater part of it, unless you lay the Insect on his Back, might occasion his mistake. He hath but two Horns, yet those great ones. A Snout-Horn bended and toothed upward, and a Shoulder-Horn bended downward. From the end of which to the end of his Tail, about five inches. But he is not so broad as the Great Bull-Chafer.

Thirty or forty of these together, rasping or sawing off part of the Barque of the Toddy-Tree by the help of their Snout-Horn, will drink themselves drunk with the liquor that flows from it: from whence their English Name. For which purpose, Nature hath well placed the Teeth of the said Horn, above: for that here, the Work is not done, as by a Man in sawing, by the weight of the Animal, which is inconsiderable; but by the strength of his Legs, which force the Horn upward.

See the Description of the Parts subserving to Generation in the Philos. Transact. N. 94. Communicated by Dr. Swammerdam.

Two more TODDY-FLY'S, like the former.

The RHINOCEROS BEETLE. Scarabæus Rhinoceros. See the Figure and Description hereof in Imperati. It hath only one Horn upon the Nose standing almost upright, only bended a little backward, as in the Rhinoceros; whence its Name.

The PRICKLE-NOS'D BEETLE. Scarabæus Naso aculeato. I meet with it no where else. So I call it, because that in the place of the Horn above-said, it hath only a small short Prickle. The fore-Section also, near the Head, is depressed and somewhat Concave. 'Tis very near as big as the former, and of a like Chesnut-colour.

The STAG-BEETLE. Cervus Volans. Described by Moufet, Imperati and others. He hath his Name from his two Horns, which are branched like those of a Stag: but yet moveable. His Head is very big and broad; ratably, far bigger than in any other known Beetle, much exceeding the bigness even of the fore-Section. Under his fore-Feet, he hath Tufts of short brown Hair. His Wings are doubled up inward and towards the Head, as in the Great Bull-Chafer. From the Tips of his Horns (which are about an inch long) to the end of his Tail, above three inches in length.

His Horns being moveable, he useth them to catch hold with, as a Lobster doth with his Claws. For which purpose, they are not only branched inwardly, but also toothed with a numerous Series of little knobs, by which to take the surer hold.

The Description and Figure of the Lungs of this Insect is given by Malpighius. De Bombyce, p. 27. Tab. 3. Some Observations of his Nature, see in the Philosoph. Trans. N. 127. Chioccus saith, That there are many of them in Lombardy. Mus. Calceolar.

The Horns of this Insect being set in Gold, and so worn as an Anulet, are said to be of excellent force Chioccus in Mus. Calceol. in easing of Pains, and against the Cramp. Read Fienus, Of the Power of Phancy.

Four more STAG-BEETLES; but lesser than the former.

Another, with the Head broken off.

The little THREE-HORNED BEETLE. Scarabæus Triceros minor. Moufet seems to describe it by the Name of [Greek text]; but imperfectly. His Head is guarded with two Shoulder-Horns, and one in the Neck between them, not in his Forehead, as Moufet mistakes. They are all three immoveable or unjoynted, of the thickness of a little Pin, or the bigness of short Gooseberry Thorns. That in the middle stands reared upward, the other two are bended a little downward. In all other parts 'tis shaped like the Scarabœus Melanocyaneus with furrow'd Wing-shells; of which anon.

The NOCOONACA. So called by some of the Natives of the West-Indies, from whence it came. I meet with it no where else. 'Tis three inches long, and an inch broad. The Head ½ an inch broad, ⅓ of an inch long. The Horns rooted on each side the top; but are all broken off, saving a Joynt or two: which are of that thickness, as he seems to be of kin to the Capricorne-kind; and may be called The Great West-Indian GOAT-CHAFER.

His Back-Piece near ½ an inch long, ¾ broad, armed with two black sharp Prickles, ⅛ of an inch long, and bended a little backwards. The Wing-shells almost square, knobed on each side before, where each of them hath one, and at the hinder end two more very short Prickles. They are cover'd with a kind of Down, or very short and fine Hair, like the Pile of Velvet; for the most part brown, but adorned with Dashes of Red and Yellowish, or Citrine, of an answerable shape upon both shells. The brown spaces before are also rough-cast with a great number of small round black knobs, like Mourning Pins-Heads. The fore-Feet are four inches and ½ long, as long again as the other; contrary to what, at least, for the most part, they are in other Beetles. They are also set with sharp black Prickles like those on the Back-Piece. The rest without them. All of them vary'd with the aforesaid Colours.

Another NOCOONACA of the same bigness.

The Great European GOAT-CHAFER. Capricornus maximus Europeus. Given by Sir Philip Skippon. Described by Moufet. 'Tis about two inches long. Of a dark brown or Musk-colour. He hath on his Forehead two slender Horns, knoted or with many Joynts; above an inch long, and commonly standing backward, like those of a Goat, from whence his Name.

The Goat-Chafer, saith Moufet, being weary with flying, to spare his weak Legs, wraps his Horns (I doubt weaker than his Legs) about the Twig of a Tree, and so rests himself.

The LONG-SHELL'D GOAT-CHAFER. Capricornus Vaginis longioribus. I think no where describ'd. It is above an inch long, and the Wing-shells of themselves an inch, being prolonged near ¼ of an inch beyond the Anus; and near ½ an inch broad; so deep, as to come down below the Belly on both sides. All over of a straw-colour. The Shoulders a little knobed. The Neck, red; and about ⅕ of an inch square. The Head still lesser, scarce so big as a Flesh-Flys.

The MUSK-GOAT-CHAFER. Capricornus odoratus. It is of the Middle-kind. Described by Moufet. Cap. 21. While it lives, and for sometime after its death, It hath a fragrant smell; from whence the Name.

The lesser Goat-Chafer blew and green. Minor Chlorocyaneus, as it may be called. About ⅔ of an inch long, the Head and Neck green, the Wing-shells blew, both glossy. The Horns ⅓ of an inch. The Legs like bright Steel.

The little Saffron-Goat-Chafer. Minimus rubrocroceus. About ½ an inch long. His Horns ⅓. His Legs like polish'd Steel.

The little Brown Goat-Chafer. Minimus pullocroceus, as we may call it. About ½ inch long, and slender. Of a brown colour, with a yellow Ring on the upper part of his Neck, two more on his£ Wing-shells, and two sloap streakes upon each: His Horns and Legs of a Chesnut.

The GREAT GOGLE-EYED BEETLE. Carabus Indiæ Orientalis maximus. I find it no where described or pictur'd. Two inches and ½ long, and an inch broad. His Head of a middle size. His Face perpendicular, about ⅓ of an inch long, in the middle of a golden green. His Teeth like polish'd Steel, of great thickness and strength. His Eyes of a fine colour betwixt a light Chesnut, and that of red Coral; of an Oval figure; and ratably, very great, sc. ¼ of an inch long. Which also, so far as I have observ'd, is the principal Character of all the Carabus-kind, so far, as distinct from the Capricorne: whence I take leave for the English Name. His Horns rooted between the Eyes and the Snout; but they are here broken off. His Shoulder or Back-Piece almost square; yet edged with a Convex Margin on each side; above ¾ of an inch broad, and ½ an inch by the length of the Insect; burnish'd with two large spots of the colour of polish'd Bellmettle; betwixt which, and on the edges or margins of a shining-green.

The Wing-shells almost two inches long, with small furrows running by the length, and united with short transverse lines, all together, like Network. Not Oval, but rather expressing the figure of a Speer-Mint-Leaf. At the end of each, two very small points or prickles. In the middle, of a glorious golden red like that of burnish'd Copper; On the edges of a shining blewish green. The Belly of the same colour with the middle of the Wing-shells; saving, that the fore part of every Ring (whereof there are three) and the Tail-piece, is also variegated with a curious sort of small white Streaks, which, at the first, look like fine Hair.

The great Joynts of the Legs (as is also best observable in other larger Insects) are joyn'd together, not only by Ligaments, as are the Bones in other Animals; but the globular knob of one, is entirely inclosed£ and so winds, within the globular Concave of another. The imitation whereof, may be seen in the Joynted Images, which some Stone-Cuters make use of, for their direction as to Postures.

The THICK GOGLE-EYED BEETLE of the East-Indies. Carabus Orientalis crassus. I find it not describ'd. About an inch and ½ long, ¾ of an inch over where thickest. His Eyes near the colour, shape and bigness of golden Millet-seed. His Teeth of a sad Chesnut, and very robust. His Horns are broken off. His Forehead, the sides of his Breast, Shoulder-piece, and Wing-shells, all rough cast, especially the two parts last nam'd; the Shoulder-piece with numerous small punches, the Wing-shells with greater and fewer; two whereof before, rounder and larger than the rest.

On his Breast he hath a short, thick and sturdy Thorne or Spike directed forward, and somewhat downward. He is all over of a curious green, bright and with strong Rays of Gold, but mostly on his Belly, Forehead, and the inward Margins of his Wing-shells. The hinder ends of which have one or two little Indentures. His Legs broken off.

The long GOGLE-EYED BEETLE of the East-Indies. Neither is this describ'd, that I find. About an inch and ¾ long; where broadest ½ an inch. His Head small, somewhat bigger than that of a common Bee. His Eyes great, Oval, and of a Chesnut colour. His Forehead between them of a shining green, and rough cast. His Teeth very strong. His Horns broken off. His Shoulder-piece almost square, but somewhat broader behind. This, his Wingshells, and his Breast of a glorious green mixed with some faint Rays of Gold; but their outer Margins, especially, as you turn him on his Belly, look of a pure Bice-Blew. Their hinder ends (as also the Tail) tinged with the colour of bright Copper. Their ends are likewise indented like the leaves of some Plants; and so rounded, as both together to make an Elliptick. His Feet are lost.

The LONG STRIATED CARABUS. Carabus sextus Aldrovandi. Above an inch long, and ¼ broad. The Wingshells are furrow'd by the length with small Striæ, and also wrought with punched or pricked lines in the same Order. The fore-feet are soled each with four little Tufts of Down or short Hair. Here are Three of this sort. One, all over of a blackish colour. A second hath his Shoulders and the Rimms of his Wing-shells, blew. The third hath Crimson shoulders, or like pure Lake, and the Wing-shells of a sad green with some Rays of Gold.

Another Carabus of the same kind with the former, but lesser, being not above ½ or ⅔ of an inch long. Here are of this Species of several colours. Some, of a dark-brown; others, cole-black; others, of a gilt-green; and others, of a giltred like bright Copper. None of these are punched, but only striated.

The LONG SMOOTH CARABUS. 'Tis all over of a shining-black; very smooth, without either prick'd or striated Lines. Only a row of very small Pricks just above the Rimm of the Wing-shells. Also in proportion somewhat longer and slenderer than the former.

The little GREEN CARABUS. About ½ an inch long. His Head small, scarce so big as of the common Black-Fly. His Snout oblong. His Eyes gogling, and of a Chestnut colour. His Neck also little. His Belly and Wing-shells much broader, especially behind, which is unusual. Above, of a curious green; the Wing-shells marked with seven or eight white Specks on the Margins, and two in the middle. Underneath of a golden red.

The Little BROWN CARABUS. Like the former, saving his colours; his Snout being of a shining straw-colour; as also his Eyes, and very great; finely Cancellated; through a Glass a curious sight. His Wing-shells brown, with whitish Spots, fewer and bigger. His Legs of a golden red.

The Little BROAD CARABUS. Shorter, and proportionably broader, than any of the precedent Species. All over black. The Head extream small. The Shoulder-piece broad, smooth, and almost square. The Wing-shells striated, each with three ridge-lines, and each having a narrow and level Rimm or Margin; as in the other Species. Of this sort, here are three or four; the bigest ⅓ of an inch long, and ⅓ broad.

The common slender SPANISH-FLY. Cantharis vulgaris. It seems to border both upon the Capricorne and the Carabus.

Spanish-Flys, being taken in too great a dose, will exulcerate the Bladder. Some bold Whores take them to kill and bring away their Conception. Moufet Lib. de Insect. c. 19. speaks of a singular Remedy which he had, Contra Veneris Languorem. Which seems to be some Præparation of Spanish-Flys, by the Symptome which he saith did once follow the use of it, which was bloody Urine. Yet this hath sometimes happen'd, only ex effrænatâ Venere.

Spanish-Flys ʒj, Rhenish-Wine, or rather Spirit of Wine ℥iiij. Digest them, without fire, for some days. Then filtre the Spirit through a brown Paper. To every spoonful of this, add seven of clean Wine or Ale. Of this mixture take the first day, one spoonful; the second, two; and so increasing every day. Against a Virrulent Gonorrhæa, a suppression of Urine, and the Stone, the happy success of this Tincture, saith Bartholine, Thom. Barthol. Hist. Cent. 5. hath been experienced by Dr. James-Francis Kotzbue. I mention it, for a safe way of using this Insect inwardly, if in any Case we may expect more from them, than other Medicines.

The BROAD GILDED BEETLL. Cantharis latus Moufeti. Here are several of them. They all agree in shape; their Principal Characters, That they are broad Back'd, and Headed, like the ScarabÆus Melanocyaneus; Tail'd, like the ScarabÆus Fullo (of both which anon) and have a small Part indented betwixt the fore-ends of the Wing-shells, like the Tongue of a Buckle. But their Colours are various. Two of a golden green on the Back, and like burnish'd Copper on the Belly. One like Bell-metal on the Back and Belly. And one like Copper on the Back and Belly.

The DORR or HEDGE-CHAFER. Scarabæus Arboreus. Described by Moufet. His chief marks are these, His Head small like that of the common Beetle. This and his Eyes black, notwithstanding Moufet saith these are yellow. His Shoulder-piece and the middle of his Belly also black; but just under the Wing-shells spoted with white. His Wingshells, Legs, and the end of his Tail (which is long and flatpointed) of a light Chestnut. His Breast, especially, cover'd with a downy-Hair.

The LEOPARD-FLY. ScarabÆus Fullo. Described also by Moufet. 'Tis bigger than the Dorr. His Nose as black as jet, his Wing-sheaths, and almost all other parts, speckled with ash-colour and black: in other respects like the Dorr.

The little TAIL'D-BEETLE. ScarabÆus caudatus minor. The Head and Shoulders are wanting. The Wing-shells almost two thirds of an inch long and ⅓ over. Of a dull ash-colour besprinkled with extream small blackish specks. His Legs and Belly of the same. He hath a strait, pointed Tail prolonged beyond the Wing-shells ⅙ of an inch, from whence I have nam'd him; and by which he seems of kin to the Hedge-Chafer.

The SHORT-SHELL'D BEETLE. By Aldrovandus, called ScarabÆus Serpentarius, somewhat absurdly, sc. for that he once found them in a Serpent. But his Description is not ill. He seems by the shortness of his Wing-shells to border on the Dorr or Hedge-Chafer, as the former. As also by their colour, composed of black and Chesnut Rings indented together. Here are five of this Species.

Another of the same Species, with the Wing-shells all over of a Chesnut colour. Described also by Aldrovandus. Of this sort here are several small ones.

The BLACK and BLEW BEETLE. ScarabÆus Melanocyaneus. See Moufet's Description. Of this, the Wingshells are striated or furrow'd by the length. All the upper parts are black, the under parts blew, exactly like that colour which Watch-Makers and others give to their Steel-Works. Sometimes the nether parts are rather reddish, just like pure bright Copper. Sometimes their Tails and Belly of a golden Green, of which is that called by Wormius, ScarabÆus [Greek text]. Here are of these, in all, about half a score.

ANOTHER, of the same kind. But this hath both the Shoulder-piece, and also the Wing-shells very smooth.

A THIRD, a kin to the former. Yet different from them, not only in being all over black, but especially in the make of his Feet. In those, hard and sharp with several little Prickles standing in a Row, with some stragling hairs. In this, having only two sharp Hooks or Claws at the end of his Feet, and his Feet soled with a treble Tuft of a close short tawny Down.

The SQUARE-SHELL BEETLE. The Head and Shoulders of this are lost. The Wing-shells together, make almost a long square; being flat on the top, which is unusual, and the sides making right angles with their upper end. They are also striated or furrow'd by the length; and the sides curiously punched or pricked.

The BEETLE with pointed shells. The Head and Shoulders of this also are lost. All over of a very dark shining Bay. The Wing-shells above ½ an inch long, and of a peculiar figure; being not only much narrower, but also pointed behind.

The LONG-HEADED BEETLE. Here are several of them; all of a dun or blackish brown. But that whereby they differ from all other Beetles, is the shape of the Head, which, in proportion, is very long and slender.

The small PURPLE BEETLE. Of this sort here are two somewhat flat; and one thick and round.

The BLEW ROUND BEETLE. Viola. One as big as a Lady-Cow, but longer: the other near ½ an inch long; Both of a Violet colour.

The GREEN ROUND BEETLE, burnish'd with glorious golden Rays.

The Round Chesnut BEETLE, not without some Rays of Gold.

It may be worth the trial, Whether any of the Gilded sort of Beetles, are of the same Nature with Spanish Flys, or may produce the same effect, with less pain.

The SPIKED WATER-CLOCK. It seems to be that which Aldrovandus describes (but very imperfectly) under the Name of ScarabÆus Aquaticus. 'Tis about two inches long, and ¼ over where broadest. All over of a shining black: excepting, that his Eyes are brown; his AntennÆ, tawny, his fore-Belly overlaid with a kind of Lemon colour'd Velvet. On his Back, there is a triangular piece indented between the Wing-shells. The Legs are much broken, on the third Joynts, at least of four of them, grow a pair of black sharp Prickles about the length and thickness of the sting of a Bee. But that which is most remarkable, is a strong and sharp Spike or Needle which stands horizontally on his fore-Belly, and with its point towards the Tail. His Wing-shells are carry'd down considerably below his Belly: so that being turned on his Back, he looks as if he lay in a Boat.

By the shape of the Wing-shells, this Insect seems, like the Notonecta (whereof presently) to swim on his Back. In which posture, in case of an approaching enemy, the aforesaid Needle is also ready for his defence.

The Great English WATERCLOCK. Hydrocantharus major Anglicus. Described Lib. 1. c. 23. and figur'd At the end of the Second Book. by Moufet. It comes near, in bigness, to the former; as also in shape; but hath no Needle, neither are the Wing-shells below the Belly. That part most observable in him, is his Eye, which is of a curious bright colour, almost like a Butterflys.

Another Water-Clock of the same Species.

The small brown Water-Clock. 'Tis flat and narrow, and ⅔ of an inch long.

The smallest Water-Clock. Scarce bigger than a Sheep-Tick, all over of a shining black.

These Insects make use of their hinder Feet instead of Oars. They are seldom or never seen in the day, excepting in the Water, which they leave in the night, and fly up and down, Moufet, lib. 1. c. 23.

The BOAT-FLY. Notonecta. Described by Moufet, but very briefly. Lib. 2. c. 38. A Water-Insect, in shape like that which lives in Cuccow Spittle, but six times as big, sc. ⅔ of an inch long. The upper Wings are opacous and thicker before; at their hinder ends, where they lap over; transparent and extream thin, like the Wing of a Fly.

He swims, saith Moufet, Lib. 2, c. 38. contrary to other Creatures, on his Back. And the shape of his Back seems to favour it, being very like the bottom of a Boat. Nor do his hinder Legs, which are thrice as long as the former, unaptly resemble a pair of Oars.

The Great WINGED PUNEE. Cimex sylvestris alatus major. Moufet Lib. 1. c. 29. hath given three good Figures of this Kind, but scarce describes them. All the Species agree, in having a very small Head, broad Shoulders, a Pyramidal Back-piece, and the upper Wings somewhat like as in the Boat-Fly, sc. half Crustaceous and half Membranous. This, is almost ¼ of an inch long, near ½ an inch broad. His Shoulder and Back-Pieces yellow, shining and rough cast. The fore half or crusty part of the upper Wings of a russet, the Membranous of a sad green. The Belly straw colour'd and Chesnut, and divided into several Sections with black Lines, half of them meeting at the ridge of the Belly.

The SPIKED PUNEE. In proportion longer and narrower than the former. The Back russet, brown and black. The Belly, ashen. Where, that which is most observable, is a short, flat, and very sharp Thorne or Spike standing level, as in the Spiked Water-Clock, but with the point the quite contrary way, sc. towards the Head.

The HIGH-SHOULDER'D PUNEE. He is otherwise of the shape and bigness of the former: all over of a brown or dun colour, especially the Membranous parts of his Wings.

The SQUARE-WINGED PUNEE. Scarce ¼ of an inch long, and almost as broad. Partly colour'd with a shining black, and three spots of white on each side.

Another Square PUNEE, with the Crustaceous part of the Wings russet.

The SHORT-WING'D PUNEE. In which respect chiefly, it differs from the former; the Wings being in those prolonged to the end of the Tail; here, but half way.

The LONG-PECKLED PUNEE. This kind, Moufet hath pictur'd among the small Beetles; but by a mistake, it being really a sort of Flying Punee, with Wings partly Crustaceous and party Membranous, which is their Characteristick. The Shoulder-piece, Back-piece, Sides, Belly, and crusty part of the Wings, are all red bespeckled with black spots; the Membranous part, dun and speckled with white.


The SMALLEST ANT or EMMET. When well grown, they are then hardly bigger than a good big Flea. In Barbados, saith Ligon, there is a larg sort of Ants, that build their Nests, with Clay and Lome, against a Wall or a Tree, as big as Bee-Hives, and divided into several Cells. Hist. of Barb. p. 64. Of the Ingenuity of this Insect, see divers Relations in the same Author. P. 63. They are exceeding numerous throughout all India. So that they are forced to set the feet of their Cupboards and Chests in Cisterns of Water to preserve their Cloaths and Victuals Linchot. p. 80. from them.

Of their Kinds, and Generation; as also their use for feeding of Pheasants and Partridges, see some Observations in the Phil. Trans. N. 23. Communicated by Dr. Edmund King. Of their Nature, some others in the same Transact. N. 64. Communicated by Mr. Ray from Dr. Hulse and Mr. Fisher. The former observing, amongst other particulars, That the Liquor which they sometimes let fall from their Mouths, droping upon the blew Flowers of Cichory, immediately gives them a large red stain; and supposeth, it would produce the like in other blew Flowers. The latter, That not only the Juyce, but also the Distill'd Water or Spirit of this Insect will produce the same effect, &c. Amongst which, Mr. Ray mixeth some Notes of his own.

The Liquor of Ants is commended by Schroder Pharmac. for a most excellent Ophthalmick.

The BAHAMA-SPIDER. It is of the Tarantula kind, and may be called Phalangium maximum Indicum; being the biggest of all the Species, sc. two inches long. Described by Wormius, and others. He hath six Eyes, not so big as the smallest Pins head. They stand not in a circle, as represented by Læt, Wormius, Piso, and Olearius, but two and two on each side, and two betwixt them transversly, thus :££: He hath two strong black shining Teeth, like crooked Claws, standing parallel, and with their points downward, above ½ an inch long by the bow. These Teeth being set in Gold, are used Piso, Hist. N. l. 5. by some for Tooth-Pickers. Being vexed, they strike with a Sting so very small, as it is hardly visible. Ibid. They will live several Months without eating any thing.

The Nhanduguacu, a great Spider in Brasile BarlÆi Res Brasil. p. 224. so called, is probably of the same Species.

The TOOTH of the NHANDUGUACU or Bahama-Spider.

The WEB of a Bermuda-Spider. It is so strong, as to snare a Bird as big as a Thrush. Philos. Trans. N. 40. 'Tis here wound upon a Paper like Raw-Silk.

Spiders, saith Aristotle, Hist. An. lib. 9. c. 39. cast their Threads, not from within, as an Excrement, as Democritus would have it; but from without, as the Histrix doth his Quills. Of the spining of Spiders, and the rest of their History, see the curious Observations of Mr. Lyster. Lib. de Araneis.

The CLAW of a SCORPION. 'Tis long and slender, and belongs to the first Species described by Moufet.

A thick and short CLAW of a Scorpion, belonging to the third Species in Moufet.

The TAIL of another, with the Sting at the end, which is a little crooked, and as sharp as that of a Bee. The other parts of all three are broken off and lost.

In the Musæum Cospian: is the Figure of a very large Scorpion, three times as big as I find any where, yet said by Lorenzo Legati, to be drawn after the life.

This Insect aboundeth in Brasile. Those that are stung with them, suffer extraordinary pains for about twenty four hours, but seldom die upon it. Joh. de Læt. l. 15. c. 6. out of Lerius.

Of Scorpions are prepared, Oleum Compos. Magnum, i. e. Matthioli, Sanguineum Schrod. Pharm. Magni Ducis, & Ol. Scorp. purgatum. Poterius.

The GREAT GALLY-WORME. Scolopendra. Described both by Moufet and Aldrovandus: but yet imperfectly. Neither is this here entire. Yet thus much remains Observable of the Feet; That each of them is armed, in the room of Claws, with three, four, or five Needles, of different thickness and length; some of them above ¼ of an inch long; of a black shining colour like the Sting of a Bee, and equally sharp; in respect to which the Figure neither of Moufet nor of Aldrovandus doth any way answer. Besides these, there are a great many more on each side, of the like shape and bigness, but of the colour of Copper or tarnish'd Brass. The Back and Sides are shag'd, the Belly smooth or bald. He is about three inches and ½ long.

The Teeth of this Animal, are said by all to be venimous. And probably, all the Needles above described, are so likewise.

The middle Bald GALLY-WORM. Julus glaber. They have commonly betwixt forty and fifty Legs on a side answering to so many crustaceous Rings, with some resemblance to a Triremis; whence Moufet gives it the English Name.

Another Bald Gally-Worme, of a yellowish colour, and fewer Feet; being the third sort mention'd by Moufet.

Of the Gally-Worme Mr. Lyster conjectures, That it may yield an acid Spirit, like that of Ants. Phil. Trans. N. 68.

The SILK-WORME. Bombyx. The full History hereof is written by Malpighius; as to the manner of his feeding, the several changes he undergoes while a Worme, and while transformed into an Aurelia, and thence a Butterfly, with the business of Generation afterwards. But principally in the Anatomy of the Parts; as Feet, Mouth, Muscules, Lungs, Heart, Stomach, Medulla Spinalis, &c. in the Worme. And in the Butterfly, the Penis, Parastata and Testicles of the Male; and the Womb and Ovarium of the Female. Particularly, of the Lungs, he saith, That the Silk-Worm hath not only these, or Parts analogous, but that almost every Ring hath two pair, which are branched out to all the other Parts abovesaid: their several Orifices being remarquable, by so many little black Circles which encompass them, on the sides of the Worme. If any of these Orifices be oiled over, so as to exclude the Aer, the Parts to which they belong, presently grow Paralytick; and if all, the Worm will die within the space of a Pater Noster. Of the Medulla Spinalis, he saith to this purpose, That, from the Head to the Tail, there are about thirteen large Nodes therein; which he conceives to be, as it were, so many little Brains; the Worme having no visible Brain distinct from these Nodes.

A very large Aurelia and Slough of a Silk-Worme. Moufet affirmeth, That in the Transmutation of the Worme into a Fly, the Head of the Worme makes the Tail of the Fly; and the Tail of the Worme the Head of the Fly. But Sigr. Malpighius makes no mention hereof; neither is it any way likely to be so.

Two BAGS of the Virginian Silk-Worme. They are of an Ash-colour, and about the bigness of a Pullets Egg. Of exceeding thickness, thrice as thick as the shell of a Hen-Egg. It seems not to be one entire piece of Work, but composed of several Skins one within another, woven by so many Worms, ready for spining, one after another. And accordingly, in each Bag, being opened, I find four Aurelias.

The RED or CRIMSON CATERPILLER. Vinula. So called, because, while living, his Body is dy'd all over with a deep Claret colour. See Moufet hereof. Lib. 2. cap. 2.

The YELLOW-CATERPILLER. Eruca flavescens. Both this and the two former are all smooth or bald. This is also mention'd by Moufet.

The PALMER-WORM. Ambulo. For that he hath no certain home, or diet, but pilgrims up and down every where, feeding upon all sorts of Plants. In respect of his great shag, called also The Bearworme.

EARTH-EGGS. About the bigness of Nutmegs, and somewhat Oval. So called, because made of Earth by some sort of Caterpillar, or other Insect, for their Nests, wherein to breed under ground.

The SQUILL-INSECT. Described by Moufet. L. 2. c. 37. So called from some similitude to the Squill-Fish: chiefly, in having a long Body cover'd with a Crust composed of several Rings or Plates. The Head is broad and squat. He hath a pair of notable sharp Fangs before, both hooked inward like a Bulls Horns.

The WATER-SCORPION. Moufet Cap. 38. figures three sorts; to the third of which, this answers. He describes it not. Nor can I well, being glewed to a Paper with the Belly upward. But it may be easily known by its pointed Tail. He hath four Legs, and two Arms or Claws, betwixt which a very small Head. He's about ¾ of an inch long.

The SHARP-TAIL'D SEA-LOUSE. Pediculus marinus cauda acuta. Moufet Lib. 38. describeth an Insect by the Name of Pediculus marinus. But with a bunched, not a taper'd Tail, nor with long nodous Horns, like this. 'Tis about an inch and ½ long, and ½ inch broad, compos'd of several shelly Plates, like the Asellus or Wood-Louse, with as many Feet on each side.

ANOTHER, with a Tail of four Spikes or Bristles, about ¼ of an inch long, thick as a small Needle, sharp, and spread horizontally.

OSCABIORN. An Insect so called in the Danish-Tongue, the name signifies as much as Ursus Voti, or the Lucky Bear; Because the people commonly believe, That he who for a good while holds a certain Stone or Body contained in it under his Tongue, shall enjoy his Wish. It is usually found adhering to a kind of Asellus or Cod-Fish in the Island-Sea, to which it is very troublesome. This account together with the Insect it self were sent hither by Mr. Olaus Borrichius. Not disagreeing from That which is described in some sort by Wormius, by the same Name: nor from That in Piso, called by the Americans, Acarapitamba. Yet I find not the Figure any where to answer to the Animal; the entire length whereof, is about two inches and ½. The fore part Oval: whence it narrows all the way to the Tail. Where broadest above ¾ of an inch. Its shelly Armor consisteth of about twenty Plates, of a straw colour: The Legs on each side in number answerable. The Eyes are most curiously latticed with cross lines, so as to divide them into an infinite number of Rhombs. He seemeth to have notable sharp Chisell-Teeth, whereby partly he becomes so troublesome to his Bearer. The other parts are lost.

The SEA-HORSE-LEECH. Hirado marinas>. Described by Rondeletius. De Ins. c. 7. He hath a harder Skin, than the Poole-Horseleech: for which cause, he cannot draw up himself so round, but exerts and contracts his Head and Tail only. Ibid.

A WATER-WORME. Lumbricus Aquaticus. Not four inches long: but doubtless shrank up much when it died.

The HAIR-WORME. Vermis Setarius. Given by Mr. Malling. 'Tis little thicker than a Horse-Hair or a Hogs Bristle; Of a light Flesh-colour; and about ¾ of a foot in length. 'Tis commonly believed, but erroniously, that this sort of Insect is nothing but a Horse-Hair animated. By some, that they are bred out of Locusts. See Aldrovandus hereof. But especially the Observations of Mr. Lyster in the Phil. Trans. N. 83. who found them in the Belly of a kind of black and not uncommon Beetle; in some one only, in others two or three together: of all which he hath several Remarques.

Whether there are not a sort of Eggs first laid by some Animal upon the Beetles Breech, which being hatched eat their way into his Belly, may be a Question. And therefore, whether the like Wormes, may not sometimes be also found in the Bellies of Locusts.

A SEA-WORME NEST. 'Tis a piece of TUBULATED WOOD; part of the sheathing of a Ship. Brought in, by Wormius, improperly amongst Woods; as not being naturally Tubulous, but made so by a sort of Sea-Wormes; described by Rondeletius, and out of him, by Aldrovandus and others. The Tubular Holes are numerous, of that width as to admit a Swans-Quill, very round, equally wide, and winding every way too and fro, so as some times to run one into an other. Most curiously lined, or as it were Wanscoted with a white Testaceous Crust, of the same substance and thickness with those called Tubuli Marini.


A Piece of LIGNUM ALœ, with its own GUM growing upon it. Given by the Honorable Mr. Boyle. The taste of the Gum is perfectly like to that of the Wood. The Colour, like that of the purest and most lucid Alœ, called Succotrina: for with the light reflected, it looks almost like Pitch; with the light transmitted, it glisters like a Carbuncle; powder'd, it is of a reddish yellow. This, or some other like Aromatick Gum, the Alœ of the Hebrews: whence the other, from similitude, hath its Name.

The Tree is described by Linschoten; Lib. 1. c. 76. about the bigness of the Olive. This Wood is the Heart of the Tree, the outward part, commonly called the Sap of a Tree, being whitish and soft. 'Tis said by Sir Philiberto Vernatti, Phil. Trans. N. 43. formerly Resident in Java major, to yield a Milk so hurtful, that if any of it lights in the Eyes, it causeth blindness; or scabbiness, if on any other part of the Body. But this, doubtless, is to be understood neither of the Heart, nor the Sap; but only of the Barque: there being no Milk-Vessels in either of the former, that I remember, in any Tree, by me observ'd.

Of this Tree there are two sorts: Linsch. l. 1. c. 76. The best, called Calamba, and grows most in Malacca and Sumatra. Much used in India for the making of Beads and Crucifixes. The wilder, called Palo Daguilla, and grows most in Seylon and Choromandel. With this, they burn the dead Bodies of their Bramenes and other men of account, in token of honor. See hereof also Jac. Bontius. NotÆ in Garsiam.

A piece of Indian-Wood, called GARON. Very oily; in colour, hardness and weight, like to Lignum Alœ. But being held a little to the fire, hath a strong fragrant scent, much like to that of Cloves£ and seems therefore, as well as by its Name, to be the Wood of the Clove-Tree. The Clove-Tree is described by Linschoten. Lib. 1. c. 65. Shaped like a Bay-Tree. It grows in Amboyna and the Neighbour Islands. The best sort in Makian and Tidor.

The BARQUE of the Tree LAWANG. Sent from Java major, where it is so called. Being well chewed, it hath the self same Tast with that of Sassafras-Barque, so that, probably, the Tree is a Species of Sassafras.

Part of an Arm of the STINKING-TREE; as it may well be called: for it naturally smells like the strongest humane excrements, especially, as upon the emptying of a House of Office. It grows in the Isles of Solon and Timor, from whence Sir Philiberto Vernatti procur'd it and sent it to this Musæum. Phil. Trans. N. 43. Where, though it hath now been preserved many years, yet seems to give as full and quick a scent as ever. Yet in burning, it yields no smell; as do Lignum Alœ and some other Woods. 'Tis ponderous, hard, and of the colour of English-Oak; and as that, hath large Aer-Vessels; yet but few. I should have conjectur'd, that this Wood belong'd to the Tree called Ahovaj, which hath a stinking smell, but that this is said to be the more odious when it burns.

A piece of SERPENT-WOOD. Lignum Colubrinum. There are divers sorts of Woods so call'd. This here is different from all those Species described by Garsias, and out of him by J. Bauhinus. Yet comes nearest to the Second. 'Tis above three inches in Diametre, the Barque thin, the Wood solid, more than that of Pear-Tree. Of a very bitter Tast; especially when reduced to powder.

A piece of an other sort of SERPENT-WOOD. Within of a pale yellowish colour. Full of great Aer-Vessels. And also very bitter, as the former.

They grow in divers places of the East-Indies, as in Seylon, &c. And have their Name from one of their especial Uses, being an excellent Remedy Linsch. l. 1. c. 75. against the Bitings of Vipers and other venemous Serpents. They are also, saith Bontius, given in India against Intermittent Fevers. From whence, and their bitter Tast, one may guess, That they are either of kin to the Tree whereof the Pulvis Patrum; or might give occasion, to some who have been in both the Indies, to find out the Virtue of it.

The WOOD of a Tree of Angola, there call'd Tacusa. 'Tis very solid and ponderous, like that of the Lignum vitÆ, and with a blackish grain.

Another sort of Angola-Wood by the Inhabitants called CHICENGO. 'Tis somewhat hard and ponderous, and of the colour of Spanish-Oak. Being power'd, it hath a bitterish Tast. Both these Woods, may be of the like use with the former.

Part of the Trunk of a young MOUNTAIN CABBIGE. Sent from Jamaica by Mr. Sam. Moody to the Author. Now it is dry and shrunk in, not above a foot and ¼ in compass. Consisteth of a great number of very thin fibrous Rings or Tubes one within another, now, by the shrinking up of the pithy parts, distinct.

'Tis said by Mr. Stubs Phil. Trans. N 36. who lived for some time in Jamaica, where this Tree grows, That it is one sort of Palm-Tree. It grows also in Barbados: where, as it was confidently reported to the same Person, there was one about three hundred feet high, i. e. about thirty yards higher than the great CorinthianDorick Pillar in this City called The Monument. The young tender Sprouts of one year, are eaten both boyl'd and raw, and are both ways excellent good meat.

The BARQUE of a kind of Pine-Tree in Nova Scotia. Hereupon grow up and down many Knots, about the bigness of a Horse-Bean, hollow, and filled with a liquid, clear, and fragrant Turpentine; which, as it drops, the Natives gather and use as the Balsom of Peru.

A natural KNOT of Wood of an Oval Figure, and as big almost as a Turkeys-Egg: the fibers whereof are prettily waved by the transverse eruption of several small sprigs.

A supposed naturally entire RING of Wood, almost in the shape of a Womans Head-Roll, but not so big as now worn, about four or five inches Diametre. Wormius also mentions one in his Musæum like this, but somewhat bigger.

PITT-WOOD. Lignum fossile. Colour'd like that of the Cedar, but a little brighter. Smooth, light and soft; yet hath no conspicuous pores. Hath neither tast nor smell. Whence this was dig'd, is uncertain. But in Lancashire, and some other places here in England, the people find the Bodies of large Trees at a good depth underground, and which the poorer sort burn, being splinter'd, to save Candles.

A BRANCH of a Tree, by some called The COCKSPUR Tree. Perhaps more properly, Oxyacantha Americana, or the AMERICAN HAWTHORNE, Or rather, Prunus Sylv. Americana; the AMER: BLACK THORN. I meet with it no where described or mention'd. This Branch is an Eln long, without any appendent Branches. An inch Diametre. Of the solidity of Hawthorne-Wood. Encompassed with great Thornes alternately placed on every side, so ascending, as every two Thornes on the same side are about four inches and ½ one above another. Most of them about 1 ½ inch, some an inch and ¾ long, of the thickness of a large Cocks-Spur, and very strait. Not meerly Cortical, as the Thornes of Raspis, Gooseberry, and the like; but Lignous or Woody, as those of Hawthorne.

A BRANCH with a great WEN. It seems to be of the Hawthorne. The Branch, not above an inch in compass; the Knot or Wen, almost ¾ of a foot. 'Tis tuberous and spiked. So that it seems to be made by the casual eruption of several sturdy Buds together, which having begun the draught of the Sap, it still continu'd to swell the Knot, after they were faln off. And it is probable, that Animal-Wens are then produced, when two or three sprigs of a Nerve bigger or more than ordinary, shooting into a part of a Muscle, do thereby more invigorate it, and so make it capable of a more copious nourishment.

Another tuberous Knot like the former. There is one like these in the Musæum Cospianum. Lib. 2. c. 26.

A little Oaken BRANCH with a great WEN growing round about it. 'Tis above a foot in compass, as big as a midling Bowl.

A WARTED-BRANCH. 'Tis of Oak, about as thick as ones middle Finger; the Warts the bigness of Hasle-Nuts.

Another BRANCH with four or five great Warts or Wens upon the sides. Wormius, who hath one like to these, not of Oak, but Hasle, calls it Lignum Strumosum.

An Oaken BRANCH permitted to grow for some time, after the Barque had been cut round about to the Wood. By which means, that part of the Branch above the Cutis, is grown much thicker, than that underneath; the one being little, more than an inch about, the other almost two inches. Neither is it only the swelth of the Barque, but the Wood it self is augmented. An Experiment lately made by Sigr. Malpighi; and may seem an argument for the Circulation of the Sap. In what manner the Circulation of the Sap is performed, especially in the Root, the Author of this Catalogue hath some years since explicated. In his first Book Of Plants, Chap. 2.

A piece of a BRANCH naturally shaped like a Penis with a pair of Testicles annexed. Wormius hath one like to this, which he calls Lignum Inverecundum.

A WINGED-BRANCH of Ash. About two feet and ½ long, and subdivided into two lesser. Where the division begins, the Barque is spread out from the Wood for the breadth of above an inch, and of the thickness of Sheeps Leather, and so joyns both the Branches together for the length of about a foot. From thence they are perfectly divided, and so wind two several ways, almost like a Rams Horn; the Barque being spread out all along to their ends: yet only so as to make them edged. The two ends, with Buds like little Claws on the edges, look like a Seals Feet. Wormius hath some Branches, not of Ash, but Firr, which seem in some part answerable to this now described.

A HASLE BRANCH seeming as if it were naturally TWISTED. But made so by a Woodbind or some other Convolvulous Plant. In the Mus. Cospianum is such another of Hawthorne.

A WILLOW BRANCH, winding to and agen, like a Snake, with six or seven close flexures. A Figure not uneasily given to a young Twig.

A Pipe made of a hollow BRANCH, and twisted into a loose Knot, in which one part of the Branch is incorporated with the other.

Two large BRANCHES incorporated in the form of a St. Andrews Cross.

Two lesser, growing together in the same form.

Two BRANCHES growing together in the form of our Saviours Cross.

'Tis probable, That these were bound together (as may be any other) when they were young, and with the Barque pared off, where contiguous; and so, by a kind of ingrafting, became coalescent.

A PALMETO LEAF. PalmÆ humilis folium. 'Tis a yard and ½ long. Hath about a hundred and forty Plates, seventy on each side the middle Rib, whereupon they are all folded. Which Rib also distributes it self into Plates towards the top of the Leaf. The Plates are of several bredths from ½ an inch to an inch and ¼. Most of them are now broken or torn asunder. But originally they make all one entire piece, rudely imitated by a folding Fan.

These are the Plates, which both the Arabians and Indians make use of to write upon, by Impression with a Style.

Part of another sort of PALM-LEAF. 'Tis ¾ of a yard long, and at one end seven inches broad: but rolled up, and with the ends of the Fibers unwoven, so as to look like a Broom. Of a wonderful substance, in some places ⅓ of an inch thick, and very dense and stubborn work. Consisteth of great and lesser flat Fibers; and small round ones; somewhat alike as in the Palm-Net, whereof presently.

The Leaves of some Palms, are used, where they grow, for making of Garments, and thatching of Houses. The Country-People Tap the Wine-Palm about two feet above the ground, and of the Liquor which runs from it, and which they catch in Earthen Vessels, they make an excellent Wine called Mignol, like the White Champane. Thevetus. The fruitful kinds flourish chiefly in Ægypt and Syria: as also in the hotest parts of the Indies; and in the Canary-Islands: amongst which, there is one called, The Palm-Island. J. Bauh. The barren kind in Italy and Sicily.

The PALM-NET or BAG. The Tree which produceth it called, Palma Saccifera Whether Bauhinus giveth this under the Name of Folium Nucis IndicÆ, is uncertain. If so, both the Figure and Description are very imperfect.

Some part of it hath been cut off both at the bottom and on the side; yet is it above two feet long; at the bottom a foot broad; from whence it tapers to the top. Originally entire, like a taper'd Bag, commonly call'd Hippocrates's Sleive: but by some inconsiderate hand cut open on one side.

'Tis naturally sewed or woven together with admirable Art. And yet not with more, than that which may be observed in every Plant; though not so visibly, and with variation. There is a five-fold Series of Fibers herein. The greatest of all swell out above the rest, and like so many Ribs, are obliquely produced on both hands, so as to encompass the Sack. Along each of these woody Ribs, on the inside the Sack, runs a small whitish Line; which seems to be a Thred or Fiber of Aer-Vessels growing thereto. Betwixt the said large Ribs, there are others, as it were lesser, parallally interjected. On the inside a third Series also obliquely produced, and transversly to the former. The fourth and fifth, consist of the smallest Fibers, not only transversly produced, but also alternately from the outside to the inside of the Sack, & vice versâ. By which all the rest are most elaborately woven into one entire and strong piece of Work. A Cover which Nature hath provided, to protect the delicate Fruit of this Tree, from all the extremities of the weather, and the ravine of Birds.

Another PALM-SACK or Net, almost a yard long, and made of different Work. See one like to this in J. Bauhinus. L. 3. c. 176.

About the Year 1599. the Hollanders, saith Clusius, returning from America, in an Island there, by them called Coronopes, found whole Woods of this Tree: and, probably, then first discover'd the same to Europe.

A LEAF of the ROCOUR-TREE. 'Tis near ½ a foot long, four inches broad, the lower end Oval or Elliptick, pointed like a Spear. From the middle Fiber divers other collateral ones (all prominent underneath) are produced alternately, and at acute Angles. 'Tis smooth on both sides, and of an obscure redish colour. Of this Tree (which I think grows in New England) is made a sort of red powder, used for a dry colour; but being wet, at least, mixed with Oil, makes but a dull one.

CHAP. II. Of FRVITS; particularly such as are of the Apple, Pear, and Plum-Kinds.

Part of a PRICKLE-APPLE. The Tree is in some sort described by Ligon. Hist. of Barb. p. 70. The Fruit is remarkable for the several Tussucks or Bunches of Thorns wherewith it is armed all round about: each Bunch consisting of about six or eight Thorns; some of which stand erected, the rest couched down a little and crooked outward; of several lengths, from one inch, to above two; altogether, if pull'd off, somewhat resembling a Jack a long-legs.

A MALE-ORANGE of Chio, commonly called Sio.

A FEMALE-ORANGE of the same Island.

A CROWNED-ORANGE: that is, having an Orbicular Piece on the top.

A FRUIT like a little ORANGE: perhaps, Aracynappil Paludani; described by J. Bauhinus. Tom. 1. This here is crowned with a circle of ½ an inch Diametre.

A sort of BASTARD-QUINCE. Cotoneaster Gesneri. J. Bauh. Tom. 1.

An HERMAPHRODITE-LIMON, exhibiting the pudenda of both Sexes.

A FRUIT of BRASILE, probably described in Bauhinus by the Name of Bras. Tom. 1. Of the bigness and shape of a little Limon. 'Tis now yellowish, when fresh, likely, of a golden colour. Filled with an innumerable company of Seeds, which Bauh. describes not. They are almost as hard as Stones, ¼ of an inch broad, and flat, almost as the seeds of Lillies.

An INDIAN FRUIT, having its surface (now) very uneven, with Furrows and Knobs all round about. The Furrows, ten. Both the Description and Picture hereof taken by Bauhinus Lib. 3. cap. 204. from Platerus; But ill placed.

A Round Indian FRUIT with one end pointed, and a (now) granulated surface. Described as I take it by Bauh. Lib. 3. cap. 50. With the Name of Fructus Peregrinus orbicularis cuspidatus.

The POLVILLERIAN-PEAR: because either it grows most about Polvilla in Alsatia, or was first taken notice of there. A very small fruit, (now) no bigger than a Nutmeg. See Bauhinus.

The MOUNTAIN SERVIS. Sorbus Alpina. Chiefly upon the Alps.

MYROBALANUS CHEBULA. The largest and longest of all the five Kinds known in Shops. Next to which is the Citrine, also long. Then the Belliricks and Emblicks, but both these are round. The Indian or Black, the smallest, and long. The Stone of the Emblick Myrobalan, of a peculiar angular Figure. This, and the five Myrobalans are all figur'd in Besler.

The GREAT CITRINE MYROBALAN. A rare kind. In shape like that which Bauhinus Lib. 2. c. 19. gives by the Name of Myrobal. Rauwolfij; but is much bigger, near two inches long, and above an inch and ½ over.

Myrobalans grow most of them in Cambaia, Goa, and Malabar; Chebs, in Bisnagar and Bengala; Emblicks and Belliricks, in Java; the Great Citrine, in Palestine.

These Fruits, say Fallopius and others who have purposely made enquiry, are no where mention'd by any of the ancient Greeks; but by the Arabian Physitians first of all. In the Countries where they grow, and may be had fresh, they are doubtless of good Medicinal use to the Natives. But as they come over hither, they are most of them meer rubbish, whereof, with the plenty of far better Medicines, we have no need. The Chebs, Belliricks and Indians, are Preserved with Sugar in India, and sent thence into all the Neighbouring Countries. The Emblicks are there used, as Sumach, &c. for the tanning of Leather.

SEBESTEN, i. e. Fructus MixÆ. It grows naturally in Ægpyt and Syria: And is also nourished in Italian Gardens.

The JUJUBE of Cappadocia. Bacca Ziziphi CappadocicÆ. In shape like the wild, but lesser, and somewhat redish. Of a dryish substance, almost like that of Hawthorne-Berries. The Tree well described by Dalechampius. It grows, to the bigness of the Willow; especially in Syria and Ethyopia.

A Black round FRUIT of the shape and bigness of the largest Red Cherries. Perhaps, Prunula Insana.

A STONED-FRUIT in shape and bigness like a Quince. The Flesh or Pulp being now dry'd and shrunk, very thin. It comprehends three very great Oval Stones, thin, and brittle: in each of which is also included a Kernel of answerable bigness.

An ORBICULAR STONE of an Indian-Plum. Os Pruni Indici fere globulare. Of the bigness of a midling Wallnut, of a dark bay colour, knobed all round about, extraordinary hard, at the base and top a very little prominent.

Another GLOBULAR STONE. In shape and bigness, like the former; excepting, that the base is a very little broader. Of a citrine or straw-colour. Hard as a Wallnut. Very uneven and ruged all round about, with small furrows and holes intermixed.

A third GLOBULAR STONE. Yet so, as to be divided into five Valves or Sides, all ruged as in the first, equally hard, and of the same bay colour. But not bigger than a midling Cherry.

An OVAL PLUM-SONE. As big as a Pigeons Egg, and of the same shape. Somewhat rough, of an Iron colour, and hard substance, but not very thick.

Another OVAL STONE. As big as a Hens Egg: and almost of the same figure; saving that the Base is a little blunter, the Cone or top a little smaller. Of a bay colour. Wonderful hard. Divided into five sides, ruged and uneven, with a great many holes and deep furrows. The Sides distinguished by as many strait Fissures, beginning a little above the Base, and thence prolonged towards the Cone. Within each of which also grows a stony, and as it were toothed piece above an inch long. This, the Third, and the First, are all of kin.

A LONG OVAL STONE. In length two inches, and one inch over; shaped like that of an Olive. Cover'd with a kind of straw-colour'd Membrane. Under which, 'tis all over unequal with furrows. Of a dark ash-colour without; inwardly, whitish. Exceeding hard.

Another LONG OVAL STONE. Naked or without any Membrane. Much bigger than the former, being two inches and ½ long, and an inch and ¼ over. The furrows also of this are more, and deeper.

A THIRD of kin to the former, but far less, not much bigger than the common Cornelian-Cherry. These three last are all of kin. Not to be suppos'd the elder and young stones of the same fruit: for that they are all equally hard, and therefore at their full growth.

A PLUM-STONE almost like a Wallnut. An inch and ¼ long, half an inch broad at the Base, which is a little hollowed in; in the middle an inch and ½, the top a little sharp and prominent. It hath three sides, all uneven with many furrows, and somewhat deep. Of a straw-colour, and very hard.

A STONE figur'd into a SPHÆRICAL TRIANGLE. Near two inches long. Hard, rough, and of a Wallnut colour. The three sides unequal: one above an inch broad, the others narrower; all united at acute angles, and a little prominent. This Stone seems to belong to the fruit which, together with the Tree, is described in Læt Descr. Ind. Occ. l. 17. c. 4. by the Name of Totocke.

ANOTHER, of like shape, substance and colour with the former. But much less; and ratably, broader; sc. about an inch long, and as broad. Consisteth of three sides; whereof one the greatest, and convex; the other two almost plain or level.

A STONE ANOMALOUSLY figur'd. Above two inches long. One way, almost two, over. Another, an inch and ½. Of a dark citrine, and somewhat rough, as it were besprinkled all over with sand. On one side, flattish, but unevenly. On the other swelling up into a double Lip, very rough; and having a Fissure running by the length.

Another ODDLY figur'd Stone. Above two inches long; In the middle, two over. At the Base, in a manner, an inch and ½ square, ½ an inch over at the top. Almost smooth, and of the colour of spruce Oker.

A THIRD. Three quarters of an inch long; one way, ⅓ of an inch over; another, ¼. One side, Concave; the other, Convex. The Margin pinched out into a sharpe edge. Of a dark bay.

A Great MAMMEE-STONE. Two inches and ½ long, an inch and ½ broad in the middle, flat, and somewhat sharp at both ends. Bauhinus gives the Description and Figure hereof both out of Clusius, by whom it is called Avellana Indica. 'Tis also curiously figur'd in Calceolarius: but with the same Name. And with the same, described by Matthiolus. All of them mistaking it for a Nut. Whereas in truth it is the Stone of a kind of Fruit like a great Peach, and bigger; in which there are commonly two of these Stones.

A little MAMMEE-STONE. Described by Clusius with the mistaken Name of Avellana Indica minor. And, out of him, by Bauh. Tom. 1.

A ROUND MAMMEE-STONE. Of the same colour with the former; but that which is here the far greater part, of an obscure brown, and somewhat uneven with a few crooked furrows. The remainder and here the far less portion, of a shining bay. 'Tis of the bigness of a good large Walnut.

The Fruit grows in Jamaica, Barbados, and other parts of the West-Indies. Of the flesh or pulp whereof, they there make very good Conserves.

A NETTED-STONE. Described by Bauhinus Tom. 1. p. 328. with the Title of Fructus reticulato corio: mistaking it for a Nut. The greater part of the Stone is of the same substance with that of other Plum-stones. But over this is spread a netted Work of larg woody Fibers. It was brought from Guiney; but it grows also in Virginia.

Another WOODY STONE. A very great one; but ratably short, sc. two inches long, and two and ½ over, like a midling Pippin. Very little stony, but all its outer part, at least, perfectly woody, or made up of a multitude of woody Fibers. The largest whereof are prolonged from the Base to the Cone, associated all along by lesser ones running betwixt them.

A Third WOODY STONE. Almost of the shape and bigness of a Pigeons-Egg. But a little compressed. 'Tis cover'd all over with Liguous Fibers, so extream closely woven together, that it looks as if it were all Wood. Some of the greater run directly from the Stalk to the Flower or top. So great a difference there is betwixt these Indians Stones, and those of our EuropÆan Fruits, which have very few, and most not above two or three on the outside.

The STONE of the Brasilian Fruit called ANDA. Wormius hath given hereof but a bad Figure: but describes it better. Yet with a mistaken Title, as if it were the entire Fruit. 'Tis a very hard and great Stone, as big as a midling Bell-Peare, but a little compressed: broad at the Base, and sharp pointed, with some resemblance to a Heart. The sides of the Shell of a wonderful thickness. Penetrated to the Kernel with three great holes.

Amongst many observable Instances of the Contrivances Nature makes for the growth of the Seed, in whatsœver Cover See the Authors Book Of Plants, c. 1. & ult. it be included; this Stone is one. For being so extraordinary hard and thick; it were impossible the Kernel within it (which is also great) should be supplyed with Aer and Sap sufficient for its growth; were not those three great holes made on purpose, for a plentiful admission of both.

And as great an instance it is of the seemingly wonderful force of the Radicle, or that small and tender part of the Kernel, which becomes the Root of the Plant; by which, chiefly, the sides of the Stone, those thick Walls, are made to cleave asunder to make way for its descent into the ground. But Time seems to do the same thing here, as Celerity doth in the Statera; where a small Weight set at a greater distance from the Centre of gravity, will ballance a bigger that's nearer: because, what it wants in bigness, is made up by the Celerity of its motion. So the Radicle of a Kernel, having though a slow motion, yet some, and that continu'd, it is able in time to master a sturdy Body which hath no contrary motion at all, but is at rest.

One or two of the Kernels, which are as big as Damascene-Plums, both Purge, and sometimes Vomit. If taken raw, they work roughly: but boyl'd and preserv'd with Sugar, may be given to Children. Piso.

Another POYNTED-STONE. A very great one: three inches and ½ long, an inch and ½ over, one way; another near two inches. On one side, very Convex; on the opposite, almost flat. The Base Oval; the top, presently sharpen'd into a point. Of a russet colour, very hard, ruged, and having broad Furrows, most of them running by the length; out of some of which arise several woody Fibers.

Another like STONE. 'Tis as big as a Pullets Egg. On one side more Convex, as the former. Of a russet colour, hard and granulated. All over uneven with many, though not very deep Furrows, divers whereof are produced from the Base almost to the Cone.

The said Furrows, both in this and all the other Stones, are to be understood the Seats of woody Fibers, wherewith they were originally fill'd up.

A TWIN Almond-Stone.

GUM LACK, naturally adhering to a small Branch of its own Tree, called Ber Indica; a sort of Plum-Tree growing in Pegu, Martaban, and some other parts, sometimes as big as a Wallnut-Tree. Garsias ab Horto. 'Tis generally agreed, That this Gum is made, in Summer-time, by Winged-Ants, out of the Tree it self. Garsias adds, as Wax is by Bees. How far the Comparison holds, requires examination. In the mean time, 'tis most likely, That these Ants finding the Sap or Gum of this Tree agreeable for their food or other use, and nibling the Barque to come at it, it thereupon issues at the Wounds they make.

The Indians make several sorts of artificial Lacks, by mixing this Gum with other Materials of all colours. With these, all the turn'd Wood-Works in India and China are wrought and burnished. Trochisci DialaccÆ, a Medicine formerly much commended, but now obsolete.

CHAP. III. Of CALIBASHES, and some other like Fruits.

The Great OVAL CALIBASH. In length, almost ¼ of a foot; above a foot and ½ in compass. Its Figure answerable to that of a Hens-Egg, one end, sc. the top, being somewhat smaller than the other. 'Tis now of a kind of tawny colour, or like that of an old Pomgranate-Pill. About as hard as a Wallnut, and the shell somewhat thicker. Originally fill'd (as may be seen by some of them) with a Pulp and a great number of Seeds, as is a Melon or Gourd. Yet a Calibash is the Fruit of a Tree. In some sort described by Ligon. Hist. of Barb. p. 72.

The Middle OVAL CALIBASH. Of the same tawny colour, as the former; as also a little slenderer at the top, than the bottom. In length four inches and ¼, and 3 and ½ broad; of the bigness of a China Limon. It hath a little round knob at the top, as big as a Great Pins Head. The Seed, almost of the colour, size and shape of an Apple-Kernel; saving that the top is shaped like the common Picture of a Heart.

The little OVAL CALIBASH. Of a like colour with the former, but stained with some black Spots. Three inches and ½ long; two and ¼ over; somewhat bigger than a Turkeys-Egg. Of a perfect Oval, that is, with both the ends cut by the same Ellipsis, yet both a very little prominent. And the top apiculated, as in the former. It seems a kin to the Cucurbita Indica minor Taberna Montani; and that the said Author mistook a Calibash, for a Gourd.

An ORBICULAR CALIBASH. Of the shape and bigness of a Jack-Bowl.

The halfs of an ORBICULAR CALIBASH, four inches and ½ Diametre.

The Middle See the Great sort misplaced in Sect. 3. Ch. 2. FLAGON CALIBASH. Figur'd after a manner by Bauhinus with the mistaken Title of Cucurbita Indica Lagenaria: it being not a Gourd, but the Fruit of a Tree, as is abovesaid. It hath a Head and Belly divided by a Neck, somewhat resembling an old fashion'd Flagon. The Belly, about five inches and ½ long, and four and ½ in Diametre. The Neck, two inches long, and about an inch over. The Head, about as long, and above an inch and ½ over. Originally, of a straw colour: but by the Indians painted, after a rude manner, with a dull red. The Shell very hard, and about a ¼ of an inch thick.

The little FLAGON or BOTTLE CALIBASH. About four inches and ½ long. The Belly, three inches over. The Head, an inch and ¾. The Neck, a little above an inch. The Shell, at the top of the Head above ¼ of an inch thick.

The PEAR-CALIBASH. In length about five inches, the Neck somewhat long and slender, the Belly two inches and ½ over: so as both in figure and bigness to resemble the Pear figur'd by Bauhinus with the Name of Pirum Strangulatorium. On one side, colour'd with a light, on the other with a deeper yellow.


A TRIANGULAR CALIBASH. 'Tis smooth, and black, shaped like the Egyptian Cucumer, called Chate. About five inches long. The Neck triangular; whether naturally, uncertain. From thence belly'd like a Pear; two inches and ½ over. The shell very hard, and as thick as of the Flagon-Calibash.

These Fruits grow in Guiney; as also in Virginia, Barbados, and other parts of the West-Indies. Where they are used, either whole or cut through the middle, for Cups, Dishes, Basons, Buckets, Flagons, &c. according to their bigness. The Natives sometimes line their insides with some kind of Rosin (as we rosin Wooden-Cans) the better to preserve the Liquor they put into them; which, if spirituous, would otherwise either drench through, or loose of its strength. Whether the Rosin they use, be such as gives no ill tast to the Liquor may be a query.

The BAOBAB. Abavi Clusij. Of affinity with the Fruit by Scaliger called Guanabanus. Wormius, I think mistakingly, makes it the same. 'Tis well described and figur'd by Bauhinus. Lib. 1. c. 42. This is of the bigness of a midling Pomecitrine, and of answerable shape. The shell of a good thickness, but not very hard; of a kind of dusky green, and faced almost all over with a velvet Down. When fresh gather'd, 'tis fill'd with a soft Pulp, and as it should seem, much more juycy, than in the Calibash. Within the Pulp is contained a great number of Seeds, or little Stones, of the bigness, and with somewhat of the shape, of Indian Wheat. Besler hath a good Figure hereof, representing it cut open, to shew the Seeds.

The GREAT LONG BAOBAB. I meet with no Description answering to this Species. 'Tis in length ten inches, a foot in compass, being ratably much slenderer than the former, and almost Cylindrical. The upper end, made a little slenderer; the top of all, flat, and an inch and ¼ over.

The GREAT BELLY'D-BAOBAB. Much bigger than the former, and no where describ'd, that I find. In length, an inch above a foot; and above a foot and ½ in compass. Towards the upper end, belly'd. But the end it self pointed almost like a Limon.

The Baobab grows in the Island Zeilan, and in Ægypt. The Juyce hereof is of an acidulated Tast, very grateful: of which the Ægyptians make much use, especially when they travail, to quench their thirst.

The MACOCQUER. A Virginian Fruit, described by Tom. 1. 254. Bauhinus. It seems to be of affinity with the Calibash, or perhaps a small Species thereof. It is of an Orbicular-Figure, and of the bigness of a little Hand-Ball. Though Clusius affirmeth Exot. l. 11. c. 11. it to be sometimes four inches in Diametre. The shell is thin and brittle. Originally fill'd with a soft and juycy Pulp, in which a great many Seeds of the colour and bigness of an Apple-Kernel.

The Natives, having empty'd the shells of the Pulp and Seeds, and in the room hereof, put in some little Stones, use them as Rattles, wherewith to rejoyce upon any special Occasion.

The GENIPAT, Junipap, or Junipappeeywa. A Brasilian Fruit so called. Described by Bauhinus. Tom. 1. 253. And probably by Piso with the Name of Janipaba. This also is a kind of little Calibash. Of the bigness of a Wallnut, and almost Oval; containing a Pulp and Seeds much like those of the Macocquer. It grows upon a tall Tree.

The Natives use this Fruit against DiarrhÆ'as [sic]. As also to paint themselves. They chew the Pulp, and then squeezing the Juyce out, rub it upon their Body: as it drys, it turns to a blackish blew. This they do, when they visit a Friend, or upon any solemn Occasion, would be fine.

Another FRUIT, of kin to the former, with a pointed top. It was brought from Guiney.

A FRUIT resembling that described by Bauhinus Tome 1. under the Name of Charameis AcostÆ. Yet this here, by the reduction of the point or seat of the Flower to the Base, a little flatish.

CHAP. IV. Of NUTS, and Divers other like Fruits.

The JACAPUCAIO-NUT. A West-Indian Fruit. Both this and the Tree tolerably well described by G. Piso. Hist. N. Ind. It is about the bigness of a Boys Head of ten or twelve years old, somewhat oblong, with a circular Ridge toward the top. Now all over, without and within of a dark or blackish colour. The sides extraordinary warm, being an inch thick. Within, divided into four Quarters. In each of which (saith Piso) are contained about thirty Kernels. But here they are wanting. Described also in part, and figur'd, in Calceolarius's Musæum, out of Jos. Acosta Histor. Ind. lib. 4. by the Name of Amygdala dell' Anidi.

Of these Kernels, much bigger than Almonds, the Natives make both Medicines, and pleasant Meats. Sometimes the Fruit of one Tree, hath served to Victual a whole Camp. Those that fall are, with leave, greedily devoured by the Cattel. Of the Timber of the Tree, are made the Rowls of Sugar-Mills; as being tougher, or otherwise fitter for that purpose, than other Woods.

Another of the same NUTS of equal bigness.

The COVER of the said NUT. A like colour'd, and in shape almost like a Mushroon. When the Nut is ripe (which always hangs down) this Cover, with the least shake, falls out, and the Kernels after it, into the Laps of the Natives.

One half of the MALDIVE-NUT; called Coccus de Maladiva. Tavarcare, in the Language of the Island. Described by Chioccus Musæum Calceolar. out of Clusius and Garzias ab Horto; and well figur'd. Piso MautissÆ AromaticÆ, c. 19. also hath the Description and Figure, together with a prolix Discourse hereof. They are said to be no where found, except upon the Sea-shore. Nor is the Tree it self to be seen any where in the Island. The entire Nut, somewhat like a double Box, or a pair of Panniers. This half, about a foot long, and near ½ a foot broad; a kind of half Oval; yet flat on that side, where the two halfs are conjoyn'd. The shell about ⅕th of an inch thick, and as hard as that of a Coco-Nut. As black as a Coal. This is empty; but originally they contain a certain white Pulp, of no great Tast.

Of this Pulp both the People and Princes of Malabar have a high opinion, as if of great Virtue against most Diseases; especially in case of Poyson, or Epileptick and other like Affections. So that sometimes they value them at about five and twenty pounds a Nut. 'Tis also highly commended for the same purposes, by Piso, both from the experience of others, and his own. They sometimes make Drinking-Cups of the Shells, and tip them with Silver or Gold-Plate. 'Tis Death for any to be known to take up any of them; because those things that are cast upon the shore, are the Kings.

The COCO-NUT. The Fruit of a very tall Tree, both in the East and West-Indies, growing only upon the top of it. Mention'd by many Writers of Natural History, but not by any one distinctly describ'd. As by one sent me fresh by Mr. Sam. Moody from Jamaica, I had the opportunity to observe. Here are three of them entire. The bigest whereof is about a foot in length, and one and ¾ in compass. With three sides, one whereof more flat; belly'd in the middle, and somewhat Conick at both ends; so that it is a kind of SphÆrical Triangle. The Husk or outmost part of the Nut on the sides, about an inch thick; at the Corners, an inch and ½; almost wholly consisting of tough woody Fibers; so that being cut transversly, it looks like a stiff Scrubbing-Brush. Next within this Fibrous Part, lies the Shell, brown, hard, and brittle, like a Plum-Stone; the ⅕ of an inch in thickness; about three inches Diametre, and of an Oval Figure, not much unlike that of an Ostriches, or sometimes a Cassowarys-Egg. Yet so, as always to be Trivalvous, i. e. composed of three Sides or Plates joyned together by the length of the Shell; one Side being commonly much bigger than either of the other two. At the Base of the said Shell, are always likewise three conspicuous Holes, by which originally are admitted a considerable number of Fibers into the Concave of the Shell. Next within the Shell is a thin, dry and Membranous Coat, branched or veined all round about with a great number of Fibers, chiefly for the conveyance of Sap. Within this Veiny-Coat, lie's a soft, white, thick and Oval Body, commonly; but falsely, supposed to be the Kernel: it being only the Cover next or immediate thereunto. In thickness about ½ an inch, and of a sweet and pleasant tast. This Body, while the Nut is yet unripe, is filled full with a very limpid and sweetish Liquor; which, in the Nut I had sent me, was in all about ½ a pint: all conveyed from the said fibrous Coat, and filtred through this thick soft Boby. Out of this Liquor, the true Kernel is in time produced: the Liquor diminishing, as the Kernel increases, in the same manner, as in an Egg, the White wasts, as the Chicken grows. Or as, indeed, in the Seeds of all Plants whatsoever, See the Authors first Book Of Plants, Cap. ult. which are not meerly Metaphorically, but really so many Eggs (like those of many Animals) without a Yelk.

Letting this Liquor stand in a Bottle, corked up, for some months; although at first as clear as Rock-water, yet was it not only grown very fetid, but being after left open for some time, did let fall a Sediment above ½ an inch thick. Arguments of its being impregnated with a sufficient store of seminal Principles.

And as no Animal Egg is vital without the Male: so neither is this Liquor, without the above-said Fibers; which communicate their prolifick Vertue to the same. Amongst which Fibers, being many Aer-Vessels, they also serve for the hardening of the Shell. As in like manner do all those that compose the outward brushy part of the Nut. For were the Shell not only fill'd with so great a quantity of Liquor; but also, as in many Fruits, surrounded with a juycy Pulp; betwixt both, it would remain a soft Parenchyma (as all vegetable Stones at first are) and never, or not soon enough, harden into a shell.

For the more easie and convenient eruption of the Radicle, the Shell is not one entire piece, but divided into three (as are most Seed-Covers into two or more) distinct Plates; which gradually cleave asunder, to give way to the descent of the said Radicle into the ground.

Two more LONG COCO-NUTS, somewhat less than that now describ'd.

A THIRD, about as long, but much slenderer. Of the rounder kind, there is a good Figure in Besler; as also of the Shell.

A LONG OVAL COCO-SHELL. About ½ a foot in length, and three inches and ½ over. One of the three Holes at the bottom, cut wider by some Body, who had a mind to cheat the Spectator by imitating a mouth. Almost in shape and bigness like a Cassowarys-Egg.

Another Shell of the same shape.


An ORBICULAR COCO-SHELL; four inches and ¼ long, and as much in Diametre.

Another Great ORBICULAR one. 'Tis a foot and ¾ in compass. A Coco-Nut of a foot and ¾ compass, hath a Shell in compass about nine inches. The Nut therefore to which this Shell belong'd, was in compass above three quarters of a yard.

The COCO is one of the most useful Trees in the World. Of the Husk or outmost fibrous Cover of the Nut, all manner of Ropes and Cables are made throughout India. Of the Shells, the Indians make Ladles, Wine-Bottles, and many sorts of Vessels. The inmost Cover next the Kernel, while it contains only Liquor, they eat with salt, as a very pleasant meat. The said Liquor, is commonly used, as a clear sweet and cool Drink. Sometimes they cut away the Blossom of the young Nut, and binding a convenient Vessel to the place, thereby obtain a sweet and pleasant Liquor, which they call Sura. This standing an hour in the Sun, becomes good Vinegar, used throughout India. The same Distill'd (I suppose after fermentation) yieldeth a pretty strong Brandy, called Fulo, and is the first running. The second, is called Uraca, the only Wine of India. Of the same Sura, being boil'd, and set in the Sun, they also make a sort of brown Sugar, which they call Jagra. From the Kernel it self, when fresh, and well stamped, they press out a Milk, which they always mix and eat with their Rice-Meats. Of the Kernel dry'd (called Copra) and stamped, they make Oil, both to eat, and to burn. Of the Leaves of the Tree (called Olas) they make the Sails of their Ships: as also Covers for their Houses and Tents; and Summer-Hats. Of the Wood, they make Ships without Nails; sewing the several parts together with the Cords made of the Husk of the Nut. Linschoten. Joh. de Læt. Piso, and others.

A small ORBICULAR FRUIT, as it seems, of the Nut-kind, not bigger than a Physical Pill; a little flattish on that part which grows to the Husk. Very hard. And of a shining colour, like that of red Coral. Described L. 2. c. 30. also by Clusius: and neatly figur'd in Calceolarius's Musæum. Sect. 5.

ANOTHER of the same hardness, shape, and bigness; but of a shining black.

ANOTHER hard and orbicular Fruit, by Casp. Bauhinus called Milium Indicum. For what reason I see not, it having no similitude thereto. That for which it is observable, is, that it looks as if it were artificially turn'd upon a Lath. See a rude Figure hereof in J. Bauhinus.

An Oval Stone or Shell, of the bigness and shape of a midling Olive. Given by Mr. Anth. Horneck. It seems doubtful, Whether of the Plum or Nut-kind. 'Tis all over smooth, and of a shining light bay, like that of a Mammee. Excepting only the Base which is of a dull colour, and ruged, and having two narrow smooth Margins like a pair of Lips, or an open mouth: from the corners whereof runs a natural Notch round about the Stone or Shell.

The YECOTL. The Fruit of a little Tree in New-Spain, which the Spaniards call Palmam Montensem; and which I take to be all one with the Palmapinus, or the Palma Conifera. 'Tis described and figur'd both by J. Bauhinus, and by Wormius. Who Reports out of Læt, That these kind of Nuts are always found empty, or without a Kernel. Which is a mistake; for this here hath one. 'Tis likely all that he saw (and so he should have said) were barren. The length of this, about two inches and half; the Diametre, one and ½, the Figure Oval. Smooth, and of a shining Bay£ Composed of Scales, from the middle (where they are about ½ an inch broad) growing lesser towards both ends, so as in some sort to resemble a Cone, of the Picea Latin: or Male Firr-Tree. Yet a quite different Fruit: for whereas in a Cone, the Seeds or Kernels are numerous, all placed between the Scales of the Cone; here (so far as can be guess'd by the sound) we have but one single Kernel, within the hollow of the Shell.

But that which is most observable, and whereof no Author takes notice either in the Description or Figure of this Fruit, is this, That the Scales which compose the Shell, are not so set together, as to have their open ends or points upwards, as in a Cone: but on the contrary, so as to have their roots uppermost, and their open and outmost ends or points downwards, or towards the Base of the Shell, as of the Slates upon a House towards the ground. A singular contrivance of Nature, to prevent the rain from running into the hollow of the Shell, and so rotting the Kernel. And although the Scales of a Cone are open towards the point of the Cone, yet even hereby they answer the same end; because it always or most commonly hangs upon the Tree with the point downward.

This Fruit is pictur'd in Besler, Tab. 1. But mistakenly, for the Arecca or Faveel.

The CONICK YECOTL. I find it not describ'd. 'Tis much less than the former; in length, an inch and ⅓ d; in the middle near an inch thick. Slenderer at both ends, and the upper plainly taper'd. The Scales, as in the former.

Of the Leaves Ximenes. of this Shrub, the Indians make a sort of Thread.

A SCALED FRUIT a kin to the YECOTL. 'Tis of a rounder Figure, almost like a Pippin, and about as big as a midling Peach. See the Figure hereof in Bauhinus, under the Title of Nux Indica Tessellata. They grow in Guyana.

A Great PALMACOCO-NUT. Bauhinus describes Tom. 1. another Species by the Name of Fructus PalmÆ NuciferÆ. Perhaps the Tree may not be improperly call'd Palmacocus, as bearing a Fruit, though small, yet resembling the Cocoshell. This is the biggest of several here preserved, which make it doubtful, Whether it belong to a Cocus or a Palme. In length, near ½ a foot; in the middle, two inches over. The Base somewhat Oval, and Prominent, with three large Holes, as in a Coco; the upper end Conick, and a little inflected. Composed of three Valves or Plates, making so many Angles, below, obscure; above, more sharp. The colour mixed, according to the distribution of the woody Fibers.

A middle PALMACOCO-NUT. As big as a larger Walnut. In length, an inch and ½; the Base, an inch over. Figur'd into a kind of Convex Cone. Upon the Margins of the three Holes in the Base, are finely spread a great many small black Fibers; like the FibrillÆ of the Lig. ciliare are round about the Crystal Humour. See also Clusius's Description hereof in Bauhinus. Two of this Species are here preserved.

ANOTHER also Conick, but less: In shape like the Pear called Moscatellinum: but is scarce so big as a small Nutmeg. Of a woody substance, and the colour of Box. With three open Holes, as in all the rest.

The DOG-PALMACOCO. Bauhinus describes and figures one of these Nuts by the Name of Nux larvata. The like is performed in the German Ephemerides. But I take this to be a different Species from them both. In length, an inch and ½; an inch over, where thickest; and of a Conick Figure. The Crown or thicker end of the Shell is encompassed with a great many small Fibers, originally spread all over the Shell, but here clip'd off by some Body, to make it look like a Head of Hair. About the middle of the Shell are two natural Holes, ratably large, like a pair of Eyes; and the upper Margins prominent, like Eye-brows, whereupon are naturally spread a number of small black Fibers, like the Hair on the Eye-brows. Underneath a third Hole, also hairy, standing in the place of a Mouth. Betwixt which, or before, there are three little Knobs, which together make no ill resemblance of a Nose, and the upper Lip all natural; So that, at the first sight, one would take it to be a little Head of a Greyhound carved in Wood.

TWO more, of the same kind, but much shorter.

An Oval PALMACOCO, about the bigness of a Nutmeg.

Another, of a straw colour, wrinkled, knobed, and somewhat compressed, Figur'd in some sort by Bauhinus, Tom. 1. under the Title of Avellana Indica peculiaris Camerarij.

A BROAD PALMACOCO. An inch over or in breadth; from the Base to the top directly, not above ¾. That almost flat, this with a blunt point. It hath three Holes on the sides, almost equidistant.

An ORBICULAR PALMACOCO. Yet a little compressed, as a Bowl. Not above ½ an inch Diametre; of the colour and hardness of Box; furrow'd as a Peach-Stone. On the sides are three equidistant Holes, over-spread with black capillary Fibers.

A RHOMBOID-NUT, of affinity with the former. An inch and ¼ long; ¼ broad, and ½ an inch thick, the sides being a little compressed. Cover'd round about with small woody Fibers, produced from the Stalk or Base to the top of the Shell.

The FAVEEL or FAUFEL. The Fruit of a kind of Palme, by the Malabarins called ARECCA. Described by Garcias, Bauhinus, and Wormius. But by none of them well. It hath a three-fold Cover, of so many sorts of work. The utmost, consisting of straw-colour'd, soft and (as Garcias rightly) downy Fibers. The middle, of yellowish, and sturdy ones, of the thickness of a sewing Needle: about ½ an inch longer, than to the top of the Shell, yet couched down round about it. The inmost, a thin slender Case, but woody. Yet lined with a pithy substance. All contrived for the greater warmth, and gradual exposing of the Nut within to the Aer. This Nut is about the bigness of a little Nutmeg; but not so long.

This Fruit grows in Malavar and the Island Mombaim. Being eaten unripe, it stupifies, and as it were inebriates. For which cause, Garcias. some eat them to make them unsensible of great pains. Garcias saith, That he used their Distill'd-Water, in Bilious DiarrhÆa's, with great success.

A FRUIT very like to the Faufel. Bauhinus describes and figures it out of Clusius, by that Name. Yet it seems, to me, to be the Faufel it self in the Bud.

The DATE-NUT, qu. Nucidactylus. I find it neither described nor figur'd by any Author. 'Tis above two inches long; near the Stalk, above an inch over; towards the top near two, being belly'd like a Pear. Along one side, a little ridged. The Stalk cover'd with a whitish Down, like a Quince's. The outward Skin of a dusky Bay, smooth, soft, and thin. Next under this is a Work of Fibers, not produced, as in other Fruits, by the length, but standing bolt upright, like the Pile of Velvet, about a ¼ of an inch in depth; or rather, like the Bristles upon a Hogs back. So that the outward Skin being taken off, the Fruit looks and feels like a round Scrubing-Brush. These Fibers are continuous all round about with the next Cover, which is of a woody substance, and very tough, about ¼ of an inch thick. Next within this Cover or Rind, is contained a soft and light substance, which, by the space it hath left, appears to have been originally a very fleshy and sappy part. Within This lies the Stone, about as big as a young Pigeons-Egg. This Stone is not hollow, like others, but altogether solid, like the Stone of a Date, and is within of the same whitish, dense, and horny substance: from whence I have taken leave for the Name. At the top of the Stone is formed, like as in a Nutmeg, a little round Cell, in which the true Seed is contained, no bigger than a midling Pins head.

A TWIN DATE-NUT of the same Species.

A THIRD, a single one, with the outward Rind taken off, whereby the said brisly Fibers are conspicuous.

A CACAW-NUT. Given by Francis Willughby Esq;. 'Tis five inches long; and about two, over; shaped like a Garden-Cucumer; but the Stalk-end a little slenderer. Now it is dry, angular with five wrinkled and black Ribs an inch broad. The spaces between, half as broad, smooth, and of a redish Bay: the blackness of the Ribs proceeding also from a fuller and deeper Red under the Skin; as in many other Fruits: or as Scarlet Blood makes blew Veins. Within the Rind are contained about fifteen or twenty Kernels, near as big as a Garden-Bean, but smaller at one end; somewhat like a little Birds Heart. Yet the shape, I suppose, in different Nuts, may have some variation.

Another CACAW-NUT, like the former; given by Mr. John Short.

This Fruit grows principally in New Spain, and the Province of Guatimalla in Mexico. In which, and other places of the West-Indies, the Kernels are used, saith Jos. Acosta, Hist. l. 4. c. 22. instead of Money; and commonly given to the Poor, as Alms. With Chacawlate, the Indians Treat Noble Men, Ibid. as they pass through their Country.

These Kernels being well pounded, as Almonds, in a Mortar, and mixed with a certain proportion of Sugar and Spices (according as the Trader thinks or finds it best for Sale) are commonly made up in Cakes or Rowles; which are brought over hither from Spain, and other parts. But those that would have a good quantity for their own private use, had much better procure the Nuts themselves (as fresh and new as may be) and so prepare and compound them to their own Constitution and Tast. And for those that drink it, without any Medicinal respect, at Coffee-Houses; there is no doubt but that of Almonds finely beaten, and mixed with a due proportion of Sugar and Spices, may be made as pleasant a drink, as the best Chacawlate.

The BUTTER-NUT: a Fruit growing in New England, and there so called, because the Kernel yieldeth a great quantity of a sweet Oil. I meet with it no where. In length, two inches and ½; in the middle, near an inch and ½ over; the two ends narrower, and a very little prominent, shaped somewhat like a small Cucumer. The Skin smoothish, and (now) brown. The substance within it, black: originally, a kind of Pulp or fleshy Rind about ¼ of an inch thick, answering to that of a Walnut. The Stone almost Oval, and edged with six or seven Angles by the length, the greatest, which are also opposite, ending in a sharp point. The Spaces betwixt the Angles, very uneven with a great many ruged and thin plates and knobs.

With a Decoction of the Barque of the Tree, the English Planters dey their Linsey Woolsey of a Cinamon colour, without Alum, or any thing else being added.

The EDGED-WALNUT of New England. In colour, as the common kind. Near an inch long, as broad, and a little above ½ an inch thick. The Base, and especially the point, a little prominent. Figur'd with eight Angles or Edges, whereof one half sharper than the other. The Kernel shaped, as in the common kind.

A WALNUT shaped like a Pear. Whether monstrous, or of any Species, is uncertain. 'Tis two inches long, at one end ¼ of an inch thick or over, and the other, above an inch.

Another, with one Concave of the Shell twice as big as the other.

A Third, with a Shell composed of three Valves or Plates.

A NUT, which seems to be a sort of Indian Filbert. I find it not describ'd. Of a triangular Figure, one greater side subtended to two lesser. The Base ½ an inch thick; an inch and ¾ long, or wide; from thence to the Cone as much. Of a brown ash-colour; and ruged all round about by the distribution of a great number of Fibers. Only the true Base, by which it joyned to the Husk, is smooth; and, as that of a Filbert, cleavable along the middle.

The HAZLE-NUT of New England. Neither is this describ'd. Here is a Box of them. They are shorter, and broader, than the common sort; the point depressed, and the Base more produc'd. In colour, both alike.

HAZLE-NUTS, some three, and some four growing together.

The NUT called MEHEMBETHENE. It grows upon a small Tree, like a Hasle, in New Spain. Described in Bauhinus. Lib. 3. c. 36. 'Tis somewhat Oval, an inch and ¼ long, ⅔ ds over. Divided by a triangular partition into three Cells, for the lodging of so many Kernels.

The BARBADO-NUT. The Fruit, in truth, of a kind of Plum-Tree. Lig. Hist. of Barb. p. 67. Yet the Name prevailing, I have placed it here. Described in Bauhinus, Wormius, and others by the Name of Avellana purgatrix Americana s. Ben magnum Medicorum vulg???: Mus. Wormian. but not well. 'Tis about the bigness of a Filbert. The shell blackish, thin, and brittle, and somewhat angular. Within, there is a white soft Body, commonly, but falsely supposed to be the Kernel. For this Body is not divided, as are all Kernels, into two distinct Lobes, but is one entire part. Yet so as to have some little hollowness in the middle, capable to lodge a very thin Filme. This Filme, is the true Kernel, consisting not only of two large and perfect Leaves (answerable to the two Lobes in other Kernels) but of those parts also, which in time become the Trunk and Root of the Tree.

These Nuts work strongly both by Vomit and Stool; Bauh. Tom. 1. four or five of them a great Dose. Being eaten tosted, or injected in Clysters, Monardes. which is the safest way of using them, they are a present Remedy in the Cholick. One thing, very observable, is mention'd by Mr. Boyle; In his Book of the Origine of Forms. and since, also by Mr. Ligon: Hist. of Barb. p. 68. and that is, That the Cathartick Power of the Nut, although so great, yet lies only or chiefly in that very thin Filme above-said, by me affirmed to be the Kernel: for this being taken out, the rest may be eaten, as any other Nut.

A small Indian Nut, about an inch long, and about half an inch over; with a pretty hard Rind, and of a shining black. Excepting the colour, very like to that described and figur'd in Bauhinus, with the Name of Nucula Exotica Pistacij specie.

The ANGOLA NUT. About ¼ of an inch long, and as broad, on one side Convex; on the opposite, flat; and of a tawny colour. The Shell very hard. The Kernel thin and leafy, and loged within a thick white Cover, as in the Barbado Nut.

They purge upward and downward: one of them will give about a dozen Stools.

The Purging-CHESNUT. Castanea purgatrix. Well described and figur'd in Calceolarius's Musæum. Sect. 5. The Figure in Bauhinus (who describes Tom. 1. lib. 3. c. 116. it by the Name of Fructus Indicus decussatus) not so good. 'Tis a blackish Fruit, about an inch and ¼ long, almost square, and pretty flat. But that which is most observable, is the double Sinus which compasseth it both by the length and breadth, as if it had been girded across with a string. And, as it were, a Crescent on that side, by which it grows to the Shell.

A FRUIT in figure like a Chesnut; but 'tis much less, at least, than the common sort. The outward shell of a dusky colour, and thin, yet almost as hard as a Pebble; or like that of the Seed of Gromwell. Under this lies another of the usual hardness of a Fruit Stone. Within which is included a whitish Kernel, of a pleasant tast, yet producing a roughness in the Throat.

The New England CHESNUT. In figure, like the common sort; but a little less. The Chesnut was first brought from Sardis in Lydia, Mouf. de Re Cib. into Italy, France, and England. In some places where they abound, the people make Bread Bauhin. of them. Heretofore, saith Bruyrinus, Lib. de Re Cibar. they were brought, with the last course, to the Tables of Princes. In his time, (about an hundred years since) the French used to make and eat Chesnut-Pottage.

A kind of small HORNED NUT. Not so big as a little Nutmeg, 'tis of a brown colour, and with two pointed knobs at one end, bended outward, like little Horns. Figur'd, as I take it, in Bauhinus Lib. 3. c. 104. Fig. 3. by the Name of Fructus peregrinus, exiguus orbicularis, cum Sex Nervis.

A Virginian AKORN within its Cup. There is one like this described and figur'd in Bauhinus out of Clusius, by the Name of Calix cum Glande incluso maximus ex Wingandecaow, i. e. Virginia. The Cup is about an inch and ¼ Diametre, and the sides very thick; composed of a great number of Scales, as the Empalement of a Thistle, and many other Flowers; but here very hard: of an Orbicular Figure, only open at the top about the breadth of ½ an inch. The Akorn it self, little bigger than the common sort. But their tast and substance may be more grateful. For in Virginia they are dry'd and preserved for food. They steep, and boil them, and so eat them either with Flesh or Fish.

The ANACARDIUM. A fruit so called from some likeness it hath to a little Heart; but yet flattish, and near as big as a Garden-Bean. Described and figur'd by Garcias, Bauhinus, Wormius, Moscardi, Besler, and others. Being held to the flame of a Candle, Bauhinus. it spits Fire, or sparkling flashes of divers colours. Anciently much used in Medicines, now obsolete, as Confectio Anacardina, &c. The Oil or Mellaginous Succus betwixt the Rind and the Kernel is that which is called Mus. Wormian. Mel Anacardinum. Either the Name of Oil (given it by most) or of Honey, must be improper. It is of a very Caustick and venimous Nature. Being mixed with Lime, 'tis used for the marking of Cottons Bauh. Tom. 1. 336. throughout India. The Indians pickle the green Fruit, Garcias ab Horto. and eat them as Olives. When perhaps they contain little or none of that Caustick Oil.

The ACAJU, or Cajous-AKORN. The Fruit, or rather one part of the Fruit of a Tree growing in Brasile (where it is called Acajaiba) and other West-Indian Countries. Chiefly described and figur'd by Linschoten, Lib. 1. c. 52. and Piso. Lib. 4. c. 6. The whole Fruit is called Acaju. That part next the Branch, by Piso, the Apple; but is shaped more like a Pear. To the top of which grows this part, which he calls the Akorn. In shape almost of an Hares Kidney; saving that where it grows to the Apple 'tis thicker, than at the other end. Of a smooth Surface, (here) mixed with ashen and brown.

Piso in describing this Fruit contradicts himself. Flori (saith he) succedit Castanea, exqua crescit Pomum. A little after, Pomum hoc, tum Glans ei superinnascens---. Wherein he is false to himself, but true to Nature; the Apple not growing upon or after the Akorn, as he had affirmed at first; but the Akorn, upon the Apple: as by one I have now by me, may be seen.

Wormius confoundeth the Picture of the Acaju, with the Description of the Anacardium. As may be seen by comparing Chap. the 22. and 24. of his Second Book.

The Kernels being pounded or ground, as Walnuts, yield abundance of Oil by expression. That Oil (so called) which is distinctly contained in the Shell or Rind of the Akron, is of a hot biting tast, and of a kind of caustick quality. Used by the Indians to cure the Itch, Shingles, Malignant Ulcers, Piso. and St. Anthonys Fire. Linschoten. But the Kernels are accounted a great dainty, either eaten raw with Wine and a little Salt; or especially, when they are roasted, or else preserved in Sugar. For the sake of this Fruit only, Piso. the Natives sometimes go to Wars; the Victors keeping possession of the Place, till they have pluck'd the Trees upon it, all clean.

By comparing what hath been said hereof, and of the Anacardium, together; they seem to be two Species, under one Kind.

The ANOVAI. The Fruit of a Tree, or rather the Name of the Tree it self, growing principally in Brasile. Piso distinguishes a lesser sort, from the Greater, or Ahoaguacu, the Tree whereon this Fruit groweth. Of a triangular Figure, almost like a little Pouch; about an inch from corner to corner, very hard, smooth, of a Chesnut colour, and now made hollow, the Kernel being pick'd out; and a hole cut on the top for that purpose. Figur'd in Bauhinus, Piso, and others; but more neatly in Calceolarius's Musæum.

The Kernel, being eaten, is a strong Poyson. The Natives of Brasile Piso. especially when they go to Dancing, hang the empty Shells, for Ornament, and the pleasure of the Noise they make, about their Legs: as Carriers do Bells about their Horses Necks. The Wood Lerius. or Boughs being broken, stink intollerably; somewhat like to Garlick.

The true METHEL; or the VOMITING-NUT commonly so call'd. Nux Vomica Officinarum. Very well described Tom. 1. in Bauhinus. Of the shape and bigness of a midling Troch, cover'd with short Hair, of a greenish brown. Very hard, and horny, and almost solid; saving that in the middle it incloses, as the Barbado-Nut, a thin Filme, which is the true seed; whereof the said horny Body, called the Nut, is only a great thick Cover.

This Fruit is, by Celaspine, most absurdly called Fungus Orientalis. And Wormius Mus. l. 2. c. 30. speaking of it, saith, That no Body knows certainly what it is. Whereas, by Dissection, it plainly appears to be a Fruit.

I find, that Cordus goeth thus far, as to observe, That within this Nut is contained a Rudiment of the future Plant, consisting as it were of two little pretty veined Leaves, and a Stalk. But that these Leaves were the two Lobes or main Body of the Seed, that the Stalk of these Leaves, as he calls it, was the Root, and that between these Leaves was cooped the Bud, of the future Plant, are things whereof he had not the least notion. Neither did he know (for he speaks of it as a peculiar) that the like conspicuous foliation, is, as in truth it is, observable in the seeds of a great many other Plants.

Half a Drachm of this Nut, given to a Dog, in powder, hath kill'd him, saith Bauhinus, in four hours. About ʒj, hath put a Dog into so great Convulsions, that he hath dy'd in less than half an hour.

The true VOMITING-NUT. Nux Methel Officinarum. So that by a mistake, the Names of the Nut before describ'd, and of this, are commonly transposed. An East-Indian Fruit described by Bauhinus Tom. 1. l. 3. c. 144. with the Name of Nux peregrina oculata & compressa: from its flatness, although a little swelling on one side; and from the resemblance which the Seed-Cells, in number five, have to so-many little Eyes.

Two Drachms hereof being given to a man in Powder, purgeth strongly, and especially by Vomit, but also by Stool.

CHAP. V. Of BERRYS, CONES, LOBES, and some other Parts of Trees.

CEDRE-BERRYS. The Tree by some called Cedrus PhÆnicea; although Baccifera were better, thereby to distinguish it from the Coniferous or great Cedre. Described by Clusius under the Name of Oxycedrus; from its sharp-pointed Leaves. It grows wild in France and Spain. The Berry bigger than that of the lesser Juniper, and of a deep Purple; with little knobs about it, and some resemblance of Scales.

Great JUNIPER-BERRYS. BeccÆ Juniperi majoris Clusio. As big as Myrtle-Berrys, round, soft, odorous, and of a redish colour. The lesser Juniper-Berrys (and probably these) are of good and various use in Medicine, if they are fresh. One of the best ways of using them, is by extracting a deep and strong body'd Tincture of them with Spirit of Wine, whereof a spoonful, or more or less, to be taken in Wine or other convenient Vehicle.

The BERRYS of the MASTICH-TREE. BaccÆ LentiscinÆ. About half as big as a midling Peas, round, and of a blackish colour. The Tree flourishes in Italy, Spain, and divers other places.

AROMATICK INDIAN BERRYS. Cocculi Indi Aromatici. There are a sort called Cocci Orientales, used for the taking of Fishes; but not so round as these: neither, as I take it, are they Aromatick. Of these some are not much bigger than a Black Pepper-Corn; others, as big as a Black Cherry: all of them of the colour of Cloves. They seem to come nearest to that Fruit commonly called Jamaican-Pepper.

A CONE of the CEDRE of Mount Lebanon. Conus Cedri magnÆ s. Libani. Given by Abraham Hill Esq;. Described and figur'd by Bauhinus. Lib. 9. c. 15. Yet with the Scales represented by far too narrow or not enough expanded: in which Besler is more exact. 'Tis about three inches and ½ long, and two and ½ over; of an Oval Figure, saving that the top is flat. Of this Tree it is affirmed by Melchior Lussy, In suÆ Peregrinat. Hierosolym. cap. 13. That upon the said Mount (on which he hath seen them grow) there are some so thick, that six or seven men can hardly encompass one of them with their Arms stretched out: which may be supposed above half as thick again, as the thickest Oak in England.

A CONE of the MALE-FIRR. Conus Abietis maris s. PiceÆ Latinorum. Described by Bauhinus. It grows abundantly in Burgundy, and the Alps; sometimes in height Simlerus. above a hundred and thirty feet. The Cone almost Cylindrical, about eight inches long. To each Scale underneath, two winged Seeds or little Kernels are adjoyned. Curiously pictur'd by Besler.

A little Twin PINE-APPLE. Pini Conus gemellus.

Several CONES of the WILD-PINE. Of this Tree they make great store of Pitch in Burgundy.

A CYPRESS-NUT. Strobilus Cupressinus. By CÆsalpine not so properly called a Cone, because of its Figure, which is rather Orbicular. Yet any Cone is appositely called Strobilus, from the winding order of the Scales. 'Tis not much bigger than a large Nutmeg. The Tree grows abundantly in France and Italy, and there bears Nuts.

CAMPHIRE. The Gum of a Tree about as big as the Hazle; and probably of the Coniferous kind. Formerly thought a Mineral; and by Kentman Nomenclat. called Bitumen Odoratum. There are two sorts hereof. One of China, which is carried in Cakes and Balls, into all Places, in great abundance. The other of Borneo, which is far the best.

A LONG FLAT LOBE. Lobus Buglossoideus, so I call it for its being somewhat like a Cows Tongue. Described by Bauhinus Lib. 12. c. 3. with the Name of Ceratium Monococcon Indicum. But this here, is thrice as big as his. 'Tis ten inches long; in the middle, 4 ½ over; both ends somewhat Oval. Very flat, scarce above ½ an inch where thickest; the Belly level, the Back Convex and with a blunt Ridge. Of a dull russet, and all over rough with a great number of small Knobs. Its whole Cavity is filled up with one single Fruit; which Bauhinus not well examining, only calls it Fructum ex fungosa quadam materie compactum. Whereas it consisteth chiefly of a wonderful Congeries of white Fibers; not produced by the length, or breadth, but the thickness of the Fruit, both ways, as the Teeth in a double Comb. The spaces betwixt which are filled up with dust or powder; which was originally, the sappy Parenchyma or Flesh of the Fruit.

Another LOBE of the same Species, but much less.

A THICK LOBE from Virginea. Lobus ex Wingandecaow. Not ill describ'd by Clusius. This here is not much above three inches and ½ long, an inch and ¼ broad, and an inch thick. Unciam densus, saith Clusius improperly; that word not expressing the Dimention, but closeness or little porosity of a Body. There are some Lobes, saith Læt Lib. 3. c. 22. of the same Species, that are two or three times the bigness of This.

A short FIBROUS LOBE. I meet with the Description hereof no where; nor the Figure, excepting in Besler, Tab. 1. by the Name of Fructus reticulato corio. 'Tis almost three inches long, an inch and ¾ broad, near an inch thick. At one edge it is cut through by the length; where, if you try to spread the sides open, it resists, from its great fibrosity, like a thick sturdy piece of tann'd Leather. Lined within with a most smooth and thin Membrane. The Cavity all over even, or without any Sepiment: shewing it to have been fill'd up with only one large Fruit.

A Great SCALLOP'D LOBE; or rather part of it. Of kin to that described and figur'd in Bauhinus Lib. 12. c. 8. by the Name of Lobus Brasilianus ingens SiliquÆ AcaciÆ formâ. The whole Lobe, is above two feet long; where broadest, near four inches, flat; and composed of six or seven Joynts, as Bauhinus calls them; rather Cells, so rounded or scallop'd on both Edges, as to look like so many Joynts. In this part of the Lobe, are only three. In each of them is contained a great NUT round and flat, and of a shining Bay; an inch and ½ Diametre, and half an inch thick. In the Lobe Bauhinus describes they were not ripe.

A round FRUIT (probably) of a sort of SCALLOP'D LOBE. 'Tis almost of the colour, bigness, and shape of the former; saving that the sides are not so flat, but both of them a little Convex.

ANOTHER, almost of the Figure of a Cat's Kidney; having at the edge a shallow Sinus or depressure where it was fasten'd to the Lobe. Described in Bauhinus Lib. 17. c. 1. p. 276. by the Name of Phaseolus Novi Orbis, Cordis sigurâ. But, as is most likely, very improperly; This being so like the Fruit of the Scallop'd Lobe above describ'd, which he himself makes the Fruit of a Tree; Neither doth the Kernels, its being naturally cleft into two halfs, (ut sunt omnia Phaseolacea, as Clusius speaks) argue any thing. For that is not peculiar to the Phaseolous kind; but all other Seeds whatsœver, excepting Corn and that Kindred, are naturally cleft See the Authors first Book Of Plants, Chap. 1. into two or more Lobes. This Fruit is said to be Cathartick: and therefore 'tis probable, the other Species are so likewise.

A long FRUIT of another LOBE. Described and figur'd in some sort in Bauhinus Lib. 17. p. 277. by the Name of Faba Americana purgatrix longior. 'Tis two inches and ¼ long, an inch and ½ broad, flat, the edges thick, of an Oval shape, and dusky ash-colour. Where it was fasten'd to the Lobe, not depressed, as in the former, but a little produc'd.

A broad FRUIT of another LOBE. Probably described and figur'd in Bauhinus Lib. 17. p. 278. by the Name of Lobus Membranaceus planus niger. If so, he should not have called it a Lobe, but the Fruit contained in it. 'Tis about an inch and ¾ long, and almost as broad, flat, and very thin, and of a blackish brown. One of the edges sharp, the opposite somewhat thick.

A square FRUIT of an other LOBE. I find it no where. 'Tis almost an inch and ¾ long; at one end, an inch and ½ broad, at the other, an inch; above ½ an inch thick in the middle, where it swells up on both sides. Two of the edges opposite, Convex; the other two, Concave. Smooth, and of a blackish Bay.

So many of the above-said Fruits, as are described by Bauhinus, or other Authors, are number'd amongst Herbs, as if a sort of Beans. But by comparing them all together, and with the Fruit of the Scallop'd Lobe; they appear to have been all included in the Lobes of several sorts of Trees.

The COD of the wild LOCUST of Virginia. Arbor. Lanif. Species. Described by Hist. of Barb. Ligon. The Cod somewhat hard and brittle. In length, ½ a foot; sharp at both ends, in the middle an inch and ½ over, Convex on the back, the Belly plain. Fill'd with white Down, not like Cotton, but that of the Pappous kind of Plants, appendent originally to the end of the Seed: but the Seeds are here wanting.

A sort of SILK COTTON with the SEEDS. Given by Th. Povey Esq . They seem to have been taken out of the Cod of a Tree which grows about Bantam; described in Bauhinus Lib. 3. c. 154. out of Clusius, by the Name of Lanifera Arbor peregrina. That this Cotton is not so white as that of Clusius, may proceed from Age, or some difference in the Tree. 'Tis rather of the colour of raw Silk, and hath a gloss like it; extream soft and fine, but not so long as Cotton wooll; and therefore unfit for Spinning.

Of this Cotton I suppose the Chineses make their soft thin Paper. And it is probable, That many of our English Plants yield a Down, which would be altogether as fit for the same purpose. 'Tis also used, by the Indians, instead of Feathers, for the stuffing of Pillows.


The DWARF-OAK. The Leaves shaped like those of the Ilex, but not prickly. It differs not in the hardness of the Wood or Boughs, from the common Oak; nor in the shape of the Acorns it bears; some whereof are also here preserved. Yet is it not above a yard in height. Sent hither by Mr. Winthrop, not long since Governour of Connecticut. In the Inland Parts of New England grow whole Forrests of this Oak.

The SEED of the Male HOLLY-ROSE, called Cistus, mas; and the first in number, according to Clusius. 'Tis included in a shelly Cover of a Pentagonal Figure; and is it self also angular, about the bigness of the Seed of Patience, or Lapathum Sativum.

The SEED of the second Male CISTUS.

The SEED of the Female CISTUS. The shell of this, not so big, nor so sharp at top, as of the Male; and both this and the Seed it self blacker. It may be, because older.

Upon the Root of the Cistus grows a Parasitical Plant, called HYPOCISTIS: the Juyce whereof, is commonly condensed, and so formed, like that of Liquirish, into Balls, and sold as a Drug.

The SEED of the CISTUS LEDON; being the first in order according to Clusius.

The SEED of the fourth CISTUS LEDON.

Off of the Cistus Ledon is gathered, the Drug called LADANUM: which is a kind of Gummous Exudation, chiefly found upon the Leaves. 'Tis gather'd Hereof see Bellonius. in the Dog-Days, and when the Sun shines hottest, and therefore not without intollerable labour. These Shrubs grow in Cyprus, Creet, France, Spain, &c. In Creet, the Principal Place for Ladanum is at the Foot of Mount Ida.

The BERRYS of the Indian JASEMIN with a yellow and most fragrant Flower. The Oil of the Ben Nut being impregnated with the odor or spirit; especially of these yellow Flowers, and so mixed with Pomatum, is that which is commonly called Jasemin Buttyr.

The FRUIT of the NAMBUGUACU, a Shrub so called by the Natives of Brasile. Described by Piso and others with the Name of Ricinus Americanus; & Palma Christi. Curiously figur'd by Tobias Aldinus. Descr. Horti Farnesiani. Where note, That in the said Author, through some inadvertency, the Titles of this Plant and of the Spinacia Fragifera are transpos'd. The Seeds are of the bigness of a Horse-Bean, somewhat long, smooth and glossy, ash-colour'd and mixed with black specks. The Kernel white and very oily. Given by Dr. Wilkins late Bishop of Chester, and to him, by Captain Hinde.

The Oil expressed out of these Kernels, is not only used in Lamps, but by the Natives of Brasile against all cold Distempers Pison. Hist. l. 4. c. 31. both outward and inward. Six or seven of the Kernels taken inwardly, purge and vomit with great vehemency. But a Tincture extracted out of them, is well proposed by Piso Ibid. as the safer Medicine. Although the Kernels themselves work so strongly; yet is it affirmed by Mr. Stubs, Phil. Trans. N. 36. That the Oil which is expressed out of them, hath no Physical (Cathartick) Operation, although a spoonful of it be taken down at once, or three put up in a Clyster. The Leaves, saith the same Person, Ibid. are the only Remedy, which the Indians use for the Headach. Being steeped in Water or Vinegar, they are daily experienced to cure the Shingles Piso, ubi supra. and other like Affections.

The FRUIT of the URUCU, a Shrub growing in Brasile. Described by Clusius and Piso. Bauhinus ventures to call it Bixam Oviedi; although Clusius only saith it is like it. In shape and bigness, saith Wormius, like an Aurange-Tree. This Fruit is about two inches long, an inch and ½ over; composed of two Concave Valves; below, Oval; above, Conich and sharp-pointed; beset all over with brisly hairs ⅙ of an inch long. Within their Concaves, thirty or more little Grains, figur'd like a Pear, and originally of a curious bright red.

The Shrub grows wild: Yet the Natives cultivate it in Gardens with great Care and Industry. For with the scarlet Grains abovesaid, they paint and adorn themselves. The Tincture also which they extract from them, called Orellana, they sell to the Portuges, and others which Trade with them. They likewise beat and make them up into Balls and Tablets, which they send into all parts of Europe. Piso. The same Grains are sometimes mixed with Chacalet, for the grateful colour and tast which they give to it. Ximines. Of the Barque of the Tree, they make Ropes. Wormius.

A small Grain, in colour and shape not much unlike that above-said, and probably belonging to a Species of the same Kind, is brought hither from the Barbados by the Name of NOTTA. Yet used by Deyers, made up in Cakes, for a Limon-colour. With whom, nothing is more usual, than to alter the colours of their Ingredients, by the admixture of Salts, and other ways.

BEIDEL OSSAR, i. e. The Egg or Cod of the Ossar, a kind of Syriac Dogs-Bane so called; Beid, being the Arabick word Honorius Bellus. for an Egg. Accurately described by Honor. Bellus. And by Wormius very well figur'd. Yet Wormius in his Description, which he borrows of Alpinus, (with his Author) mistakes, in giving the Name to the Plant, which belongs only to this Egg or Cod. 'Tis soft or skinny, with some asperity. About four inches long, at the upper end sharp, and (now) hooked backward. Filled with a company of small flat Seeds, enclosed in a fine and white Down.

This Shrub grows near Alexandria, upon a Branch or Arm of Nilus Wormius. called Calig. One Plant, at an Incision of the Barque, will yield no less than four pounds of Milk. A Drachm and half of this Milk, Hon. Bellus. will purge a Man to Death. But used outwardly, is an excellent Remedy for the Itch. Mus. Calceol.

A COD, with the Wooll and Seeds, of the COTTON SHRUB; called Xylon Herbaceum. Said Lacuna. to have grown heretofore only in Ægypt; but now is sown, and grows abundantly in Creet, Sicily, and divers other Places in Europe. The Cod is trivalvous, almost like to that of a Tulip, or the Peony. Upon the Seeds which are black Oval, and near as big as a Horse-Bean, hang the greatest part of the Wooll. They are composed chiefly of two long and thin Leaves, admirably rowled up into an Oval Figure; as I may have occasion else where to represent. They are sometimes an Ingredient in Pectoral Medicines. Some Cotton Wooll, though of its self, pure white; yet contrary to Flax and Hemp, looseth of its whiteness by being washed. But whether it be that of this Shrub, or that of the Cotton-Tree; or whether, according to the Climate, &c. there is not good and bad of both, I determine not.

SAVINE-BERRYS. About as big as those of the common Juniper, and of a blackish blew. The little Sprigs, (of which there are some here) are square; and not prickly, as those of the other Species. The Shrub, called Sabina Baccifera, and described by Bellonius, grows plentifully in some places in Asia.

The ROSE of JERICO, or CHRISTMAS-ROSE. Rosa Hierichuntina. Either an ignorant, or a crafty Name, agreeing neither to the place, nor nature of the Plant. For about Jericho 'tis no where found, Bellonius. but in Arabia, upon the shore of the Red-Sea. A woody Shrub, but grows not above a foot or there about in height. Originally of an Aromatick smell. The Leaves of this are soft, but the Flowers remain, somewhat less than those of Cumfrey, and seem to consist only of two Leaves. All the Branches are closed up together, with some resemblance to the Umbel of the Plant called Bees-Nest, or some others of that kind.

Being set in Water, its several Branches will gradually be expanded. Which some Imposters knowing, choose Christmas-Eve for the Experiment, and so make people believe that it only opens at that time.

ANOTHER of the same less globous, or with the Branches more erect.

Part of an INDIAN PLANT, in shape like a Wooll-Combe; being composed of a number of strait black Teeth, very sharp, near as thick as a Cock-Spur, and most of them two inches long, naturally set upright, as it were, in a wooden-socket.


A SPIKE of LONG PEPPER; a sort of Climber or Winder, after the manner of Hops, and other like Plants. Not much differing from the Round, saving in the Spike. It grows in Malabar, Java, and Sumatra; but especially in Bengala, where it is called Pimpilim. See Piso hereof. MantissÆ Aromat. c. 8.

ÆTHYOPIAN-PEPPER, or rather the Coded-Fruit hereof. Well described by Bauhinus. Lib. 15. c. 46. By Besler curiously figur'd. Here, upon one Stalk, hang about 15 Cods, most of them three inches long, thick as a Goose-Quill, fibrous, and of the colour of Cloves; containing ten or twelve blackish and longish Seeds, each in a Cell by it self; not half so big as the least of French-Beans, which Bauhinus affirmeth them to equal, but more like the Seed of the Laburnum majus. Neither, according to the same Author, hath it the tast of black Pepper, but rather of the Clove; viz. not much biting, yet very Aromatick, especially being well heated at a fire.

POYSON-BERRYS. So they are inscrib'd. The fruit of a Plant growing in the Burmudas, somewhat like to Ivy. They grow in Bunches, almost as those of Round Pepper, and are much of the same bigness, almost of a stony hardness, yet inclosed in a thin brittle and pellucid Cover. Whether they were gather'd full ripe, appears not.

The COD of a West-Indian Plant, called TAXOCOQUAMOCLIT. This Cod, but not the Plant, is described and figur'd in Bauhinus. Tom. 1. cap. 11. 'Tis five inches long, ½ an inch broad, and sharp-pointed. Divided into twenty or four and twenty distinct Cells, made by so many thin Membranes, for the lodging of as many Seeds apart, of a dark Bay, and somewhat like those of Broom.

The COD of a KIDNEY-BEAN of Brasile. Lobus FabÆ BrasilianÆ NephroideÆ. I find it not described. 'Tis Divided into two Cells, by a Partition ½ an inch thick. Each of the Cells near two inches and ½ long, and as broad, swelling out on both sides the Lobe, which outwardly is very rough and tawny, hath two furrows along the Belly, the Back much bowed, and both of them about ½ an inch thick.

The BEAN belonging to the said COD. Bauhinus seems to describe and picture Tom. 2. Cap. 17. under the Title of Phasiolus peregrinus magnus, colore CastaneÆ, cum magno hilo, lÆvis. About half as big again as a Chesnut, flatish, and having a broad, blackish Seat, reaching above half its compass. Whereby it appears to be of the Bean-kind, and no Phasiolus; the Seat whereof, like that of the Lupine, is always round. Of these Beans, are here preserved both black and bay.

The COD of another Brasilian KIDNEY-BEAN, with the Beans enclosed. It differs from the former in being black, and in the number of its Cells, which are three. The Bean is somewhat Oval, and wrinkled, and having a Seat which reaches almost its whole compass. See a good Figure hereof in Calceolarius's Musæum.

HERCULES'S CLUB. Rubi facie senticosa Planta. A tall woody Plant, described in some sort, and so called, by Lobelius. Near three yards long; how much longer, is uncertain, being cut off at both ends; almost seven inches in compass, strait, and but very little taper'd. Originally, had two or three Branches, here cut off. Encompassed with a great many pointed Studs, (whence its Name) thick set, and sometimes growing double, flatish, and about an inch broad by the length of the Club, after the figure of the Thorns of the Rasberry-Bush. Like to which they are also meerly cortical, having not one fiber of wood in them, whereby they break like Cork, but are not so soft. The wood is as hard, as that of Holly, and the Pith but small. So that notwithstanding the similitude of their Thorns, yet is it a different Plant from the Rubus.

The STALK of a Plant like a NET. 'Tis only the woody part of it, the Barque and Pith being both taken away. 'Tis above an Eln long; likely, when entire, much longer, for now 'tis broken at both ends. Almost six inches about. The spaces between the reticulated portions of Wood, are about ¼ or ⅓ of an inch over, and from two inches to four, in length. Prince Maurice, looking upon This as a Curiosity, upon his Return from Brasile, brought it thence with him.

This being, as is likely, an Annual Plant, and therefore having a large Pith, and very open Net-work, is a conspicuous example of the like Work (though more or less open, yet) observable in the woody part of all other Plants whatsoever. See the Author's Anatomy Of Plants, Ch. 2. & 3.

Several SPIKES or Heads of MAYZ or Indian-Wheat; with the Grains, as is not unusual, of three or four colours. The Description of the Plant, with a large Account of its Culture, and Use, were communicated by Mr. Winthrop sometime since Governour of Connecticut in New England: and by me lately published, in a succinct but full Relation, Phil. Trans. N. 142. with some alteration of the Method. The Plant grows to the height of six or eight feet; and is joynted like a Cane. 'Tis also full of a sweet juyce like that of the Sugar-Cane. On the Spike grow several strong thick Husks, which, before it is ripe, shut it close up round about. Thereby defending it, not only from all Weathers, but also the Ravine of Birds, to which, the Corn, while tender, is a sweet and enticing food.

The Stalks of this Corn, are good Fodder for Cattel. As are also the Husks about the Spike. The Indian Women slit the Husks, and weave them into Baskets of several fashions. Of the Juyce above-said may be made a Syrup as sweet as Sugar: which probably, may also be made of it, by the usual method. The Indians eat the ripe Corn either boil'd; or more usually parched; of it self, or, as Bread, with Flesh. The green Corn also, which, as is said, hath a sweet Tast, being boil'd, dry'd, and kept in Bags, and when they eat it, boil'd again, they account a principal Dish. The English, of the ripe Corn, make very good Bread: but it must be mixed nothing near so stiff as our Wheat-Meal. But the best sort of Food made hereof; they call Samp. Having water'd, and ground it to the bigness of Rice, and winnow'd or sisted the Hulls from it, they boil it tender, and so with Milk, or with Butyr and Sugar, make it a very pleasant Dish. 'Twas often prescribed by Dr. Wilson to his Patients here in London. The Indians that live much upon it, seldom troubled with the Stone. The English also make very good Beer, both of the Bread, and of the Malt, made of this Corn. But it will not make good Malt the ordinary way, because, not without sprouting both ways to a considerable length: whereby it is so matted before it is fully malted, that it cannot be opened without breaking the Come. To avoid which, they pare off a Turff about three inches thick, and laying the Corn all over the bare ground, cover it with the Turff, till the Plot looks like a green Field, at which time, the Corn is well malted. Then taking it up in matted pieces, they dry it on a Kiln, or in the Sun.

The SPIKE or HEAD of the ÆGYPTIAN MAUZE. Given by Sigr. Boccone (formerly Botanick to the Great Duke of Tuskany) who brought it with him from Sicily, where it is frequently nursed in Gardens. The Figgs (as Acosta calls them) here grow upon it in several Bunches, nine or ten in a Bunch; two inches and ½ long, and as thick as the middle Finger of a labouring man; being now shrunk up, and perhaps also dwarfed by the place of its growth.

This Plant, as it grows in Ægypt and the Indies, is described by Thevetus, with the Title above; by Oviedus, under the Name of Platanus, absurdly received by some, as himself noteth; by Piso, who, with the Natives of Brasile, calls it Pacoeira; by Acosta, with the Name of Musa, from the Arabian Mous. It grows three or four yards in height, and ¾ of a yard Thevetus. in compass. Yet this Trunk, so great, is Oviedus. but annual. It hath Leaves above a yard and ½ long, and more than ½ a yard broad. The Figs grow toward the top of the Trunk, near the shape and bigness of a midling Cucumer, sometimes one or two Acosta. hundred of them: Of a soft melting substance, and a sweet and most delicious Tast. In Brasile, either eaten by themselves, or with their Mandioca-Flower; boiled, or fryed Piso. with Butyr.

Part of a sort of MAMBU, a great Indian Cane. In Bauhinus's Pinax called Arundo Arbor. Described by Wormius. But whereas his was black, This is of a straw-colour: and much smaller, sc. about seven inches in compass. Some of them grow nine or ten yards high. 'Tis hollow, quite through, excepting, that at every Joynt, 'tis closed up with a transverse Plate or Floor. Necessary, for the adding strength and sturdiness proportionable to so great a height.

It grows in Malabar, especially about Coromandel, near the Sea-side. In the several hollows is found a curdled juyce, whereof the Natives make a sort of Sugar, by the Æthyopians called Tabaxyr, much valued by the Arabians, because of the Medicinal Virtue, Wormius out of Garsias and others. they at least suppose it to have. In Bantam, the Cane is much used for the building of their Houses.

The SUGAR-CANE. Arundo Saccharina. In Brasile called Tacomaxe???; to which place Piso, l. 4. c. 1. it was first transplanted from the Fortunate Islands. A great Reed about seven or eight feet high, with many Joynts, one at about every ½ foot, and a large close Pith; out of which, the greatest part of the Juyce, whereof the Sugar is made, is expressed. See the Description hereof at large in Piso Hist. l. 4. c. 1. and Ligon; Hist. of Barb. p. 86. &c. together with the way of Planting, gathering and pressing the same; and of ordering the expressed Juyce, for the making of several sorts of Sugar, and Brandy: as also the Engines, and contrivance of Vessels for the same purposes.

The principal knack, without which all their labour were in vain, is in making the Juyce, when sufficiently boil'd, to kerne or granulate. Which is done, by adding to it, a small proportion of Lye made with (vegetable) Ashes: without which, it would never come to any thing by boiling, but a Syrup, or an Extract. But a little of that Fixed Salt, serves, it seems, to Shackle or Crystallize (which is a degree of Fixation) a very great quantity of the Essential Salt of this Plant.

In refining the Sugar, the first degree of pureness, is effected only by permitting the Molosses to drain away through a hole at the bottom of the Sugar-Pots; the Pots being, all the time, open at the top. The second degree is procur'd, by covering the Pots at the top with Clay. The reason whereof is, for that the Aer is hereby kept out from the Sugar, which, in the open Pots, it hardens, before it hath full time to refine by separation. And therefore, whereas the first way requires but one Month, this requires four. The finest Sugar of all, See Barl. de Reb. Brasil. p. 119. &c. is made with Lime-Water (and sometimes Urine) and Whites of Eggs. Sugar-Candy (Saccharum cantum, because it shoots into angular Figures) by placing a great many slender sticks across a Vessel of liquid Sugar, for it to shoot upon.

That which Dioscorides calls Σάκχαρον; Galen, Sacchar; & Archigenes, Sal Indum; is the same thing for substance, saith Matthiolus, with that we call Sugar: saving that, whereas this is made of the Juyce expressed and boil'd; that of the Ancients, as is likely, was only the Tears; which bursting out of the Cane, as the Gums or Milks of Plants are used to do, were thereupon harden'd into a pure white Sugar. That the Sugar of the Ancients was the simple Concreted Juyce of a Cane, He well conjectures: and what is above said of the Mambu, may argue as much. But that it was the Juyce or Tears of the Sugar-Cane, he proves not. Nor, I think, could be, if, as is supposed, it was, like Salt, friable, and hard. And in affirming our Sugar to be the same for substance with that of the Ancients, he much mistakes; that being the simple Juyce of the Cane, this a compounded Thing, always mixed either with the Salt of Lime, or of Ashes; sometimes of Animals too.

The COD and SEED of the true Greater CARDAMUM, figur'd by Besler, in Calceolarius's Musæum, and others with the Name of the Middle Cardamum. The Plant it self, both Lesser, and Greater, described and figur'd by Bontius; Hist. l. 6. c. 36. who glories himself the first that hath done it will. The Lesser grows about a yard high, with a joynted Stalk, like a Reed. But bears its Spikes, with the Flower and Seed, near the Root. The Greater grows two yards in height, the Stalk not joynted, with a Spike of Flowers at the top, somewhat like to that of a Jacynth. Both of them plentiful in Java.

The Indians season all their boil'd Meats herewith, preferring it before other Spices, as not being biting.

That which is commonly received amongst Botanicks for the Greater kind, from the fiery hot Tast of its Seeds (called Grana Paradisi) seems to be no Cardamum, but of another Tribe.

The PAPYR-REED of Nile. Papyrus Nilotica. By the Ægyptians called Berd. Given by Sigr. Boccone, who brought it out of Sicily, where it grew. Described and figur'd in Bauhinus; Lib. 18. c. 196. who with Gesner, makes it a Species of Cyperus, to which (in Leaf and Stalk) it is like; but hath a more compacted Head. This seems to have been no tall Plant: but upon its Native Bed, sc. near the Banks of the River Nile, it grows above three yards high, (as high, saith Alpinus, above the Water) and abundantly. Which Moses's Mother knowing, chose well, to lay her Babe in Pharaohs Daughter's way, yet, in the mean time, under good shelter from the scorching Sun.

Both the Barques and Leaves of some Plants, are used for writing upon by Impression. But this Plant hath its Name, not from the use either of its Leaves or Barque, but of its Pith; whereof, being beaten into a Pulp, the Pulp spread into thin Leaves, and several of those Leaves clapt together, Papyr fit to write upon was formerly made, as now it is of Rags. It was also used by Chirurgions, as sometimes Spong, or Elder Pith is now, for the dilating of Fistula's, and imbibing the sanious matter of ill-natur'd Ulcers.

Another Head of the same Plant.


The BULBIFEROUS GARLICK. Given by Dr. Daniel Whistler. So called, because in the place of Seed, it bears Bulbs at the top of the Stalk. Described by Bauhinus Lib. 19. c. 3. with the Name of Allium proliferum: although Bulbiferum, be more apposite; for that every Plant which bears Seed, is proliferous; the Seed being PlantÆ Proles, or the Fœtus of a Plant. The Bulbs (not fully described) are about twenty; in a round Head or Cluster as big as a Nutmeg; each Bulb equal to a midling Peas; consisteth of four or five shells; of which, the outmost is shrunk up to a dry Skin, on one side, of a purplish colour; the inmost incloseth that little Particle which in time becomes another bulbiferous Stalk, with a Root.

The STRINGY BRITHWOORT. Aristolochia Polyrrhizos. So called in distinction from the other kinds with tuberous Roots. Described Lib. 32. c. 8. by Bauhinus. It grows in France and Spain; but this came from Virginia. Of all the Species the most Aromatick, as by tasting the Roots, although now very old, may easily be perceiv'd.

The upright PENYROYAL. Pulegium erectum, Virginianum. It hath a Leaf almost as large as that of the Pulegium montanum. Yet smells rather like Thyme. Which is all the description it admits, now wither'd.

A sort of SNAKEWEED, growing near the River in Connecticut. So called, because the Root is used for the biting of the Rattle-Snake. The Roots, especially powder'd, are of a fragrant smell, and very Aromatick tast. Yet seems a different Plant from the Serpentaria of the Shops, as having a Leaf deeply jagg'd or scallop'd, as that of Ladies-Mantle.

The ROOTS of a sort of Asarum, found about Staniford in the Western parts of New England. It seems the same with the Serpentaria of the Shops, i. e. the Virginian Snakeweed. A Plant of excellent use in some Feavers.

The ROOT NINZIN, corruptly called Gensing. Taken from a parcel sent over by a Chinese Physitian, and given by Dr. Andrew Clench. Described MantissÆ Aromat. c. 15. by Guliel. Piso. Almost of the colour of a Parsnep, with something of a yellowish hue. No bigger than a little Skirret; and of like consistence. Not stringy, as that in Piso, but divided, as often the Mandrake and some other Roots, into two Legs. Of a sweetish Tast, as Piso saith rightly. But this here is also bitter; sweet in the first or lowest degree, and bitter in the second.

This Root is not known to grow (wild) any where, but in the Kingdom of Corea. In which place, as also in Tunquin, China, and Japan, it is much used, and relied upon in Epilepsys, Feavers, and other both Chronick and Acute Diseases; either alone, or in composition Ibid.] as the Basis. In China, accounted so great a Cordial, that one pound hereof, is there sold for three Phil. Trans. N. 14. out of Thevenot's Voyages, Tom. 3. pounds (weight) of Silver. Which shews, That there 'tis no Native, but only a Drug. So that if the Root or Seed be desired fresh for propagation, or other purpose, it were better sought for, where it grows wild, than from thence.

The ROOT of the Ægyptian ARUM. Described by Fabius Columna, Pars 2. c. 1. with the Name of Arum Ægyptiacum: but called by Alpinus, Rarior. Pl. lib. 2. c. 18. Colocasia Strogulorhiza s. rotundâ Radice; not rightly, as Columna notes. Nor do either of their Descriptions well reach it.

This here (as it is often) is a double Root; each of them round, and somewhat flat. The uppermost like the dry'd Root of Arum, white and friable; but the Tast is extinct. Full and frim, in breadth or transversly, two inches; encompassed with three or four very small Circles, whereupon several Leaves did once grow: underneath, are the portions of several small dead Stalks; on the top and sides, the Buds of others to come. To this, by a short Neck between, hangs the lower; which being also the elder, is more fuzzy and shrunk up.

This Description cannot be understood, without knowing that, which is very observable of this, and a great number of other Plants; and whereunto, no one Botanick hath adverted: viz. That the Root is annually repaired, or renewed out of the Stalk it self. Particularly, of this Plant, that one of its two Roots doth every year perish, the other is new made; not out of the other Root before it perishes, but out of the Stalk it self. The Stalk descending by such degrees, as that part thereof which, the last year, was the lowermost above ground; this year, being sunk (or rather by the appendent strings pulled) under ground, becomes the upper Root; the next year, the under Root; and the year after, rots off; another new Root being still yearly made out of the Stalk. By which way, and not as Trees by the same numerical Root, this and other like Plants are perennial.

This Root, the Egyptians eat very greedily, both raw, boil'd, and all manner of ways; supposing them, prÆvalidè excitare venerem. The Roots of the common Arum boil'd, were heretofore eaten among the Greeks: and may tast as well as boil'd Onions.

A pair of large GINGER ROOTS; one of which, when green, might weigh four or five ounces. And is said to be dug up, sometimes, of fourteen Ounces. The Plant uncertainly describ'd. Acosta compares it to that call'd Lachryma Jobi; Lobelius, Lib. de Bals. to a Reed; Garcias, to a Flag; and Bauhinus pictures it accordingly with a trivalvous Cod. Piso, out of Bontius's Papers, gives two Figures, one of the Male, the other of the Female: and supposeth, that the uncertainty of Relations hereof may proceed partly from the not distinguishing betwixt them. The Stalk of the Male indeed seems to have some little likeness to a Flag. But the Seed-Cod is there neither figur'd nor describ'd.

The best Ginger grows upon the Coast of Malabar. That which is preserved with Sugar, comes, or did at least in Linschotus's time, from Bengala and China.


The great FLAGON GOURD, or rather CALABASH, for such I take it to be, and that therefore it should have been placed with that sort of Fruit. Bauhinus Lib. 16. c. 1. describes a Gourd in shape pretty like to this by the Name of Cucurbita Lagenaria; but mentions neither how big, nor of what hardness the shell; in which latter respect the Fruit here before us, (as do most Calibashes) far exceeds all the sorts of Gourds that I know. 'Tis very smooth, and of a parchment-colour: near eleven inches long. That part of the Neck next the Tree three inches and ¼ over; next the belly three and ¼; the belly it self, nine inches; or two feet three inches about; the top depressed. The shell as hard almost as a Plum-stone, and at the small end above a quarter of an inch thick.

A LONG Indian GOURD. I find it not describ'd. Almost of a golden colour; in length, ten inches; in the middle, where it is thickest, three over; from thence it grows slender to the Stalk; the top Oval. Made angular with ten Ribs, or great Fibers produced by the length, in the middle about an inch distant one from another, and appearing the higher, by the shrinking down of the sides between them. The Rind not hard, within, whitish and very fibrous. The Seeds, black and rough, near ½ an inch long, flat, oval, and horned, as it were, with two knobs at the Base: being chewd, of a very bitter tast.

The WARTED GOURD. Figur'd, and in some sort described Lib. 16. c. 1. in Bauhinus. Probably, Lobelius's Sicyopepon Strumosus. This is above a foot and ½ about, near ½ a foot long, thickest towards the top, and there a little depressed as an Apple. Soft and brittle, and now just of the colour of Buff-Leather. The Warts or Knobs all round about it, are neither blisters, nor solid, but embossed parts of the Rind.

Another of the same Species, but lesser.

The LONG WARTED GOURD. Not described. Almost two feet in compass, and near a foot in length. In other respects, altogether like the former.

ANOTHER with small and few WARTS. About four inches long, towards the upper end, as much over. The colour, and shape at the top, as of the rest.

The BROAD TUBEROUS GOURD. Probably that described and figur'd in Bauh. Lib. 16. c. 1. by the Name of Cucurbita Clypeiformis s. Melopepon latus; at least of kin to it. Of a Buff colour, as the former; four inches long, four and ½ broad; surrounded with undulated Knobs an inch or 1 ½ over, with furrows between each Knob and by the length; depressed at the bottom; the top with a knob ½ an inch over.

The FLAT GOURD. Melopepo compressus alter, Lobelio. This came from Virginia. 'Tis three inches long, or from the Stalk to the top, and three and ½ inch broad; at both ends, compressed like a Bowl. Of a dusky yellow mixed with tawny.

The Little, Round, Bitter GOURD. Figur'd in Bauhinus Lib. 16. c. 1. under the Title of Cucurbita amara, fructu parvo, globoso, colore varia. The Description lies in the Name. A sort of Colocynthis.

The Yellow, Round, GOURD. In Bauh. the Fruit and Plant together, entitul'd, Cucurbita aspera, minima, sphÆrica, crocea, variegata. With a conjecture of its being the same with that which by Tabernamontanus is called Pepo Indica minor.

Not only the shells of Calabashes, but also the Rinds of Gourds, are used as Vessels for Gums, and other matters better than Earth or Wood, as being both light, and not brittle. The little bitter Gourd, being eaten, worketh by Vomit and Stool. The Water distill'd from unripe Gourds, applied with Linnen, is most successful, and a great Experiment against that Heat, called Syriasis, Bauh. lib. 16. c. 1. p 217. especially in Infants.

A FRUIT in shape somewhat like a WILD CUCUMER; yet not, as that, hairy, but smooth. The Seeds also of both are in figure, colour, and tast, altogether alike. So that perhaps it may not be improperly called Cucumis Sylvestris glaber.

A FRUIT, supposed by Clusius, Exot. lib. 2. c. 18. to be that of the EGYPTIAN-BEAN of Dioscorides, a Water-Plant. 'Tis of a brown Bay, and of a softish and light substance; the top, which is broadest, above three inches over, and flat; divided into about twenty round and open Cells, almost like an Honey-Comb. In each Cell is contained a Bean or Nut, alike colour'd, of an Oval shape, as big as a small Akorn, and in the same manner pointed at the top. See also the Figure in Bauh.

A slender COD of GUINY-PEPPER. Capsici Siliqua angusta. Piso Hist. l. 4. c. 51. describes and figures nine or ten sorts, all growing in Brasile, and there called Quiya; of which this is the longest and most slender. 'Tis used as a great Stomachick Medicine, and in Sauces, both in substance and infusion, in America, Spain, and other Countries, and by many prefer'd before the best Pepper.

The COD of the Broad Leav'd DOGSBANE. Siliqua Apocyni latifolij. Given by George Wheeler Esq;. Described and figur'd in Bauhinus: L. 15. c. 15. p. 135. but with the Cods shorter and thicker than their natural shape. Of kin to that which Lobelius calls the Scammony of Montpelier. Along the middle or centre of the Cod, runs a slender fibrous pillar, to which, and not to the sides of the Cod, the Seeds are fasten'd on both sides it; and so encompassed about with Down, wherewith the Cod is fill'd up. A provident forecast of Nature to keep them warm. The said Down consisteth not of single Hairs, but Plumes, affixed to the Seeds, wherewith they are winged for their being more dispersedly wafted by the Aer, and prevent their falling in a ruck on the ground.

The CODS of the wild WOAD, (Glasti Sylvestris) together with the Seeds therein contain'd.

A small SPIRAL FRUIT. Above an inch long, and ¼ over. It consisteth of five little Cods, all growing upon one Stalk, and thence twisted all together (as several strings in a Rope) are at the end united in a slender point.

The WATER-CALTROP. Tribulus aquaticus. Described in Bauhinus. A kind of shelly Fruit of a brown colour; divided into four thick and sharp-pointed Spikes, quadrangularly. In the centre of which is lodged a white and well tasted Kernel. They grow in the Rivers and Lakes in Italy and Germany. Where, in times of scarcity, the people make Bread of the Kernels.

Some EARS of Tangier WHEAT. Given by the Honourable Charles Howard of Norfolk Esq;. The Plant described in Bauhinus by the Name of Triticum cum multiplici Spicâ. For it is a great broad Spike, as it were branched out into several little lesser ones; yet all closely compacted: in the middle ½ inch thick, and an inch and ¼ broad; four long, and sharp pointed.

Some more EARS of the same sort, brought from Portugal where it grew.


The THICK FRENCH-BEAN. Phaseolum maximè tumidum. An inch and ¼ long, ¼ broad, and ½ an inch thick. The seat of the Bean, or of its Plancentula, that is, the part whereon it grows, as long; of a brown colour, with a black rimm.

The slender FRENCH-BEAN, of several sizes and colours, sc. Red, Black, White or Ash-colour, and the same spoted with black. Although these are quite different from the Fabaceous kind, yet I have retained the English Name, because in use.

The ROUND scarlet Phaseolus. Abrus coccineum majus. Bauhinus Lib. 17. p. 264. describes it under the Title of Pisum Americanum; improperly, for that the Peasen, and the Phaseolous kind, are very different. And for the Figure hereof, by some oversight, is placed that of a sort of Palme-Nut. 'Tis a scarlet Fruit about as big as a Rounseval Peas, and somewhat flat.

The LESSER AMERICAN-BEAN. About ¼ of an inch broad, almost square, and very thick. The seat of the Placenta, black; which reaches almost half round the Bean. Here are preserved both Black ones, and of a Scarlet or Coralline colour.

An ORBICULAR Indian PEAS. A large one, sc. ¼ of an inch Diametre: of a shining straw-colour, mixed with yellowish StriÆ as it were in rings: not much unlike the little round stones wherewith Children play, called Marbles.

Another ROUND Indian PEAS. About as big as the former, and also round. But somewhat flat on both sides, as a Loaf. And of a whitish colour.

An OVAL Indian PEAS. A very large one, sc. near an inch long, and above ½ an inch over; of a long Oval Figure, so as to resemble a Sparrows Egg. But of a shining blewish ash-colour, like a Jaspis. Bauhinus Lib. 17. p. 276. figures and describes a Fruit (or Seed) pretty like to this, with the Name of Phaseolus Ovo Columbino ferè similis. But by his Description it is neither of the Phaseolous, nor Fabaceous, but of the Peas-kind; as both This, and the two precedent ones, also are. The Characteristick of which kind is, To have the Placenta, and so the Seat of it, always very small.

The GUINEY-PEAS. Described in Bauhinus by the Name of Pisum Americanum coccinem s. Abrus minus. Although the Abrus majus be of the Phaseolous kind. 'Tis of the bigness of a young Peas, of an Oval shape, and Scarlet colour, when fresh very pure; and adorned upon the seat of the Placenta with a black spot. Here are some also of the same sort, all over black. They grow in Madagascar and China; where they eat them not, but only use them for weights. In Europe, sometimes for Necklaces and Bracelets for the Wrists.

The great CICHE. Cicer ruffus major. In Italy, Spain and France Ciches are commonly sown (as Clover-Grass) in the Fields. In some parts of France, they use them not only medically, but for food.

The great LENTIL. Leus major. This also is sown, in France, in the Fields, as the Ciche.

The great Wild VETCH. Vicia maxima sylvestris.

The CANDY VETCH. Arachoides Honorij Belli, s. Cretica. Described, in Bauhinus, Lib. 17. c. 19. by the Author from whom the Name. The Seed it self, like a little Lentil. Seldom more than one in a Cod. The Cod is short and broad, about the bigness of a Silver Half-peny; On the outside cancellated or favous, almost as in the seed of Poppy.

What H. Bellus affirms Ibid. of this Plant, is observable, sc. That it bears Cods not only on the Stalk, but also on the Roots under ground.

The KIDNEY-VETCH. Semen Anthyllidis leguminosÆ.

The CRIMSON GRASS VETCH. s. Catanance.

The MEDICK FITCHLING. s. Onobrychis.

The EVERLASTING VETCH; so it seems to be. Vicia multiflora perennis.

The EVERLASTING PEAS. Lathyrus perennis.

The PRICKLY HEDG-PARSLY Seed. Semen Caucalidis echinatum. s. LappulÆ CanariÆ latifoliÆ.


The AZORICK sweet FENIL Seed. Shaped like that of the Shops, but much less.

The Seed of the stringy BIRTHWORT of Virginia. s. PistolochiÆ VirginianÆ.

The Seed of Indian SCABIOUS. Somewhat bigger than the common.

The Seed of the BUGLOSS with the yellow Flower.

The Seed of a SENSITIVE Plant. s. HerbÆ mimosÆ. There are several Species described by Clusius, and others. That of Clusius, about five handful high, and hath the tast and smell of Liquirish. This Seed is of a dark brown, not much bigger than that of a Purple Stock, angular, and frequently of a Rhomboidal Figure. It takes its Name (as is commonly known) from its Imitation of sense or Animal motion. For so soon as you touch the Leaves, they presently fall, till they lie upon the ground. After a while, they rise again; but being touched, fall as before.

The Seed of VENUS LOOKING-GLASS. Of the shape and bigness of a Fly-blow, but of a dark glistering colour, like polish'd Steel. Figur'd and describ'd by Mr. Hook. Micrographia.

The Seed of PRICK MADAM; Sedi minoris. In colour, shape and bigness, almost like to that of Pancy-Seed, or the Viola tricolor, but a little less.

The Seed of Wild GARLICK.

The SEED of the Carduus headed HAWKWEED. The Plant described by Bauhinus, but not the Seed. 'Tis ½ of an inch long, as thick as that of the lesser Hawkweed, and of a yellowish straw colour; a little crooked, with the top swell'd and pointed, and view'd in a Glass, appears wrinkled round about.

The lesser Champaine TREACLE MUSTARD-Seed. s. Thlaspios Campestris.

The Seed of the great STAR of BETHLEHEM. s. Ornithogali sl. pleno. Of the bigness of Mallow-Seed, and very black; on one side round, on the other angular.

The Seed of the VERVAINE MALLOW of Japan. s. AlceÆ Japonensis. As small as that of the common Mallow, but longer and more like a Kidney; of a brownish yellow, yet cover'd with a white, thin, and very short Down.

Summer WHEAT of New England. So call'd (though less properly) because sown and ripe the same year. Whether from the Nature of the Grain, or the Soil and Climate, trial hath not been made.

SECT. IV. Of MOSSES, MUSHROONS, &c. Together with some Appendents to Plants.

OF MOSSES here are about four and twenty Species. Most of them gather'd in a Wood in Surrey, and given by John Evelyn, Esq;.

The CREEPING TREE MOSSE of America. 'Twas found betwixt Virginia and Florida. It consisteth of several Threds, somewhat thicker than a Taylors, cover'd all over with little skiny Scales, hardly visible without a Glass. The greater number of these Threds put forth two or three more, and so those as many, repeating them after every two inches, all of equal thickness. In which manner they spread wonderfully both in length and breadth. 'Tis probable, that under those little Scales may lie the Seed of the Mosse.

The SHIELDY Tree MOSSE. Muscus arboreus scutellaris. So called, for that it grows with several broad round Heads, from a ¼ to ½ an inch over, and a little Concave, not unlike a Buckler. Described and figur'd in Bauhinus.

The soft BEARDED Tree-MOSSE. Muscus arbor: barbat. Imperati. Described by the Author of the Name. It consisteth of a great number of strings in a cluster; some of them at the bottom, as thick as a Knitting-pin, and ½ a foot in length; all ending as small as a fine Thread; and not unaptly resembling a Beard.

The Crisp BEARDED MOSSE. Different from the former, only in being more rough and woody.

The FISTULAR Tree-MOSSE. Described in Bauhinus by the Name of Muscus arbor: Villosus. By whom it is mistakenly said to be woody: it being wholly of a pithy substance, and having all its Branches hollow as so many little Pipes: from whence I have nam'd it.

The Dwarf PIPE-MOSSE. Different from the precedent in being shorter, and more spread thick and bushy. That which is called Usnea Officinorum.

The HORNED Tree-MOSSE; consisting of short crooked Pipes.

The greater FLAT-MOSSE. Muscus arbor: ramosus, s. latiramis major. Figur'd, as if it were nothing else but a branched Skin.

The dwarf FLAT-MOSSE. M. latiramis humilis.

The CROWNED FLAT-MOSSE, having a flat Head or Crown on the top. Thus far of Tree-Mosses.

The greater CAPILLARY-MOSSE. Polytrichum majus.


The greater BRAINCHED Ground-MOSSE. Described and figur'd in Bauh. with the Title of Muscus terrestris repens Trago pictus.

The lesser BRAINCHED Ground-MOSSE. Muscus terrestris ramosus minor. Of the same Species with the Skull-Mosse. Described in Bauhinus, as I take it, with the Title of Muscus Abietis facie.

The FIRN-MOSSE. M. silicinus; so called from its likeness to a young Firn-Branch.

The TOOTHED-MOSSE. M. terrestris denticulatus. The several strings hereof, border'd on both sides with jagged or toothed Membrans. Figur'd and describ'd in Bauhinus, under the Name of Muscus pulcher parvus repens.

The smallest CREEPING MOSSE. M. terr. repens minimus.

The lesser ground MOSSE with REVERTED Leaves; that is, with their points doubled backward. So small, as hardly to be observed distinctly without a Glass.

The CROWNED Ground-MOSSE. The Branches hereof are of an ash-colour, ½ an inch log, flat and skinny, and crowned at the top with round, flat, and blackish Heads.

The greater FISTULAR Ground-MOSSE. The Pipes of this Mosse are also of an ash-colour, about an inch long, and as thick as an Oaten straw.

The lesser FISTULAR MOSSE. The Pipes of this are an inch and ½ high, and as thick as a good big Needle.

The FLORID FISTULAR MOSSE. M. Tubul. Esslorescens. The Pipes of this are also ashen, slender, an inch long, with jagged and redish Heads, somewhat like little Flowers.

The CUP-MOSSE. Musc. Pyxidatus; so called, because its several Sprigs have Concave Heads like little Cups.

Of Mosses, it may be Noted, That they are all comprehended under two general kinds. One whereof, is properly to be called WOODY, or That, in which we find a stringy or fibrous Part, included within a Cortical: and are therefore to be number'd amonst perfect Plants. Of which sort, are the Terrestris repens, Denticulatus, Ramosus, Capillaris, Filicinus, Folijs retroversis, Barbatus, Scutellatus, & Americanus. The other simply CORTICAL, whether flat or round; and therefore to be reckon'd of the Family of Imperfect Plants. Of which sort, are the Pyxidatus, Terrestr. Tubularis, Arboreus Tubularis s. Usnea offic. Latiramis, Latiramis Coronatus, Corniculatus, Terrest. Coronatus & Tubul. efflorescens.

The Jagged Tree-LIVERWORT. Lichen arboreus laciniatus.

The Curled Tree-LIVERWORT. L. laciniatus crispus.

A Great FISTULAR MUSHROON. So I call it. Given by Sir Rob. Southwell. I find no Description of this Species. They commonly grow upon the Elm. This is ½ a Cone, as having grown to the side of the Tree without stalk. The Diametre of the Base, near ½ a yard; from whence it rises above ¼ of a yard in height, narrowing all the way to the top. Girded with several Rings of various breadth. Outwardly, very hard and dense. Inwardly soft and compressable, like a Pith, and is in substance really such. Consisting of an innumerable company of small soft Fibers, wrought together almost as pure fine Wooll in a Hat. The bottom is all over perforated with Pores; of the bigness of those little FoveÆ in the seeds of Poppy; and are the extremities of as many small strait and parallel Pipes of a considerable length, probably, almost through to the top, as I have seen them in a lesser of the same kind. These Pores or Pipes may be distinctly seen without a Glass. With one, a Slice of the Mushroon looks like a piece of wood out of which Button-Moulds have been turn'd. Both the substance of the Pipes, and of the other parts of the Mushroon, so far as visible, is answerable only to the Cortical, or pithy Part of a Plant. So that it seems to be but half of a perfect Plant: or wanting the Lignous Part, by which all Plants receive their various Figures, is a kind of Vegetable Mola; in comparison, a rude mishapen thing.

That which hath formerly See the Authors two last Books Of Plants, the former Of Roots, the latter Of Trunks; especially this latter. been by me observed with the help of Glasses, by the Pith of this Mushroon is further confirm'd, and clearly represented to the naked eye, sc. That the Pith of a Plant, as well as the Wood, is wholly fibrous.

A smaller FISTULAR MUSHROON, about four inches in diametre. In which the aforesaid Pipes apparently run parallel for the length of near two inches and ½, or from the bottom almost to the top.

A THIRD and FOURTH still lesser than the former.

Part of the CORK-MUSHROON. 'Tis eight inches in Diametre, exactly of the colour and substance of the best Cork, sc. light, soft, compressible and springy: from whence I name it. In the middle, an inch and ½ thick, the Circumference very thin; the upper side solid, the under divided into several Plates by the Diametre, frequently so joyn'd together, as to make a great many little Cells, somewhat like to those in a Honey-Comb.

The SPONGE MUSHROON. So it may be call'd, for that it is porous almost after the manner of some Sponges, particularly the Cup-Spunge hereafter describ'd. And is also of the same colour. But hath the substance of a Tree-Mushroon.

The CORAL-like MUSHROON. Described in Bauhinus amongst Mosses, with the Title of Muscus Coralloides. Figur'd by Lobelius.

The SCARLET CATSTAIL MUSHROON of Malta. Fungus Typhoides coccineus Melitensis. Given by Sigr. Boccone, and by him described and figur'd. Desc. Plant. Rarior.

The round Venimous MUSHROON of the Hazle. F. Coryleus orb. venen.

The HART-FUSBAL. Tuber cervinum s. Cervi Boletus. So called, from a false Opinion, that they are there only found, where Deer go to Rut. Described by Bauhinus.

THE AROMATIC TUBERA negro Glyster Bag I find no Description hereof. 'Tis in length ½ a foot; at the lower part, half an inch thick, or in Diametre; in the middle, two inches and ½; the top, oval or elliptick; not unaptly resembling the Boon critton-Pear. Of a brown colour, soliddense, and ponderous; and tough, almost like Glew. Being fir'd, it burns with much flame, melts into a good deal of Oil, and yields a smoak of a grateful Aromatick smell.See p. 385

The KERMES BERRY. Coccum s. Granum Infectorium. Commonly, but absurdly, so called; as not being a Fruit, but only a round Ball or Button, nourished on the Boughs and Leaves of the Dwarf-Ilex, or the Ilex Coccigera; a kind of Shrub, in France, Spain, and Italy, with prickly Leaves, like a little Holly-Bush. This Berry when fresh gather'd (which is at the end of May and the beginning of June) is full of a Crimson Juyce, or Pulp, so called, which, for the most part of it, is a heap of small red Mites. And containeth also, as is probable, one or more Maggots, which feed upon the Mites.

The said Juyce or Pulp (as it is called) is made use of for the Confection of Alkermes, and other purposes. For the Deyers use, the Berrys are spread abroad upon Linnen, and to prevent heating, turned twice a day. When the Mites creep out and cover the Berrys, they are sprinkled with Vinegar, and rub'd a little, and so separated by a Searce; repeating, till the Berrys yield no more. Of this Pulp, Powder, or Heap of Mites, are formed little Balls, and so exposed to the Sun to dry. The use of the Vinegar, is to kill or weaken the Mites and Maggots, which otherwise would turn to little Flys (rather Bees. ) The empty Husks, being washed with Wine and dry'd, are put up in Sacks, either alone, or with a quantity of powder in the middle. This Account I have drawn up out of the Observations communicated by Dr. William Croon Phil. Trans. N. 20. p. 363. from Mr. Verny an Apothecary at Montpelier, and those of Mr. Lyster, Ibid. N. 87. p. 5059. which illustrate each other.

To the Remarques above mention'd, I shall add one more, which is, That as the Pulp or Powder, so called, is a Cluster of small Animals: so the Husk it self is an Animal Body, as it were grafted on the Stock or Leaf, whereon it grows; and so converteth all the nourishment it deriveth thence (as Bread eaten is turned to Flesh) into its own Animal Nature. And that the said Husk is really an Animal Body, appears by that fetid scent it gives, like that of Horns, Hair, and the like, upon its being burnt. A property, which I find belonging to no Plant whatsœver, except to some Sea-Plants, as in the following Section shall be instanced. So that, though in compliance with the Vulgar Opinion, I have placed it here, yet ought it to be treated of amongst Animals.

English KERMES BERRYS. Observed, and sent by Martin Lyster Esq;. Together with several Remarques, relating both to the Foreign kind, and to This. Phil. Trans. N. 71. p. 2165. N. 72. p. 2177. N. 73. p. 2196. compared with N. 87. p. 5059. This, he found upon the Plum, Vine, and several other Trees, especially the Cherry. The Husk of a Chesnut colour, containing four or five Maggots of the Bee-kind, producing a Bee less than an Ant; together with a Pulp or Heap of Mites, (as the other Kermes) on which the Maggots feed. The empty Husk, rub'd upon a white Paper, tinged it with a beautiful Purple or Murrey.

The principal difference which I note betwixt the Forreign and these English Berrys, now dry, is, That in those, the powder is red, and more bitter, in these white, and less bitter. But whether the powder in these also was not once red, I cannot say. For in some even of the Forreign Berrys, I find it white. Which I the rather note, that they may be separated by Apothecaries from the rest, as being stark naught.

COCHINELE. Coccus Radicum. The former Name, seemeth to be but the diminutive of Coccus. The latter, grounded upon the Opinion, That as the Kermes Berry grows on the Body and Leaves, so this, on the Roots, of Plants, especially on those of Pimpinel; yet in some places only. Further, I find no certain account. To me, thus much seems evident, That 'tis neither a Vegetable Excrescence, as some surmise; nor an Insect, as others: yet an Animal Body, as the Kermes Berry, by some Insect affixed to a Plant; and thence nourished for a time, but gather'd before it be fill'd with Mites or Maggots. For being held, as the Kermes Berry, in the flame of a Candle; it usually huffs and swells, but always stinks, like Hair or Horn when they are burnt.

A scruple of Cochinele added to an ounce of Saccharum Saturni, makes a most curious Purple; but I believe fading.

A GREAT GALL, which grew upon that sort of Oak described by Clusius in the third place; and frequent in Spain. 'Tis now of a dark brown, and smooth; of a SphÆrical Figure, with a few small knobs here and there; as big as a little Apple, sc. near two inches in Diametre.


I Find, upon particular Observation, that of SEASHRUBS there are two general kinds. Such as are strictly woody, that is, have the colour and fibrosity of Wood, and burn and smell like Wood. And such as are, in a manner, horny, or look, bend, burn and smell like Horn.

A WOODY SHRUB. Frutex marinus verè ligneus. 'Tis here cut off from the Root. About a foot in height, with four Branches spread out as broad, and cover'd with several thick Knobs of a sort of softish white Coral; the sides of which Knobs are a ¼ of an inch thick; the surface almost like that of Poppy-Seed.

ANOTHER, near a 1]/4 of a yard high, as thick as the Ring-Finger, with white and hardish Incrustations upon the tops of its Branches. Any strong Acid droped on the said Crust, causeth an Effervescence: so that it seems to be a Coralline substance.

A THIRD, with the Branches broken, and without a Crust, three or four inches high, and as thick as the middle Finger.

A FOURTH, with the Branches also broken, and without a Crust. 'Tis a small one; but hath a very large Root, curiously spread all over the backside of an Oyster-shell.

And it may here be observ'd, That the Roots not only of this, but almost all Sea-Shrubs, instead of being Ramified, are spread out in the form of a Skin or Membrane, and so stick fast to some hard and steady Body as their Base.

Another slender one, about a ¼ of a yard high, but the Root broken off.

A FLAT WOODY SHRUB. Frutex M. ligneus, expansus, ramulis coeuntibus. In all the former, the Branches are expanded every way: in this, only one way, or in breadth. 'Tis also of a softer substance, and more brittle. Of a Purple colour, almost like the woody part of Alkanet Root. Above ½ a foot high, and as broad. Several of the Branches united together, as in the Sea-Fan. Some of these Shrubs were found near the Straights of Gibraltar.

The Horny SHRUBS are also of two general kinds; either with the Branches loose; or else united together.

A great tall HORNY SHRUB with LOOSE BRAINCHES. Frutex Corneo-ligneus major erectior solutis Ramulis. 'Tis above a yard and ½ high. Consisteth of five or six principal Branches, equal to a Tobacco-Pipe-Stalk where thickest; having scarce any callateral ones. Bends like Whalebone, and both without and within, looks not unlike to that, or Black-Horn. And in like manner, curles, huffs or swells, and stinks in burning. The Root cut off.

ANOTHER of the same, ¼ of a yard high, and more branched.

A THIRD, with more numerous Branches than the former. Cover'd with a very thick, but soft Incrustation; originally of a Purple colour, but now for the most part turned brown; curiously perforated, as it were with Pinholes, all round about. Probably the foundation of one sort of perforated Coral.

A great ARBORESCENT HORNY SHRUB. Half a yard High, and a foot in breadth, being spread in the form of an Oak, with great Branches about as thick as a mans Thumb. The Stock, six or seven inches in compass. The Root spread upon a stony Base, and of a brown colour. The Branches black both without and within; and swell, or huff, and stink, like Horn, in burning.

ANOTHER, spread also, in part, as a Tree. Half a yard high, and near as broad. Of a blackish colour; and stinks a little in burning; but swells not. Cover'd with a very thick, but soft purple Crust. To several of the Branches are also curiously fasten'd the WOMBS or NESTS of a certain Insect, as big as a Horse-Bean, of a roundish figure; within, whitish, smooth and glossy; without, cover'd with the said soft and purple Crust.

A small HORNY SHRUB with LOOSE Branches. The Root is curiously spread upon a Stone like a thin skin. The Trunk of a yellowish brown, and thick as an Oaten straw, divided into slender Twiggs, to about a foot in height; flexible, and having a soft and white Pith. Being burnt, they not only send forth a very stinking smoke, but also swell into a light and spongy Cynder, just like that of Whale-bone, Cow-Horn, Leather, or other like Animal-Body. Most of them are cover'd with a soft ash-colour'd Crust. Neither Oil of Vitriol, nor any other, except a Nitrous Acid, droped upon this Crust, causeth an Effervenscence. Which shews the Salt therein contained, to have affinity with that in the stones bred in Animals.

TWO more small HORNY and incrustated Shrubs.

TWO more, growing together on a stony Base, not Incrustated.

A FLAT, HORNY SHRUB, with LOOSE Branches. Frutex Corneo-ligneus, expansus, solutis Ramulis. In all the former, the Branches were expanded every way: in this, only one way, or in breadth. The Root spread like a Membrane, upon its Base, as in the former. 'Tis near ½ a foot high, and almost ¼ broad, shaped not unlike a Feather-Fan, formerly in use. The Trunk ¼ of an inch over, divided into a great number of Branches round, black, smooth, somewhat flexible, and having a Pith. In burning they huff and stink, as the former. Cover'd with a soft and ash-colour'd Crust, all over knobed with little Vesicles, which are sometimes perforated.

ANOTHER, more tall, and with both a White or Grey, and Red Crust; not on the same but several Branches. The former, knobed; the other, as it were daubed upon the Branches. Given by Sigr. Boccone, and by him also figur'd.

ANOTHER of these growing Double, or divided next the Root into two spreading and parallel Bodies.

A flat HORNEY SHRUB, with more NUMEROUS Branches. About a foot broad, and near as high. Rooted in a kind of Brain-stone. Without any Crust. The Branches, as more numerous, so slender, longer, and more flexible, so as to be somewhat bearded.

ANOTHER, with less numerous Branches, and SEMIPERSPICUOUS, if held up against the light. Above a foot high, and ¼ broad. It neither huffs nor stinks so much in burning, as do the former.

A Flat HORNY SHRUB with COLLATEARAL Branches. Frutex corneo-ligneus filiciformis, So I name it. In all the former, the Branches are reciprocal, or not of equal height on both sides the great Stemm: in this, just opposite, as in a Feather or Branch of the Male-Firne. Near a foot high, and five inches broad. The small or side Sprigs are round, as in all the former. But the middle Stemm is flat. Both This and the others, Semiperspicuous. They stink in burning, but swell not. Cover'd with a soft, purple, knobed, and perforated Crust.

ANOTHER large one, with two middle Stems, but all the side Branches broken off. In height ½ an Eln. The Root of a light and skinny substance, spread abroad so, as to make six inches compass.

ANOTHER not so tall as the former, (about a foot high) but the middle Stems thicker. The collateral Branches here also broken off.

Another small one: but with the Root curiously spread upon its stony Base, like a thin smooth Leafe. Most of these flat Shrubs grow in the Mediterranean-Sea.

A Flat SHRUB with UNITED Branches. Frutex expansus, Ramulis coeuntibus. 'Tis a foot high, and ½ a yard broad. Divided reciprocally into severally Branches, containing a Pith. In all the foregoing, the Branches are all loose or separate; in this, some of the smallest meet in one; as Inosculated Veins, or as the Fibers in the Leaves of Plants. Of a blackish colour, and somewhat fetid upon burning. Cover'd with an ash-colour'd, soft, and knobed Crust.

ANOTHER, with the Branches and Conjuctions much more numerous, so as to make very close Work. Near a foot high, and almost as broad. Stinks in burning, and is cover'd with a knobed Crust, as the former.

A Great SEA-FAN. Frutex m. maximus, RETICULATUS, s. Flabellum marinum maximum. In the two former, only some, here all the Ramifications are united, so as to make one entire piece of Net-work, in the shape of a Fan. 'Tis above ¼ of a yard high, and almost a yard and ½ broad. The Root wonderfully spread upon its stony Base. For being extended every way, some of its Skirts meet underneath, and so embrace it round about. The Branches of a blackish brown, and swell and stink, like Horns, in burning. Cover'd with a soft Crust, originally Purple, but now for the most part faded into an ashen colour.

ANOTHER large SEA-FAN, ¼ of a yard high, and ½ an Eln broad. Incrustated as the former. It hath this peculiar, sc. out of the sides of it, grow several other small Fans, about a ¼ of a yard long (more or less) and near as broad.

TWO more large SEA-FANS, above ½ a yard high, and as broad. Incrustated as the former. Of one of these Fans, and about this bigness, see an elegant Figure in Calceolarius's Musæum. Sect. 1.

THREE Midling SEA-FANS, near ½ a yard broad, and a foot high. Incrustated as the others.

THREE small SEA-FANS. Two of them are a ¼ of a yard high, and as broad. The Third, is less. Yet hath several little netted Labels growing on the side. All three incrustated, as before.

A SEA-FAN with CLOSE Net-work. Whereas the former consisted of more open work; as by comparing even a lesser of those herewith, is apparent. Neither hath this any Crust. 'Tis ½ an Eln high, and a foot broad. Several of the smaller Ramification, thin or flat, sc. transversly to the breadth; looking like little Splinters of Whalebone. In burning, it swells, and stinks, as the others.

ANOTHER of the same, but not above a foot high, and near half as broad. This also is naked or without any Crust, as the former. Most of these Fans grow in the American-Ocean.

Wormius, speaking of Sea-Shrubs Mus. l. 2. c. 35. at the end. hath this passage,---Mirum profect??, quomodo hujus generis vegetabilia ex ijs (saxis puta) nutrimentum trahere valeant. Whereas 'tis plain, That they receive no nourishment from them, but the Sea-Water, and such nutritive Bodies wherewith it is impregnated. And it is therefore observable, That although the Trunk and Branches of these Shrubs are of a close and dense substance; yet their Roots are always made soft and spongy (especially when recently gather'd) the better to imbibe their Aliment. So that the use of the Stone, or stony Body, on which they stand, is only to be a Base to keep them steady, and in the most convenient posture for their growth.

These, and other Sea-Plants hereafter describ'd, stinking, as is said, like Horns, in burning, and some of them not uneasily procur'd, it may be worth the Trial; Whether in Hysterical, Epileptick, or other like Cases, they may not prove more effectual, than Animal Bodies.

CHAP. II. Of other SEA-PLANTS, and of SPONGES.

The HORN-PLANT. Tuba marina; as it may be called from its form. 'Tis about two yards and ¼ high. At the bottom, not two inches about; from whence it grows thicker all the way to the top, where it is seven inches in compass, and of an Oval Figure. Hollow quite through from the top till within about two feet of the bottom. The sides no thicker than a Hazle-Nutshell. Not woody, but tough, like the young Barque of a Tree, or a piece of tan'd Leather; and within, of a like colour; but black without. It grows in the West-Indian Ocean. The Indians cut off the top and so much of the small end as is solid, and lining the inside with a sort of Glew, or of Lacker, make themselves Horns hereof either for Hunting, or other use.

A Tuft or Bunch of CORALLINE. Described and figur'd by most Botanicks. I add (what I think is unnoted) That the inward part of this Plant is truly Ligneous or Fibrous: the outward, from whence its Name, being only a Crust growing upon it, as in the Shrubs above described. 'Tis esteemed an excellent Remedy against Worms.

FLAT CORALLINE, as it may be called, or Spangle-Wort. Described in Bauhinus Lib. 39. c. 30. and figur'd. by the Name of Opuntia marina. By Ferranti Imperato, Lib. 27. with the Name of Serotlara. It consisteth wholly of Leaves, joyned edge to edge, as in the Indian-Fig; Somewhat round, and scallop'd, and not much bigger than a silver Spangle. The inward part of the Leaves is fibrous, and by small woody Threds are tacked together. But, as in Coralline, covered all over with a white Crust; which, in like manner, makes a strong Effervescence with Acid liquors.

The BEARDED SEA-WRACK. Fucus capillaris tinctorius, s. Roccella. Figur'd in Imperatus; Lib. 27. And out of him, in Bauhinus. Lib. 39. But without a Description. Neither will it admit an exact one, now dry. 'Tis three inches and ½ high; and five or six about. The Root, in compass, two inches, one in height, divided into a great number of small capillary Branches or Sprigs, thick set, as in a Broom or Beard, very brittle, and of a faded Purple. It grows in the East-Indies. Of excellent use, especially heretofore, for the making of Tinctures both for Painting and Deying.

A sort of the common SEA-Wrack, called Alga Vitrariorum.

The BLADDER'D SEA-WRACK. Alga Vesicaria s. conifera, as it may be called; having on the tops of its Branches several Conick Bags, an inch, or an inch and ½ long, warted round about, and originally fill'd with a light and fuzzy substance.

The WARTED SEA-WRACK. Fucus verrucosus Imperati. Lib. 27. On which grow a great many vesicular and soft Knobs all along the Branches, as well as on the top.

The BROADEST SEA-WRACK. Alga latissima Membranacea. The Root hereof, stringy. The Stalk, round, as thick as a Goose-Quill, and about five inches high. From thence 'tis spread, by degrees, into a thin Skin too inches and ½ broad.

ANOTHER of the same Species, but not so broad.

The POUNCED SEA-WRACK. Alga marina [Greek text], Bauhino. Poro Cervino, Imperato. 'Tis wholly distributed into flat Branches, all of an inch broad, almost after the manner of a Stags Horns. Of a russet colour, and as it were all over pounced, somewhat after the manner of a Rue-Leaf, or that of St. Johns Wort, when held up against the light.

The SPIRAL SEA-WRACK. It winds about, very curiously, with a great many Circumvolutions, almost like a very deep Skrew. Described, figur'd, and given by Sigr. Boccone. De Plantis Rariorib. p. 70. Tab. 38.

The SEA-MILFOYLE. Myriophyllum pelagium. s. Muscus maritimus silicis folio. Clusius hath a Figure somewhat answerable to this Title, and out of him Bauhinus. Yet either it is faulty, or of another Species. His, represented with alternate Branches. Here, they are collaternal, as in the Male-Firne. And curiously denticulated, in the like manner. It grows in very deep Gulfs of the Sea.

This Plant hath the same odd property, with several of the Sea-Shrubs before described; which is, that being fired, it makes a strong stinking smoak, like that of burnt Bones, Horns, or other parts of Animals. And may therefore be deservedly commended by Cortusus against Worms. And 'tis probable, all the rest of the stinking kind, some of which are much more plentiful and easily procur'd, may have the like Virtue.

The STEM of another Sea-Plant, Perhaps of affinity with that in Bauhinus, entitled, Coralloides lenta fœniculacea. The several Sprigs hereof are toothed, as in the Sea-Milfoyle, but with finer or smaller Work. It stinks, upon burning, as the former.

SEA-HEATH. Erica marina. Described and figur'd in Bauhinus. Who yet omits the coalition of all the Branches in a round and plain Base.

SEA-MOSSE, somewhat like the Sea-Heath. The Branches hereof are united in a short Trunk. From whence they rise up to the height of three or four inches, and are then multipli'd into others. About the thickness of a small Rush, all over shaggy, with fibrous hairs or bristles. Hath a stinking smoak, as the former.

The BEARDED SEA-MOSSE. A Congeries of tough or pliable, yellowish, capillary Threds or Strings, almost cylindrical, or of the same thickness from the bottom to the top; where the most part of them are as it were horned or forked. It makes a crackling noise, in burning, and stinks, but less than the Sea-Milfoyle.

The FISTULAR SEA-MOSSE. Bauhinus describes a Sea-Plant (without a Figure) by the Name of Fucus cavus, but of a quite different kind; sc. with the Leaves like a Fillet. Whereas this is a Cluster or Brush of cylindrical, pellucid, and strait unbranched Pipes, about the thickness of a great stitching Needle.

SEA-BLOBBER. Vesicaria marina. Spuma Maris CÆsalpino. Bauhinus describes two sorts, That, which is branched; and This, which is not. 'Tis a Cluster of small roundish Bladers, almost in the shape of little Oystershells; of a light brown colour, all over veined with Fibers, like the uter Cover of a Plumstone. Which makes it the more doubtful, whether it be an Animal Body, or a Vegetable. Which soever, it is supposed the Matrix of a Sea-Insect.

Another CLUSTER of the same sort, but consisting of smaller Bladders.

The ROPED SEA-BLADDER. I find it no where mention'd. This is also wrought with fibrous Veins, as the former. But the Bladders are of a different shape, not with convex, but flat and parallel sides, and the Fibers principally running along and near the edges. Neither are they cluster'd in a lump, but joyn'd together, one after another, with a Ligament of the same substance, almost like a Rope of Onions; saving that they are all on one side. They stink, upon burning; supposed to be the Matrix of those Shells whereof the Indians make a sort of Money, which they call Wampanpeage.

A GREAT SPONGE, of the common kind; of a flat Oval Figure, and almost a yard and half in compass.

The SHAGGY-SPONGE. Spongia Villosa. It hath no regular shape. Of a Texture more rare, than of most if not all the other kinds. And with small short capillary Fibers, as it were shagg'd all round about.

The FUNEL-SPONGE. Spongia Infundibularis. Described in some sort by Clusius, and from him by Wormius. Figur'd by Bauhinus, without a Description. This here is two inches and ½ in height; the Rim, near three inches over. The sides about ⅛th of an inch thick. Of a Texture far more compact and close, than the common Sponge. Yet the Surface all over wrought with little round Pores, almost as in a Poppy-Seed: in some places visible to the naked eye, but better through a Glass. On the inside, they are in some places a little bigger, and near the Rim disposed into short Rays. Its Base, instead of a Root, as in Sea-Shrubs, is spread out upon a hard stone, to a considerable breadth.

The Little BRANCHED SPONGE. Of much alike Texture and colour with the common kind. But finely rising up and distributed into several Branches, solid or not hollow, about ¼ of an inch over, like a sprig of Coral. Given by Sigr. Boccone.

The BRUSHY-SPONGE. This also is branched, and the Branches not hollow. But much more numerous. The Trunk somewhat dense, two inches high, and thick as a Goose-Quill. Divided into three principal Branches, and these into about thirty more of the same thickness with the Trunk it self, two or three inches long, perforated with some larger pores, as the Funel-Sponge, and near their tops, a little flat, and forked.

The CATSTAIL-SPONGE. This also is ramify'd, sc. into three large Branches, not hollow, rising up strait, and immediately from the Root, to a foot in height; below, ½ an inch over; at the top an inch, not unlike the Head of the Typha major, or a Cats-Tayle. To these, three other lesser Branches are appendent. All of them of a blackish colour, and a rare Texture, but the Fibers somewhat more thick and stubborn, than in the common sort, and so woven, as to make some larger superficial Pores. The Root or Base is spread out upon a stone. The Ramous Sponges are sometimes found about the Islands of Fero.

The HOLLOW CONICK SPONGE. About a quarter of a yard high, and half a yard about. It consisteth of fistular Branches, of a Conick Figure, rising higher and higher, smooth within, without porous, and as it were a little jagged.

The HOLLOW CYLINDRICK or PIPE-SPONGE. From the Base rise up four or five Pipes, above an inch over, smooth within, and tuberated without, with some resemblance to the Corallium Verrucosum. Its Texture somewhat closer, than of the common Sponge.

The FLAT HOLLOW SPONGE. Near five inches high. Below, above two inches broad; above, more than three. Consisteth of two flat yet hollow pieces, above four inches deep; but without, distinct for the space only of an inch and ½. Within also smooth, and without tuberated, as the former, but more bluntly.

All Sponges stink, more or less, upon burning, as the Horny Sea-Shrubs. So that it is a property belonging to most of the Vegetable Productions in the Sea.

It is the Opinion of some, that Sponges have sense, because said to shrink, if they are pluck'd; and are therefore reckon'd amongst Zoophyta. But of that property I doubt very much. For a Sponge being a springy Body, and so extensible, and yielding a little to one that plucks at it; so soon as he lets his hold go, it will, from its elasticity, shrink up again. Which motion of restitution, some probably, have mistaken for the effect of a Cap-Sense.

No Sponge hath any Lignous Fibers, but is wholly compressed of those which make the Pith and all the pithy parts of a Plant. Yet vastly thicker, and their Texture much more rare or open, so as to be visible to a good eye, especially assisted with an ordinary Glass. So that a Sponge, in stead of being a Zoophyton, is but the one half of a Plant.

PART III. Of Minerals. SECT. I. Of STONES. CHAP. I. Of ANIMAL BODIES PETRIFY'D; and such like.

Et procul a pelago Conchae jucure [jacure] marinae. Ovid. Metam. L:xv. V.264.

IT hath been much disputed, and is not yet resolv'd, of many subterraneal Bodies, which have the semblance of Animals, or Parts of them, Whether they were ever such, or no. And I am not ignorant of the Arguments offer'd on both hands. If I may speak my own sense a little, Why not? Is there any thing repugnant in the matter? Why not a petrify'd Shell, as well as wood? Or is the place? If Shells are found under ground, far from Sea, or in Hills, unchanged; as we are sure they are; then why not petrify'd? Or is the form, to which no Species of Shells doth answer? The assertion is precarious: no man can say, how many are known to some one or other; much less, how many are not known: I have reason to believe, that scarce the one half of the under Species of Shells are known to this day. And so for Artisicials: if Coyns are found, every day under ground, then why not sometimes also Pictures, and other Works, in time petrify'd? And although Nature doth often imitate her self; yet to make her in any case to imitate Art, is unphilosophical and absurd: for the one, a natural reason may be given, not for the other.

On the other side: although Nature cannot be said to imitate Art: yet it may fall out, that the effects of both may have some likeness. Those white Concretions which the Italians, from the place where they are found, call Confetti de Tibuli, are sometimes so like round Confects, and the rough kind of Sugar'd-Almonds, that by the eye they cannot be distinguish'd. To call these Petrify'd Sugar-Plums, were senseless. What if we find in some Stones under ground the likeness of a Cross? Doth not Sal Ammoniac often shoot into millions of little ones? Or do we find in other Stones the resemblance of Plants? Why not naturally there, as well as, in Frosty Weather, upon Glass Windows? Or as Salts sometimes figure themselves (as Sir Th. Brown, Relig. Med. and Dr. Daniel Cox Phil. Trans. N. 108. observe) into some likeness to the Plants whereof they are made. Nay, why not too, a Face, or other Animal Form? Since we see that there are divers Palm-Nuts which have the like. That the Volatile Salt of Harts-Horn, will shoot it self into the likeness of little branched Horns. That of Flesh or Blood, into the shape of little flat fibrous Tendons or Muscles, as I have often observ'd. And though I have not seen it my self, yet I have been told by one Sir Thomas Millington. that doth not use to phancy things, that the Volatile Salt of Vipers, will figure it self into the semblance of little Vipers. But there can be no convincing Argument given, why the Salts of Plants, or Animal Bodies, washed down with Rains, and lodged under ground; should not there be disposed into such like figures, as well as above it? Probably, in some cases, much better, as in a colder place; and where therefore the Work not being done in a hurry, but more slowly, may be so much the more regular. I shall now come to the Particulars, and leave the Reader to judge of them.

Part of the Upper JAW of a strange HEAD, together with some fragments of other Bones, and three very Great Double TEETH, or Grinders, all supposed to be of the same Animal. Found, about twelve years since, seventeen feet under Ground, in Chartham a Village three miles from Canterbury. The Ground within twelve Rods of the River running thither, and so to Sandwich-Haven. An Account hereof is written by Mr. William Somner: yet without a Description of the Jaw. But supposing it to be part of the Head of an Hippopotamus, takes occasion thence for a Discourse, wherein he endeavours to prove, That all the low Ground from the East-Kentish shore, to Romney-Marsh, was once under Water, and an Arm of the Sea. Published, since his Death, by his Brother Mr. John Somner: in whose Ground these Bones were dig'd up; and by whom they were bestowed upon this Musæum.

This Jaw-Bone, is only part of the far Cheek; about fifteen inches long, and seven where deepest: yet part of both the ends, and the Sockets of the Teeth are broken off. The Orbit of the Eye, neither so round, nor so big, as in the Hippopotamus: yet the Teeth far bigger. For the bigest Grinder in the Head of the Hippopotamus here preserv'd, is less than six inches about: one of these, near eight. And 'tis much, if they belonged to that Animal, that none of the long Cutters which grow before (as is represented in Tab. 1. ) should be found with them.

Besides, in that Skull of the said Animal, the Orbits of the Eye stand so high, and the Forehead lies so low, that it looks like a Valley between two Hills: whereas in this Bone, the Forehead evidently stands higher than the Eye. The Knob also at the Corner of the Eye in this Bone, is six times as big, as in the said Skull. Although this perhaps, as well as the tuberousness of the Bone in some places, may be the effect of its lying so long under ground; as if it were thereby a little swell'd in those places: for they are more rare and soft, than the other, and the whole Bone, than the Skull of any grown Animal not bury'd. Considering all together, it seems to me more likely to belong to a Rhinoceros, for the being whereof in this Country, we have as much ground to suppose it, as of the Hippopotamus. See Wormius's Description of the Double Tooth Mus. lib. 3. of a Rhinoceros.

A PETRIFY'D CRAB. Carcinites. It seems to be of the undulated kind; whereof see the Description in Rondeletius. 'Tis very hard and solid, and as heavy as a Pebble. Yet dissoluble with Acids. There is one pretty like this in Aldrovandus, Musæum Metallicum. under the Name of Pagurus lapideus. And another in Besler.

A FISH-MOLD. Ichthyites in modum Typi. There are several figures of Fishes in Stones in Besler, Aldrovandus, and Moscardo. In Aldrovandus also of the Heads of Birds, Beasts and Men, in Flints. Septalius hath a Head in Marble. And Mr. Boyle Of Gems p. 156. a Pebble with a Serpent (all but the Head) perfectly shap'd, and coyl'd up in it. All these (except perhaps the last) are either semblances on a Plain, or at least in solid Stones. But this here is hollow, and was so found in the Island-Sea. About five inches long; now split into two halfs, like those of a casting Mould. On the insides of which, are fairly impress'd the form of the Spine, with the Ribs, Fins, and Tail, of a Fish. Without, a long Plate of the same substance, grows to each side; and others cross to these: as if to the Mould of the Fish, were also added that of its Funeral Cloaths.

This Stone, for consistence, is like that called Saxum Limosum, soft, inequal, and unpolishable. Of a blewish hue, like that of Tobacco-Pipe Clay, with some very small glossy Grains intermixed. Not only Spirit of Nitre, but Oil of Vitriol droped upon it, dissolves it, and is excited into a violent Effervescence. But the Saxum Limosum stirs not with any Acid. So that it is to be rank'd amongst the Gypso-limosa, or Calcilimosa.

A petrify'd BONE, taken out of a Gravel-pit in St. James Fields, above eight yards deep.

A Stone like the VERTEBRA of a Fish. Given by Sir Philip Skippon. It may be called SPONDYLITES.

Part of the SPINE of another Fish, consisting of several Vertebræ. 'Tis hard and ponderous; yet dissoluble with Acids. It breaks flaky, as the Lapis Judaicus, and many others, or with plain and glossy sides.

The TOOTH of a TIGER, growing to a kind of Limestone. 'Tis about as big as that described in the First Part, and of the same shape and colour.

A square crooked TOOTH, not much unlike that of a Bevir.

A very great DOUBLE TOOTH or GRINDER. 'Tis about five inches long, and two broad; twice as big as a Sea-Horse's. The stumps seem to have been saw'd off. The top divided into several Points and Ridges, as other double Teeth. Of a greyish colour and glossy; ponderous, and hard as a Flint or the hardest Pebble.

ANOTHER of the same shape, but not an inch long. Besler hath one like this, under the Name of Pseudocorona Anguina.

The SHARKS TOOTH. Glossopetra: so call'd, for that these Stones were fabled by some to be the Tongues of Serpents, in the Isle Malta or Melita, turn'd into Stones ever since St. Paul Preached there. But the English Name, is much more answerable to the shape. Which yet is various, as well as the size and colour; as ash-colour'd or black, long or broad, strait or crooked, with the edges toothed or plain. Of the brown, strait, indented and broader sort here are several very great ones. One, three inches broad; and four, long: with the exerted part, smooth; the Root, rough. Every way, in shape, so like the Tooth of a Shark, that one Tooth cannot be liker to another. Yet if it be such, then by comparing those in the Head of a Shark, with This, That to which This belong'd, to bear a just porportion, must have been about six and thirty feet in length.

A GLOSSOPETRA, growing to a stony Bed. 'Tis of a lightish colour: and was brought as is supposed, from Melita.

ANOTHER, of a lesser sort. The Root of this is rough, as of the rest. But not expanded with the exerted part, as is usual, but of a globular Figure.

These Stones are dissoluble with any Acid. Whereby it appears, That (besides such Metallick Principles they are sometimes tinctur'd with) they abound with an Alkalizate-Salt. They are found not only in Melita, but in Germany, and many other places. Figur'd by Aldrovandus Musæum Metallic. and by others.

DRAGONS TEETH. Given by Sir Phil. Skippon. GlossopetrÆ Claviculares. So I call them, because they seem to be of the same kind; and are long and slender, somewhat like a small Nail; and much more like a Tongue (sc. of some small Bird) than any of the former.

The GOATS-HORN. Tephrites Boetij; from its ashen colour. Selenites Cardani; from its almost Semilunar Figure. Inwardly, 'tis of a blewish Grey. Outwardly, mixed with oblique and white streaks. Of a bended figure, yet with one end thicker than the other, not unlike a Goats Horn; whence I have taken leave for the English Name. Broken at both ends, yet above ½ a foot long, and two inches and ¼ where broadest. The Belly or inward Ambit, an inch over, and furrow'd; the Back somewhat edged. 'Tis found in Germany, Moravia, Silesia, and other Parts.

A Scruple Boet. de Gennis & Lapid. hereof in powder, is an excellent Sudorifick. Spirit of Nitre droped hereon, dissolveth it with an Effervescence.

The FISHES EYE. Ophthalmites. A parcel of them given by Sir Philip Skippon. 'Tis a kind of Pisolythus. But by some of them, the Humors of the Eye, with the Tunica Uvea, and therein the Iris, are not ill represented: for which reason I have plac'd them here.

SOME other Varieties, from the same Hand.

The HERMAPHRODITE. Commonly called Hysterolithos. By Pliny, Lib. 37. c. 10. Diphyes, more properly; as representing, in some sort, the Pudenda of both Sexes. Well described by Wormius. 'Tis a black Stone, not much broader than Half a Crown; very hard, and dissoluble with no Acid. Accounted an Amulet against Hysterical Fits.

Another of the same shape, but lesser.

A soft BUTTON-STONE. Echinites albus. Given by Sigr Boccone. Of these Stones there is some variety, with several Names, but confounded by Authors. They all agree, in having some likeness to the shell of the Button-Fish. This resembles that most with all small prickles. Of a white colour. Not very hard, and dissoluble, with Acids. See an excellent Figure hereof in Calceolarius's Musæum.

Another of the same Species and colour:

THUNDER-STONE or hard Button-Stone. Brontias. So called, for that people think they fall sometimes with Thunder. Yet different from the Ceraunias. This is shaped like a little round Cake. Very hard and indissoluble with Acids; being a kind of yellowish and opacous Pebble.

Another, a lesser one of the same Species.

A THIRD, also very hard (as all of them are) but Semiperspicuous.

A FOURTH, which is a whitish FLINT, stained with blew specks.

A FIFTH, a small one, and having a little flinty Stone growing to the middle of it on both sides. This particularly resembling Gesner's Ombrias. De figur. Lapid. c. 3. Or the Stone sent him by the Name of Lapis HyÆniÆ. Ibid. c. 12.

A SIXTH, somewhat oblong and striated all round about.

The SERPENTS EGG. Ovum Anguinum. From the roundness, and form of Snakes Tailes pointing upward, and towards the middle of the Stone. This also is an Echinites, and by Ferranti Imperato called Histrix Marinus petrisicatus. Agricola makes it a sort of Brontias. It most resembles that sort of Button-Fish, with several Orders of great Knobs or Prickle-Bases, divided by lesser; described in the First Part of this Catalogue.

A STONE with the SIGNATURE of a Button-Fish upon it. So that it was once a Bolus or Clay.

The soft OVAL HELMET STONE. Given by Sigr. Boccone. So I name it from its similitude to the shell of the Echinus Spatagus, See Part I. which the English call Helmet--Fish. Oval, to distinguish it from the Conick. Soft, as being very brittle, and easily dissoluble with Acids. Several of these Stones are figur'd by Aldrovandus, Musæum Metallic. with the Name of Scolopendrites. And some leaves after, divers others not much unlike, with that of Pentaphyllites from its likness in some part also to the Cinquefoyle.

ANOTHER of the same kind, with four narrow Furrows, composed of fine short Rays, and meeting in the form of a Cross; to which a fifth is added, more broad. 'Tis somewhat hard, yet dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre.

The HARD OVAL HELMET-STONE. 'Tis an opacous Flint, and of a dark colour. But figur'd as the former.

ANOTHER, also flinty, and opacous; but betwixt citrine and yellow.

A THIRD, opacous and white.

A FOURTH, with one half, opacous and yellow; the other, whitish and Semiperspicuous.

A FIFTH, somewhat rounder and more depressed than the former; and may therefore more particularly be called Pentaphyllites. Some of these Ambrosinus Aldrov. M. Metall. hath misplaced with the Astroites.

The blunt CONICK HELMET-STONE. It hath, as it were, the Signature of the Echinus Spatagus. But rises up in the form of a Cone. Of which Figure I have not yet seen any shell. The top is blunt, and of a middle height. Encompassed with five double pricked Rows, all meeting in the fore part of the Belly. The spaces betwixt which, are cancellated much after the manner of the Sea-Tortoiseshell. 'Tis a perfect Flint, brown without, and whitish within.

ANOTHER of the same sort, with bigger pointed Rows.

A THIRD, of the same Figure, but soft, sc. of a kind of Limy substance, or that of Gypsum.

The SHARP CONICK HELMET-STONE. 'Tis a Semipellucid Flint. Surrounded with five double pointed Rows, meeting not only on the top, but also at the centre of the Base or Belly. Besler figures a small Conick Helmet, by the name of Echinites: a great one, by that of Scolopendrites. And several Species hereof are also figur'd by Aldrovandus. Mus. Metallicum. None of the flinty or other hard Helmet Stones make any ebullition with Acids.

The HELIX or Stone Nautilus; as from its Figure it may not improperly be nam'd. Cornu Ammonis; From Jupiter Ammon, pictur'd with Horns. Here are several of them, both in size, shape, and substance distinct. I find no Author describing them much broader than the ball of a mans hand. The highest Boetius reckons, about three pounds in weight. But in this Musæum there is one near two yards in circumference, and proportionably thick. Of an Ash-colour, and somewhat gritty substance. The several Rounds, as it were, carved with oblique waves. Given by the Right Honourable Henry Duke of Norfolk. With,

ANOTHER GREAT CORNU AMMONIS almost as big, sc. about five feet round about.

A SMALL CORNU AMMONIS, of an ashen colour, and softish substance: yet dissoluble only with Nitrous Acids. It maketh but one or two Rounds; ratably, far more swelling, than in the other kinds.

ANOTHER, of a soft and whitish substance; dissoluble in any Acid, and consisting of several Rounds.

A THIRD, growing upon a Stone of a like substance. Figur'd in Calceolarius's Musæum, and that of Olearius; in both under the Name of a Petrify'd Serpent.

The CASED CORNU AMMONIS. The outer part of this is dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre: of a shining blackish colour, thin, and as it were the shell of the far greater part within it. This also is very glossy, and transparent as Glass. Of a brittle substance, breaking into square flakes, like those of a flaky Spar. Yet no Acid will stir it.

The HARD CORNU AMMONIS. 'Tis a perfect whitish and pellucid Flint. These Stones are found in Germany.

Note, that if one of these Stones be broken, the several Rounds will part so, as the ridges of one, and the answerable furrows of the other, are apparent.

Likewise, that in some of them, there is not only a ridge, but a round part about as thick as the biggest string of a Tenor Viol, winding round between two Circumvolutions, as the Medulla Spinalis runs within the Back-Bone.

The Helick SERPENT-STONE. Ophites Ammoneus. See the Description hereof in Wormius, with the Title of Lapis Sceleton Serpentinum ferens. 'Tis of kin to the Cornu Ammonis; wrought all over with StriÆ, imitating the Scales of a Serpent. In some parts of This, rather the jagged Leaves of a Plant. Of a pale Okre colour, but somewhat hard, and dissoluble only with Nitrous Spirits.

ANOTHER, which in the room of Scales or Leaves, is wrought all over, and as it were joynted, with sutures in the form of an s. obliquely waved from the rim towards the centre. Which Articulations are not only on the Surface, but, as Wormius well notes, in its intimate parts. This is of a dark amber colour, and somewhat hard; yet maketh an Effervescence with Spirit of Nitre.

The HELICK MARCASITE. Marcasita Ammonea. So I name it, for that it hath the same Figure with the Cornu Ammonis, and to the first of these in Boetius, is next a kin, if not the same. Yet appears to be a sort of Marcasite or Gold colour'd Fire-Stone; both by its Weight, and Copperas Tast. And some of them are cover'd with Vitriolick Flowers. Ambrosinus Mus. Metall. Aldrov. figures two of these under the Title of Crysammonites: not so properly, as not having a grain of Gold in them.

The HELICK MARCHASITE, having shallow Furrows on the Rim.

ANOTHER, with some also channell'd.

A THIRD, with the utmost round far more swelling, than in the other kinds; having its Centre lying deep, and its front spread wide on both sides.

A FOURTH, of all, the most flat, and with a sharp or edged Rim. Wrought all over, with undulated StriÆ, almost as in the Serpent-Stone. These two last, particularly, figur'd in Aldrovandus. Ubi supra.

A FIFTH, with the Rounds, on one fide, all concave: so that it looks almost like one split through the middle.

A SIXTH, beded within a tuberated Fire-Stone.

Several small ones, of the kinds above-mentioned.


The LONG WHIRLE. Turbinites. There are several of them. In one, the several Rounds are hollow: a ground to believe it was once a shell.


The CONICK SNAIL-STONE. Cochlites pyramidalis. Very brittle, and maketh an Effervescence with any Acid.

Divers others SNAIL-STONES; some of them of a Limy substance, others perfect Flint.

The SEA-OYSTER-STONE. Ostrites Cymbiformis. Shaped almost in the figure of a Boat. In the right side especially there is as it were the signature or seat of the Animal. So that one can hardly doubt of its being once a shell. Yet this kind of Stone is sometimes found many miles from Sea or any great River.

A Petrify'd Oyster and Wilk growing together.

A great petrify'd SCALLOP. Figur'd by Ambrosinus Aldrov. Mus. Metall. with the Name of Hippopectinites. Given with several more of the same bigness, by Mr. Wicks. 'Tis half a foot over. Many of the same kind were taken out of a great Rock in Virginia, forty miles from Sea or River.

The smaller PECTINITES, with smooth ridges.

ANOTHER, of a kind of Lead-colour. Dissoluble with Acids.

The Coralline PECTINITES, furrow'd, and wrought all over with the Species of fine Needle-WORK. Also soluble with Acids.

A blackish PECTINITES, a perfect Flint.

A soft Stone of a blewish grey, with part of the Belemnites growing to it on one side, and a Pectinites on the other.

A petrify'd COCLE immersed in a Flint.

The SMOOTH SPONDYLITES, with an Oblique Navle.

ANOTHER, with an Oblique Navle, all over striated.

A THIRD of the same, furrow'd.

A FOURTH, also furrow'd, and with the Navle sharper and more produced. So hard, as scarcely dissoluble with any Acid.

A FIFTH, with a strait Navle, and numerous Joynts.

The OXES HEART. Bucardia. So call'd from its figure. Described and figur'd by Ferranti Imperato, and others, and out of them by Wormius. 'Tis divided, by a ridge along the middle, into two halfs. Each of them having a prominent Knob, a little winding, somewhat like a Navle: so that it may not be improperly called Conchites umbilicatus. Figur'd by Besler with the name of Hysterapetra.

A SMOOTH CONCHITES, with an Oblique Navle, unequal sides, somewhat round, and fill'd with a Limy substance.

Part of one, filled with a sort of granulated Spar.

A smooth and round one, undulated.

ANOTHER, as hard as a Pebble; of a yellowish and pellucid red.

Another hard one, yet dissoluble with Acids.

Another, with the Margins of the two halfs furrow'd and indented one into the other.

A LONG CONCHITES, of a black colour.

Another, undulated, and white; filled with a black and yellow substance, which with Acids maketh a strong Effervescence.

ANOTHER, compressed, and the end opposite to the Base, pointed, like the common form of a Heart: and may therefore be called Cardites. 'Tis of a Limy substance dissoluble with Acids.

A Broad equilateral CONCHITES, radiated.

Another, undulated, and radiated.

A Third, undulated, radiated, and circinated.

A Broad one, of a Limy substance, and fill'd with a flaky and glistering Spar.

The HIGH-WAVED CONCHITES; that is, where the middle of one Valve making a high and broad ridge, the other falls into it. 'Tis of a white Limy substance.

ANOTHER of the same, but shining and pellucid like a Spar. Dissoluble with Acids. I meet not with any shell of this form.

A little BIVALVOUS MARCASITE. Conchites Marchasita.

The MUSCLE-STONE. Musculites. This is black and of an oblong Figure.

A Second, lesser and rounder.

Another of the same, more Concave.

A Third, broader, and more expanded.

A sort of MUSCULITES fill'd with Earth like Tobacco-Pipe Clay or Marle. Found amongst the earth of a Hill that was overturn'd at Kenebank in New England.

The square MUSCULITES. Musc. quadrilaterus. I have not yet met with any shell of answerable shape. 'Tis, as it were, bivalvous: and each Valve, hath two sides. Of the four, two are broader, and a little Convex, especially towards the Base, at the other end somewhat sharp: with oblique furrows, from the first to the last growing shorter. The other two, striated and plain, joyned with the former at obtuse Angles. Of a limy substance dissoluble with Acids.

The TOOTHLESS MUSCULE. Found, of several sizes, beded in a lump of Irish Slate: yet not petrify'd, but a perfect shell. It is of a rare kind, no where figured or mention'd, that I find, nor have I met with it elsewhere. The biggest of them two inches long, and ¼ over. That end near the Base, as it were pinched up, almost into the form of a Childs fore-Tooth. On the outside of the Base, stands a plated piece, contiguous therewith at both ends, but in the middle, joyned to it by the intervention of other very small transverse Plates, like the Wards of a Lock: supplying the use of the Teeth in other Muscles, which are here wanting; from whence I have nam'd it. The outside, is adorn'd with circinated Lines, and in some sort also radiated with very small Tuberculi, especially at the narrow end.

The SHEATH-STONE. Solenites. Like the petrify'd shell of the Sheath-Fish. 'Tis fill'd with a kind of limy substance.

A piece of WHIRLY-ROCK. Turbinites Saxum. A sort of Gypsum of a dark colour, with the semblance of divers kinds of turbinated or whirled shells immersed therein. Dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre, but very slowly. There is one like to this in Besler.

A Piece of white MUSCLE-ROCK. Musculites Saxum. With the similitude of little, white, furrow'd Muscle-shells.

Another Piece of an Ash-colour, and more soft.

A piece of spoted MUSCLE-ROCK, sc. with white, red and brown, in imitation of Marble. In which also are beded, as it were, several Muscle-shells. Although it hath the face of Marble, yet is it a kind of Gypsum, dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre.

A Piece of MIXED SHELL-ROCK. Conchites miscellaneus. Composed of petrify'd shells, both of the Turbinated, and the Bivalvous kinds, beded in a kind of gritty Lime-Stone. In Calceolarius's Musæum Sect. 3. p. 317. is one like to this, in the form of a Choping-Knife, but without a Name. Another in Ferranti Imperato. Lib. 24. c. 25. And in Aldrovandus's Musæum, by Ambrosinus called Ostracomorphos Lapis. Not properly, Lapis, as being part of a Rock: nor, by the former word, sufficiently expressing the mixture of shells therein.

Another, consisting of such like shells (or their resemblance) beded in a brown Stone.

CHAP. II. Of VEGETABLE BODIES petrify'd, and other like STONES.

OF this kind, here is also great variety; being, or representing, Fruits, parts of Flowers, Leaves, Branches, Stalks, Trunks, and Roots: in which order I shall set them down. Only reserving CORALS with other like Marine Productions, to be spoken of by themselves.

A Petrify'd KATHERINE PEAR, or a Stone naturally very like one. Being, as that is sometimes, a little bended, very slender at the Stalk or Base; turbinated next the other end; umbellated at the top of all, or depressed round about the place of the flower; and of a yellowish tawny colour.

A STONE like a petrify'd DAMASCENE-PLUM. As that of a black colour, and of the same Figure; so far as to shew the seat both of the Stalk and Flower.

The Great petrify'd STONE of an exotick PLUM. As one would think, both from the figure of it, and the production of Fibers by the length, round about it, (as in many Indian Plum-Stones) very apparent especially, near the top. The granulated part of it, being turn'd to a soft opacous Stone; the Fibers into pellucid Flint.

A black Stone figur'd like the STONE of (a PrÆcock-Plum) an Aprecock.

A petrify'd NUX VOMICA, sc. that of the Shops. As I call it from its figure exactly respondent; being round, and flat, on one side a little Concave, on the other somewhat Convex. In Aldrovandus Mus. Metall. we have the Figure of a petrify'd Nux Methel Officinorum: but under the mistaken Title of Castanites. As also the exact figure of a petrify'd Castanea Purgatrix; but this too with the false Name of Anacardites. The same Author represents likewise a most exact figure of a petrify'd Melopepon.

A large JUDIAC STONE (Lapis Judaicus) in the form of a PEAR. 'Tis an inch and half long; stalked like a Pear; Next the stalk slender; turbinated upwards, to an inch in Diametre; and umbellated at the top, or depressed as a Pear, round about the flower. Adorned also round about with small tuberated StriÆ which run from end to end. This Species not well figur'd by any Author.

ANOTHER of a somewhat like Figure, but much smaller. Best expressed by the least of the four in Boetius. De Gem. & Lap. l. 2. c. 226.

A THIRD like an ALMOND; both of the same bigness, and shape, oval at one end, pointed at the other, and somewhat flat. Besler hath one or two like this, which he calls Petrified Almonds.

A FIFTH, like an AKORNE, being of a like thickness at both ends. Another of the same. This sort particularly called Phoenecites.

A SIXTH, like an OLIVE-STONE; being more oblong and oval than the precedent. Besler two or three Stones somewhat like this, which he calls Petrify'd Olives.

A SEVENTH, of a long slender Figure, and knobed as the rest, almost like a Hazel Catkin.

An EIGHTH, in shape like a Pestil. The upper part of this is knobed, the other smooth, whether naturally appears not.

These Stones either grow chiefly, or were first taken notice of in Judea; from whence their Name. They are commonly found, not in Earth, but in the Clefts of Rocks, by those that work in them. They are dissolved with Spirit of Nitre, not without Esservescence, especially when reduced to powder. And may therefore be justly esteemed Diuretick, and so sometimes bring away, or (as people think) break the Stone: for which, by Pliny, Lib. 37. c. 10. 'tis call'd Tecolithos.

These Stones always break flaky, and with a strong gloss, like a Spar; or the Entrochus hereafter describ'd.

Of these Stones it is further observable, That being cut and polish'd transversly, and then wetted, they fairly exhibit, at least in colour, a twofold substance. The one, whitish; answering to the Parhenchyma or Flesh of a Fruit: the other black or dark-colour'd, not only in the Stalk, but also thence produced, and disposed into two Rings, a large one next the Circumference, and a small one in the centre of the Stone; answerable to the Lignous Fibers, distributed in much alike manner in some Fruits.

Two strait slender Stones, resembling the COLUMNS erected in the middle of some FLOWERS. One, Convex at the top, and almost flat. The other, spherically triangular, somewhat like the Seed-Case of a Tulip. Beneath, of an ash-colour; upward, of an obscure or brown Bay. Of that hardness, that if struck or let fall one upon another, they have a kind of Metallick sound, like that of small round Button-Bells.

Two other joynted Stones of the same nature with the former: looking as if they were pieces of the GENICULATED STALK of some Plant.

'Tis pleasant, especially with a Glass, to see the wrought Work on the surface of these Stones. In which the small and curious StriÆ which run by the length, answer to the Lignous Fibers, or the warp: and those which are transversly as it were interwoven; to the Parenchymous Fibers, or Woofe of a Plant. A more particular explication of which real Work in all Plants, hath been by me elsewhere given. See the Authors Book Of Trunks. And that Of Roots. Calceolarius hath one or two of these last fairly figur'd.

A Stone with the exact signature of a STEM of POLYPODY with the LEAVES. 'Tis softish, and somewhat brown. Stirreth not with Acids.

HIPPURITES. Or a Stone with the impressed Image or signature of the Equisetum or HORSETAIL. There are three stalks which very elegantly rise up from one Root.

DENDRITES. Or a Flint naturally adorned with the Images of several epitomiz'd or minute TREES. There is the figure of a fair one like to this in Calceolarius's Musæum.

ANOTHER; being a SLATE about ⅓d of an inch thick, representing, as it were, a plain Field, inclosed with a HEDGE of TREES; some bigger, others less; all so lively, as if it had been the curious and elaborate Work of a Painter; or had been cast through a Glass (as Kepler shews the way sometimes of taking Lanships) upon a Tablet in a Dark Room.

It is very observable, That the same curious Work which appears upon one side of the slate, doth also on the other. Agreeable to what Ambrosinus Aldrov. Mus. Metall. also remarques, That if this sort of Stones be broken into several pieces, the like Work will appear in the intimate parts. Which plainly demonstrates, that not being superficial, it cannot be the effect of Art.

DENDROPOTAMITES. So I call it. 'Tis a piece of a kind of Alabaster, about seven or eight inches square, polish'd and set in a Frame. It hath much and pleasing variety both in colour and figure: shewing a mixture of brown, tawny, white, and green; and not unaptly resembling a couple of Rivers. One crooked or very much winding too and fro; (as the Thames at Kingstone) and garbed all along with Trees upon the Bank. The other strait, with a Footwalk upon the Bank, and inclosed also with a little Hedge-Row.

A sort of ALABASTRITES, representing a Transverse Section of the TRUNK of a TREE. That part answering to the Wood, consisting of white and black Rings one within another. The other answering to the Barque, of two or three thin ones (like that of a Cherry-Tree) of a russet or barque colour. Yet the black Rings, being held up against the light, are transparent. So the clearest Glass, in some postures, appears black. Spirit of Nitre droped on it, dissolves it with a vehement Effervescence.

A Stone expressing part of a Tranverse Section of OLIVEWOOD. On one side, 'tis very well polish'd. By means whereof, not only the Annual Rings (appearing in the Trunks of all Trees;) but also the Insertions or Parenchymous Rays which run betwixt the Pith and Barque; and even the greater Vessels themselves (either for Aer or Sap) are all to a good naked eye, but especially with the help of a Glass, very fairly visible. 'Tis just of the colour of the browner sort of Olive-Wood well varnish'd. 'Tis as hard as a Jasper, and seems to be of that kind.

ANOTHER sort of Jasper representing a piece of WOOD. 'Tis of a green colour, and stained with blackish spots. One would take it for a sort of Lignum VitÆ.

A Stone, which in Colour and Texture, seems to resemble a piece of YEW-TREE.

ANOTHER, which looks like a piece of BEECHWOOD.

A large piece of PETRIFY'D WOOD (as it is supposed) above half a yard long, and ¼ of a yard about.

Another Piece about the same bigness.

A Globular Stone, which looks as if it had been a piece of ASH-WOOD turned in a Lathe into that figure. For it hath not only the colour, but the semblance of the Annual Rings, and of the Aer-Vessels, as in that Wood.

Small pieces of (reputed) petrify'd Wood, commonly found between the Beds of blew Marble. Two inches long, and near as thick as ones little Finger. Almost as black as Ebony.

A Piece of INCOMBUSTIBLE Wood, as it were HALF PETRIFY'D. For being held in the fire, it becomes red like a Coal; but neither flames, nor smoaks in the least.

A very odd Piece of the BRANCH of a TREE as thick as a Cable-Rope, whereof the Barque is turned into perfect Iron, or at least a very rich Iron Ore; and the Wood into Stone.

The petrify'd Barque of a Tree. 'Tis thin, and rowled up as Cinamon; but rather of the colour of that called Winterane's. Withall, rough and knobed without.

A Piece of Oak BARQUE cover'd with a stony Crust. Given by Philip Packer Esq From a Stump above Ground.

In Septalius's Musæum, as I take it, is mention made of Petrify'd Wood found an hundred and forty Pertches under the top of a Mountain. And by Kentman Fossil. Nomenclat. of a sort of petrify'd Beech (as the people call it) both Trunk, Branches, and Leaves, taken (for Whetstones) out of the Ground in the Joachimick Vale, an hundred and seventy Elns depth. But what kind of Eln is here meant, is not certain.

Of petrify'd Woods it may be noted, That none of them (at least of these here described) will make the least Ebullition with any Acid. Which would make one suspect, That they are Stones originally, sui generis; else it were strange, That some of them should not lie in places where such Stones are bred, which with Acids make the said Ebullition.

The STELENTROCHITE. By some, called STELECHITES: Entrochites, by most. But, in proper speaking, distinct from both. For it is not only of a Cylindrical Figure, or near it, and containeth a softer substance in the Centre, answerable to a Pith: and also radiated as the Branch of any Tree cut transversly. But moreover consisteth of several flat round Joynts like little Wheels, evenly pil'd, and, with the said Rays, mutually indented, so as altogether to make a Cylinder. Described also by Gesner, De Lapid. Figur. Boetius, De Lap. & Gem. Ambrosinus, Aldrov. Mus. Metall. and others. But we have two Accounts hereof given us in the Philosophical Transactions, far more accurate and particular, than is elsewhere extant. The former, by Mr. Lyster; Num. 100. together with between thirty and forty Figures of their Varieties, with some other Congenerous Stones. The latter, by Mr. John Beaumont Num. 129. Junior; who hath added the Description of some more Diversities. And the manner of their growth. In this Musæum are several Species, which I shall here enumerate.

A ROUND one, near ¾ of an inch Diametre; with the Pith near a ¼, of a darker colour, hard and dense. The several Joynts, about the tenth of an inch thick; distinguished by slender Circles composed of very small knobs. With part of the Rock to which it grew, altogether irregular, but of the same substance.

ANOTHER, with a Pith larger and more soft, the Joynts thicker, and the Surface almost smooth.

A THIRD, of the same thickness, with the Pith ½ an inch Diametre. 'Tis also a little bended; and the Joynts distinguished not with knobed but entire Rings.

A FOURTH, with a Pith not much bigger than to admit a little Pin. Yet at one end 'tis ½ an inch over. At the other somewhat more than ⅓d. A little bended as the former. And the Joynts in proportion to its width, extream thin; not above ½6th of an inch. Their circumference, convex, being distinguished not with edged Rings, as the former, but with furrows.

A FIFTH, about ¼ of an inch over. The Pith answerable. The Joynts distinguished with edged Rings. And as thick as in the former.

A SIXTH of the same thickness. And a little crooked. The Joynts distinguish with furrows.

A SEVENTH, with the Joynts unequal both in breadth and thickness; one narrower and thiner, the next broader, or standing further out from the centre, and thicker, and so alternately: whereby it looks like some sort of Turn'd-Work.

An EIGHTH, a small one, yet finely shap'd. First with a Joynt embossed with a knobed Ring. Next two small Joynts, each of them scarce thicker than a Groat; and so alternately.

A NINTH, not above ⅙th of an inch in Diametre; yet with Joynts as thick as in the fourth: and smooth.

A TENTH, ⅛th of an inch over, and with much thiner or more numerous Joynts.

An ELEVENTH, a very small one, scarce having any distinction of Joynts.

CORALLITES. As it may be call'd. With no Joynts, no Rays, nor Pith, but more like to a solid piece of Coral.

The ASTENROCHITE, or an Entrochites with a Pentagonal Pith, like the signature of a little Asteria, a Stone hereafter describ'd; from whence I have nam'd it.

ANOTHER of the same. And also with a double Ring of Rays; so as to look like one of these Stones within another. And may therefore of all the kinds, be most properly called ENTROCHITES.

A FLAT ENTROCHITE. All the former are perfectly round: this compress'd; one way, an inch over; the other, about ⅝ths.

ANOTHER, a small one of the same shape.

A THIRD, not only flat, but also with two opposite edges, like the Scabbard of a Rapier.

The BRANCHED ENTROCHITE. Yet here the Branches, which grew alternately as Twigs on a Bough, are broken off. In one, leaving so many cavities in the Trunk on which they grew. In another, so many Knots. In both, radiated, and containing a Pith, as the Trunk it self.

The KNOTED ENTROCHITE. A very odd Species. Above two inches long, and ¾ in Diametre. The Surface smooth, yet with an obscure appearance of Joynts. The Knots, no way like those in the last mention'd, as not being radiated; and looking more like the bases of sturdy Thornes. Wherewith it not unaptly resembles a piece of a Crab-Tree-Cudgel. 'Tis composed of three distinct substances. The outer part, (as one would say, the Barque) is a flaky and glossy Spar, as in the rest. But as black almost as Jet. The middle part is Ore of Marcasite, or Yellow Mundick. The Pith, not unlike Tobacco-Pipe-Clay, when baked pretty hard.

A sort not much unlike these, being found in the Isle Malta, by some saith Mr. Ray, Phil. Trans. N. 100. are call'd St. PAULS BATTOONS.

The SYNTROCHITE, as we may name it, to distinguish it from the rest. It consists of several Joynts as the former; yet not piled evenly one over another so as to make a Cylinder: but sliden as it were half on and half off.

The TROCHITES. 'Tis nothing else but one of the above described Joynts single; on both sides radiated, and also containing a Pith. So that it looks like a slice of a stick. These, saith Mr. Lyster, being usually hollow, or easily so made, and stringed, are therefore by some called St. CUTHBERDS BEADS.

The ASTROCHITES. As it were, the Trochites and the Asteria (hereafter described) together.

There's one which may be called an Enthrochite, yet not a Stelechite, because Oval, or at least smaller at both ends; no way resembling a Stick or Branch. But there is no example hereof in this Musæum.

The True STELECHITES, branched. 'Tis not only radiated, and furnished with a Pith: but is one single piece without any Joynts or joynted Wheels: in which respect, it cannot be called ENTROCHUS; but very properly Stelechites, (from whence the English word Stalk) as more answerable to the make of a stick or stalk, than are any of the rest. 'Tis of an ash-colour, and curiously wrought all over in the like manner as a Poppy-Seed.

A Piece of a Rock consisting wholly of several Species of ENTROCHI or Stelentrochi, immersed in a bed of their Mother-Clay.

Another, with two or three small STELECHITES.

A hard Stone of the colour of a Magnet, with the signature of a TROCHITES.

These Stones being broken, look flaky, and with a gloss, as the Lapis Judaicus; but somewhat more obscure. They also make a like Effervescence with Acids, especially with Spirit of Nitre. And may probably be as good a Diuretick. That All Fossiles of what figure soever make an Ebullition with Vinegar, is affirmed by Mr. Lyster: Phil. Trans. N. 100. but was a slip of his, otherwise most accurate Pen. For there are many, and those of several figures, which, although powder'd, yet are so far from making any Ebullition with Vinegar, that neither Oil of Vitriol, nor Spirit of Nitre it self, (which taketh place sometimes where the former doth not) will stir them: as appears in several Instances in this Catalogue.

They are found in as great variety here in England, as in any other Country. By Mr. Lyster, in certain Scarrs in Braughton and Stock, two little Villages in Craven: in some places of the Rock as hard as Marble. In such plenty, that there are whole Beds of Rock made of them. By Mr. Beaumont, in Mundip-Hills; in the Rocks, from the Grass to twenty fathome: but most in Beds of a grey and gristy Clay. In a Grotto, five and thirty fathome deep, he observed their growth: which was, from the finest, and the softest of the Clay. At first, they were whitish, soft, and smooth. Afterwards, grew hard, and ridged, or divided into Trochi or Joynts; beginning at the top, and so descending. Being all the while in a manner quicken'd with Mineral Steams; conveyed, from the Mother-Bed, through the Pith of the several Feet of the Root (which Mr. Lyster figures) and of the Stock it self.

It were also further worth the enquiry, In what Time, one of these Stones will grow up. Whether it doth so, by Starts, as Ice often doth, and as I have seen a little Icy-Tree to grow level upon a Table? And whether so much as serves for the making of a single Joynt, at every start?

A Stone figur'd like a Piece of ANGELICA Root; with a large Pith, and very distinct Rays, as the Cortical Insertions in that, or other like Root round about.

TWO lesser round ones or more Cylindrical: one resembling the Root of CICHORY; the other of TORMENTILE.

A STONE somewhat FLAT, like the Root of Iris: but radiated as the former. More visible, if one end, being first polished, be then made wet; for so, both the Pith and Radiation are very distinct.

A FOURTH, as it were bared of the Rind; and having one end with a kind of Button, on which the Rays wind toward the Centre; as the Lines of a Rumb upon a Map, or the Suits of the Attire of any Corymbiferous Flower.

All these seem to be several stumps of Stone Roots, on which the above described Stones often grow.

A FIFTH, with a Pith and Rays; but CONICK and CROOKED, not unlike the young buded Horn of a Calf.

TWO more of the same Figure, but much less; rather resembling a COCKS SPUR.

Several CLUSTERS (as they appear) of petrify'd MOSSE. Imperatus, with Dioscorides, makes it a sort of Alcyonium.

A petrify'd TUBER, with several small papillary knobs, not much unlike that called CERVI BOLETUS. It stirs not with any Acid.

CHAP. III. Of CORALS, and other like MARINE Productions.

These having also a resemblance unto Plants, and a near analogy unto those Stones, last described in the precedent Chapter; they may therefore not unaptly be here subjoyn'd.

A Piece of CORAL, smooth, white, and solid; with its Base or Root spread abroad upon a Chalky Bed.

A SPRIG of solid Red Coral.

A knoted TRUNK of the same ½ inches and ½ in compass.

A Piece of solid CORAL both RED and WHITE, growing together.

The ROOT of a solid Red CORAL, spread upon the TRUNK of a White CORAL: in the same manner, as the Membranous Roots of Sea-Shrubs are spread upon Stones or other steady Bodies. As if it had been indeed originally one of those Shrubs; particularly, of the Lignous kind, which hath no Pith, like the Horny; but, as this Coral, is altogether solid.

The SHRUB-CORAL. Corallium fruticosum. So I call it, for its more especial similitude to a little Shrub. 'Tis of a brownish colour, upright, and very much branched. Curiously adorned round about with StriÆ running by the length; looking like the superficial Fibers in the stalks of some Plants. And within, radiated, as the same when cut transversly. In some of the greater Branches, the Rays being pointed or pricked, as by the laxer distribution of the Fibers, they are in some Plants. And many of them coming short of the Centre, so as also to form a kind of Pith.

The KNEED CORAL. Corallium geniculatum. Pseudocorallium fungosum Ambrosini. Aldrov. Mus. Metall. Madrepora ramosa Imperati. Lib. 27. Cap. 4. By which Name Bauhinus also describes it well. 'Tis striated without, and radiated within, almost as in the precedent. And is also ringed or knoted without, after the manner of Canes, or rather the upright Equisetum, and near of the same thickness. Imperatus hath another kind a kin to this, yet distinct; not only knoted, but joynted, and by him therefore called CORALO Articulato, in which the Conick end of one Joynt is received into the like Cavity of another.

A Piece of the same CORAL found on St. Vincents Rock.

The Matripora, saith Terzagi, Mus. Septal. and all Pores (as he calls them) and these only, are outwardly rough with transverse Wrinkles. But this now describ'd, seems by the StriÆ more apparently wrinkl'd by the length. So that what he means, I do not well understand.

A JOYNT of the shallow joynted CORAL. 'Tis near an inch in Diametre, two and ½ long, solid, heavy and white. Streaked by the length. The two ends a little thicker, as of Bones at the Joynts: and rising up from the Rim to the Centre into a little knob; and this it doth at both ends: whereas in that of Imperatus, the Joynts are deeper, and one end hollow. It was given by Sigr. Boccone.

A Piece of white FIBROUS or striated CORAL, but not knoted. Given by the same Hand.

The BUBL'D CORAL. Corallium bullosum. From the same hand. 'Tis of an ash-colour; and rough cast all over, with very small Blisters or Bubles.

The COOME-CORAL. Corallium cancellatum. 'Tis white, and divided into several short and thickish Branches, turbinated or knobed at the top. Wrought all over with small cancellated Work, like that of an Honey-Comb, or the inside of that Ventricle in a Sheep or a Cow, called the RETICULUM.

The FLORID COOME-CORAL. The Branches of this also are short; and numerously flourished. Inwardly, white and porous. The Surface of a pale yellow, and wrought, as the former, in imitation of an Honey-Coome.

A sprig of Rough and POROUS Red Coral.

The PUMIS CORAL. Corallium pumicosum. From the Person above-said. 'Tis branched, of a grey colour, and porous, somewhat like a Pumis Stone.

The POUNCED CORAL. Corallium punctatum. 'Tis white, and the Surface pricked full of small holes, almost as in the precedent.

The BRANCHING POUNCED CORAL. It seems to be that described in Bauhinus Lib. c. with the Title of Corallium asperum cauditans adulterinum. The Branches hereof are very broad, and divided only at the top. Not only porous within, but also pricked full of extream small holes on the outside.

The STOOPING POUNCED CORAL. C. punct. procumbens. Porus Ramosus Bauhino. In this, some of the Branches rise up obliquely, and distinct. Others of them, trail or stoop, and are in several places inosculated.

The RUSSET POUNCED CORAL. This is also branched; and the Root hereof, as that of a Sea-Shrub, spread upon an Oystershell.

The WARTED CORAL. This likewise is a sort of pounced and branched Coral; and white. The Branches being also as it were warted or knobed. Imperatus, Lib. 27. c. 4.

ANOTHER of the same; MORE branched.

The White STARRY CORAL. From the Person before nam'd. Described and figur'd by Imperatus. So called, because it is perforated with round and radiated Holes resembling little Stars.

The Brown STARRY CORAL. Within, a little whitish. Not so porous, as the precedent; and with nothing near so many Stars. The Branches flat, like the Horns of an Elk; and spread abroad.

The OCULAR CORAL. C. alb. oculatum Officinarum. Very well describ'd and figur'd by Ferranti Imper. Lib. 27. c. 4. and J. Bauhinus. Lib. c. This sort is fistular, and hath large round holes in the sides of the Branches, sometimes near ¼ of an inch over; somewhat like a Birds Eye.

A Piece of the same sort, with its expanded Root.

The same growing on or round about some of the Branches of a Sea-Shrub. As it is probable, That all the sorts of fistular Corals once did.

The CROWNED OCULAR CORAL. Given by Sir J. Hoskins. In this, which is also white, to the eyes on the sides, are added little Heads crowned or radiated round about.

A CLUSTER of Red Fistular Coral.

The spread FOLIATED CORAL. Clusius describes it by the Name of Planta Saxea Abrotonoides. Of whom Bauhinus borrows his figure. His Description not clear. 'Tis white, and porous; especially the centre of every Branch, in imitation of a Pith. The several Branches encompassed with little short round hollow sprigs, or, as we may call them, Coral-Leaves, curiously striated round about.

The Upright FOLIATED CORAL. In all respects like the former, saving that it is less spread.

Coral is fish'd for from the beginning of April to the end of July. Not in the Ocean, but the Mediteranian-Sea only. In which there are eight or nine Fisheries, among the Rocks, no where above forty miles from Land. Three upon the Coast of Sardinia; on that of France, two; of Sicily, Catalonia, Corsica, and Majorque, one. Tavern. Ind. Voyage, Chap. 21. Of white Coral, there is great abundance in Brasile. J. de Læt.

Of the Nature and Generation of Coral, it is affirmed by the Honourable Mr. Boyle, Of the Orig. of Forms, 136. That whilst it grows, it is often found soft and succulent, and propogates it Species. And by Georg. de Sepibus, Mus. Rom. p. 45. Col. 2. That of those who had been us'd for many years, to dive for Coral in the Red-Sea, Kircher learned thus much; That it would sometimes let fall a Spermatick Juyce, which lighting upon any (steady) Body, would thereupon produce another Coral. And further, by Wormius and Tavernere, from the Relations of others, That this Juyce is white or milky. Which may seem the more credible, when we consider, that the like milky substance is found in divers Mines. Dr. Brown's Trav. Sometimes inclosed as is observed by Mr. George Planton, in great Hollows of the Metallick Rock. Phil. Trans. N. 100. And that Mr. Beamont hath found in the Hollows of some Stones called Entrochi, and Rock-Plants, or a kin to them, an evident concretion of such milky Juyce. Phil. Trans. . 129. p. 730. l. pen.

Of Corals, are chiefly prepar'd, The Powder ground upon a Marble; the Magisterial Salt; and the Tincture. To good purpose, in some Feavers, and some other Cases. But the Name of Tincture, according to the common notion of it, is a meer deceipt: it being, in truth, no more but a Liquamen, or solution of the Magisterial Salt. For those Acid Liquors which are used as Menstruums for the making of it; by digestion or repeated heats, do always turn red: which not being heeded, the said colour hath been believed to proceed from the Corals. Of the Effect of this Tincture, or rather Salt of Coral, upon a Malignant Feaver, see a Memorable Relation of Boetius in his own Case. De Lap. & G. lib. 2. c. 154. p. 312.

BASTARD-CORAL. Alcyonium. So call'd, because a Marine Production, often of a roundish form, like the Nest of an Halcyon, and by some phantastick thought to be one of those Nests petrify'd. Hereof there are seven or eight sorts here preserv'd. As

The Great, White, FISTULAR Alcyonium. Imperatus figures a Cluster of this under the ill Name of Vermi Marini Impetriti. Lib. 24: cap. 26. And Besler a single crooked Tube, with that of ExuviÆ Serpentis in Lapidem conversÆ; which is as bad. This is such an one, but more strait and smooth, as thick as the upper end of a Tobacco-Pipe stalk. But with a much greater bore.

The Middle white FISTULAR Alcyonium. A Cluster of Coralline Tubes, in some places, meeting in parcels; in others, divaricated, almost as the Vessels do in Plants. Not equally thick at both ends; beneath, not exceeding the Quill of a Crow; at the top, as wide as that of a Goose. Rough all along with annular wrinkles, almost like the slough of a Silk-Worm, or a Serpent. Being hollow, 'tis probable they serve as the Matrices of some Sea-Insects.

The small white FISTULAR Alcyonium. By Imperatus Lib. 27. cap. 8. (whom Terzagi imitates Sept. Mus. c. 13. n. 18, 19. ) called Vermicchiara; and Alcyonio Milesio; a much better Name. A Cluster of crooked Tubes, not thicker than a Packthread; and also wrinkled.

The Red FISTULAR Alcyonium. By Imperatus call'd Tubularia purpurea. By Besler Alcyonium Maris Rubri. A Congeries of strait, and red Pipes, of a Coralline substance, about as thick as an Oaten straw, all standing parallel, as the Cells in a Honey-Comb: and divided into several Stories by transverse Plates or Floors, at several distances from a ¼ to ½ an inch, or thereabout.

The BRANCHED Alcyonium. 'Tis white, and of a Coralline substance, but somewhat soft. The Branches solid, and in some places coalescent.

The KNOBED Alcyonium. Of a white and coralline substance, but somewhat soft. Of such a Contexture, whereby it is every way, and pretty openly, pervious throughout; somewhat answerable to that of a Sponge. Evenly tuberated all over the top and sides.

Another, unequally tuberous, and of a little more open compages.

The LOBED Alcyonium. Of a like colour and substance with the former: yet not composed of round, but flat or lobed portions, with some likeness to Liverwort.

The BUBLED Alcyon. Given by Captain Th. Fissenden. About ½ an Eln in compass. Consisting wholly of Platework, so conjoyn'd, as to make several large Apertures, runing one into another: somewhat after the manner of a Ruff. The Plates or whole Body compos'd of most minute Bubles, divided by a very thin Sepiment, and standing all in even, strait, and parallel Rows. So that it looks not much unlike Linnen-Cloath: saving its brown tawny colour.

A NETED Alcyon. Retepora Imperat. So called from its Figure.

MUSHROON-CORAL. Fungites. So called from a little likeness it hath to a Toad-Stool. Here are divers sorts.

The WAVED Mushroon Coral. 'Tis round, and above two inches over; striated beneath round about. The Rim and Area, both undulated. With thin Plates standing all along, and on both sides transversly to the Waves.

ANOTHER, with DOUBLE WAVES. Circular, and about four inches in Diametre. With the top rising high and round. With transverse StriÆ, rather than Plates. And Waves both double, and more winding than in the former; much resembling those of a Mans Brain. From whence, this sort, most properly, are called BRAIN-STONES.

A POLISH'D BRAIN-STONE. It much resembles a sort of undulated Stone. Whereof hereafter.

Part of a large BRAIN-STONE from the Bermudas.

The PLATED FUNGITES. So especially to be called, because it hath no Undulations, but Plates only. All very thin and sharp, and radiated, to the circumference, after the manner of those in a common Mushroon; excepting, that there they stand underneath, here above. This sort is curiously figur'd in Calceolarius's Musæum.

A FLAT RADIATED Fungites. Figur'd by Bauhinus. Lib. 39. c. 60. 'Tis somewhat more than two inches broad, and with the sides as it were crushed together. Waved round about, and the Rim raised like a border pretty high.

A STARRY FUNGITES. Of a circular figure; beneath, a little concave; above, convex. Wrought all over with a great number of small radiated Stars, every where contiguous.

A Piece of Fungites with GREAT STAR-WORK: every Star, with the Rays, being near ½ an inch over; and the Rays also plated.

The COOMED Fungites. The top hereof is circular; all over carved into radiated Tubes, the Rays standing high without, and deep within. Composed together so, as somewhat to resemble an Honey-Coome, from whence I name it.

ANOTHER of the same sort, of an Oval Figure. Given by Sir R. Moray.

A Fragment of a great One of the same sort. In which the Texture is fairly observable. For the aforesaid Rays, are indeed the extremities of so many Plates which run through the length of every Tube; and which are likeways all the way conjoyned with an infinite number of other extream small thin transverse Plates: dividing the whole Tube into little squares, after the like manner, as in the Pith of a Bullrush.

The Fungites is found in the Indian-Sea, and the River Nilus. Clusius.


A ROCK of DIAMONDS. Given by Sir R. Moray. They grow upon their Bed (which is about three inches broad, and four in length) in Crystals Sexangularly pointed. Of several sizes from the thickness of a midling Pin, to a ¼ of an inch Diametre, but all of them short. Not very perspicuous, but a little greyish, like the Calcedony. Saving one small cluster of them, tinctur'd yellowish. They cut Glass very deep and easily.

The principal Diamond Mines now known, are four. That of Raolconda, in the Kingdom of Visapour; discover'd 200 years since. In this Mine, the Diamonds lie in sandy Veins in the Rocks. Of all, the clearest, and of the whitest Water. They pound and wash the Vein for the Diamonds, just as we do some of our Ores for the Metal. A second call'd the Gany, about seven days journey from Golconda; found out 100 years since. They dig here not above 14 feet deep. Sometimes above sixty thousand Men, Women and Children at work. It affords the largest Diamonds, but not clear: one sometimes above 40 Carats, i. e. ⅓d of an ounce. And there was one here found which weighed 900 Carats (i. e. ℥vij ss.) A Third, that of Govel, a River in the Kingdom of Bengala. The Diamonds are found in the sand of the River, for the space of 50 Leagues. From hence come those fair pointed Stones called Natural Points: but not great. The Fourth, that of Succadan, a River in Borneo. But there are none come from thence but by stealth. How the Indians prove, work, and sell their Stones, with other particulars, see in Tavernere. Ind. Tav. lib. 2. c. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.

Rough Diamonds are often naturally figur'd into Triangular Plains: a mark to know a right one by, Mr. Boyle Of Gems, p. 11. as well as hardness. Many also of the best are pointed with six Angles; some, with eight; and some Tabulated, or Plain, and Square. Joh. de Læt L. de G. & Lap. Diamonds receive no hurt, but are rather mended, by the fire. Boet. de Lap. & G. Some, saith Garcias, Lib. 1. c. 43. being rub'd, will take up straws, as Amber and other Electrical Bodies. And Mr. Boyl Of Gems, p. 109. speaks of one of his, which with a little friction attracts vigorously. Of another, Ib. p. 112. which by water made a little more than luke-warm, he could bring to shine in the dark.

'Tis the property of all true Diamonds, To unite the Foyle closely and equally to it self, Bœt. de G. and thereby better augment its lustre, than any other Gem. That which is called the Foyle, is a mixture of Mastick and burnt Ivory: The latter, being one of the blackest of colours; used by Painters for Velvet, the Pupil of the Eye, &c.

The Water of those which are drawn, not from the Rock, but the Ground, commonly partakes of the colour of that Soil or Ground: Mr. Boyl, Of Gems, p. 51. and some are found as yellow as a Topaz. Ib. p. 35.

Between the Grain and the Vein of a Diamond, there is this difference, That the former furthers; the latter, being so insuperably hard, hinders the splitting of it. Although it seems, that a Vein, sometimes is nothing else, but a Cross-Grain. Our European Jewelers, when they split one, they take a very small iron Wyre, and having daubed it with Oil and Powder of Diamonds; draw it upon the Diamond, by a Tool, to and fro like a Saw, so long as is needful for that purpose.

The BASTARD-DIAMOND. Pseudo-adamas. Now remaining, as it was found, bred in a Musculites, a Stone like a Muscleshell. Given also by Sir Robert Moray. 'Tis angular, pointed, and very clear. And cuts Glass with great ease and depth. Of our Bastard-Diamonds here in England, the Cornish are the best; much better than those on St. Vincents Rock near Bristol.

CRYSTAL. From [Greek text]: because supposed to be only Water contracted or condensed with cold. Here are several sorts.

A CRYSTAL ROCK. In which, several lesser Crystals Sexangular, pointed, and most perspicuous, grow round about a great one, in the form of a Pyramid, above eight inches about. The bottom of it being polish'd, all the sides to the top, are very pleasantly apparent through the same.

A small COLUMN of Crystal, also exceeding clear.

A ROCK of midling Crystals, growing upon a Semiperspicuous Bed, or Grey-Mother. They are very clear, notwithstanding that beneath they seem to be tinctur'd yellow; being there only daubed with some substance of a yellow colour. Of these Crystals, the two opposite sides, are the greatest: which is also observable in many others.

A small Crystal COLUMN, with a whitish Base.

ANOTHER clear Crystal, growing on a Semiperspicuous Mother, together with a kind of Marchasite Spar, or tessellated Stone, of an Amethystine colour.

A ROCK of small Grey Crystals, almost like a Calcidony.

Another of the same sort, growing upon a kind of Limestone.

A Third, with the Points of an Amethystine colour, growing to a Matrix of a purplish black.

A Crystal COLUMN, of an Hyacinthine colour, but dilute. An inch in Diametre, and almost ½ a foot long. The two opposite sides of this also are the greatest.

A lesser one of the same Species.

A THIRD, growing upon a Bed of the same colour; but opacous. Mr. Boyle Of Gems, p. 39. mentions a piece of Crystal, in one part of an Emrald-green. And Terzagi Mus. Sept. another that was black.

A Crstyal COLUMN, naturally inclosing a kind of Moss (or the likeness of it) at one end of the Column of a paler, at the other of a dark Green. 'Tis above ½ a foot in compass.

ANOTHER piece of CRYSTAL in which is immersed a Mossy substance of a redish colour. And there are some Crystals have been known naturally to enclose a Liquor. Mr. Boyle, Of Gems, p. 43. & Mus. Calc.

A Piece of polish'd CRYSTAL in the figure of a half Globe. 'Tis on one side flaky, and hath many very small Bubles, by which it appears cloudy.

ANOTHER Piece polish'd into a SphÆrical Triangle, and somewhat Oval.

A THIRD Piece polish'd into a Cone.

A Massy Piece of CRYSTAL. Not pointed, nor angular; but of a roundish figure; much bigger than any mans head. One way, near a yard in compass; the other, above three quarters. In weight, thirty nine pounds and a ¼ Haverdupoise. Yet is it very clear, beyond the clearest Ice of the same thickness. The biggest piece of Crystal I find mention'd else-where, is a Ball of six and thirty ounces in Septalius's Musæum.

Crystal, at least some sorts of it, is the softest, saith Boetius, Lib. 2. c. 73. l. 1. of all Gems. He should have said, of all perspicuous Gems: for the Turcois is much softer. The most usual Figure of Crystal, is Sexangular: yet Terzagi Mus. Septal. c. 9. n. 54. mentions a Rock of square pointed ones. But it is observable, That he saith the Bed on which they grew, seem'd to be Gold-Ore. If so, it might proceed from some governing principle in the Ore. For I have heard it noted, as I remember, by Sir Christopher Wren, That Grain-Gold is often found naturally figur'd into Cubes. Crystal grows in most Countries, both cold and hot: the Globous, especially in Bohemia and Silecia.

A Drachm Bœt. de Gem. & L. Lib. 2. c. 74. of the Powder of Crystal, with Oil of sweet Almonds, a present Remedy for those that have taken sublimate. As also for bilious and chylous DiarrhÆas. Ib. When Calcin'd, by some called Pulvis CÆsaris, of excellent use against the Epilepsie. Terzagi in Mus. Sept.

An AMETHYSTINE ROCK. The Gem hath its Name from the opinion of its being an Amulet against Drunkenness. This Rock consisteth of angular pointed and contiguous Crystals; growing from both sides the Matrix, inwards, where their Points meet, and are all closely indented. Some of them seem to be Pentagonal. Several are Conick from the Points towards the Roots. These are well tinctur'd, but the Roots are all white, or rather Diaphanous and colourless. As also is the Matrix, or inward part of it; yet not so clear. The shell over all, flat, opacous, and of a redish brown. There is the Figure of a very fair one in Calceolarius's Mus.

ANOTHER, growing upon a Matrix or Bed spotted red and yellow, and cross-grain'd, or composed of small Crystals set together decussatim.

A THIRD, the Matrix whereof is a kind of Amethystine Flint, i. e. not composed of Crystals or Grains, as is usual, but one entire massy Stone, Semiperspicuous, and of a pale blew, almost of the colour of some Cows Horns. Of an orbicular Figure, and somewhat flat like a Loaf. The Roots of the Crystals are colourless, as in the former, and the points and upper parts of a pale Purple. With these, is included in the same Matrix, a whitish and flaky Stone, which is easily dissolved with Spirit of Nitre. Which is one, amongst many instances, how near together two Stones may be bred, of so different a nature one from another.

A WHITE AMETHYST. This is here naked, or without a Matrix. Consisteth of divers contiguous Crystals, half an inch and an inch long; their Roots grey; but their Points clear, usually sexangular. From the Points the Roots taper'd or conick: the Figure which doth especially distinguish this Stone from Crystal, whether white, or of an Amethystine colour.

An AMETHYST of a pale Violet colour; found growing in Scotland. Given by Sir Rob. Moray.

ANOTHER, with a kind of Chrysolite growing to it.

The best of this kind, are, as Theophrastus well describes them, of the colour of a ripe (red) Grape: and are the hardest. These grow in the Indies: the rest in Bohemia, Saxony, &c. The best, being burnt, excellently imitate a Diamond. Boet. de Gem. & Lap.

Two little white or pale SAPHIRES, polish'd into a flat oval Figure. By some called The Female: and so the paler kinds of other Gems. The best, grow in Bisnagar, Zeilan, and other parts of the East-Indies, especially in Pegu. The meaner, in Bohemia, and other adjacent places. They are cut or fashion'd with Emery and Tripoly; and engraven with Diamond-Dust, as other harder Gems. Being burnt, they imitate a Diamond, as doth the Amethyst. Bœt. de Gem. & L. And Æs ustum and Glass melted together, imitate a Saphire. Aldrov. Mus. Metall.

The Saphire, saith Boetius, Lib. 2. c. 43. being applied to any bruised part, prohibits the Inflammation of it, in a miraculous manner. See also the Salt and Tincture Ibid. of it described and commended by the same Author.

The GRANATE, qu. Ingranate, or Ingraind. And therefore by the French called VERMEILLE: and the Matrix, by Moscardo, Minera de Ingranata. The deepest, well compared by Imperatus to the Juyce of a ripe Mulberry. Here are of several sizes.

A BOHEMICK GRANATE, as big as a Nutmeg. With several more of the same size, or near it.

Some other Large GRANATES, polish'd with Rhombs. But these are cloudy.

A Bag of Lesser GRANATES, of several sizes from a Pease to a Mustard-Seed.

A BED of GRANATES from the West-Indies. Given by the Honourable Rob. Boyle Esq;. Most of them as big as a large Pease, beded in a Stone which is friable, and easily rub'd to a redish and glistering powder; in some places a little black, and growing with cross Flakes. It seemeth, from its softness, not to have been the original Bed or Matrix wherein the Stones were bred; but that being, in pecking the Rock or Mine, broken off from that, they were afterwards casually lodged in this.

These Stones grow in Calecut, Cambaia, and Æthyopia. As also in Spain and Bohemia, where, contrary to what is observed of most other Gems, they are found exceeding the Oriental. Boet. de Gem. & L. Many of them will abide the fire, without change of colour. De Læt. de Gem. & L.

Spirit of Salt extracts a rich Tincture out of Granates calcin'd and finely powder'd. Mr. Boyle, Of Gems, p. 88. And Aq. Regis, a rich solution of them, only powder'd; colour'd somewhat like a solution of Gold. Ibid.

The Jewelers TOPAZ. Chryselectron Plinij. This is an Oriental one. 'Tis of a perspicuous Golden colour, with some scarlet spots or like a deep Tincture of Saffron.

The Whiter or Female TOPAZ. Composed of several Crystals, clear and colourless at the top; below, clear and yellow. Growing on a white Matrix, with a light yellowish Tincture. They grow in Arabia, Bohemia, &c. The best in India and Bactriana: the Europeans, especially, being soft, and not without blackish Clouds. The Oriental, the hardest of Gems, except the Diamond. And probably the Ruby. Found sometimes so big as to weigh twelve pounds: Boet. de Gem. & L. Æs ustum, stannum ustum, Cinabar, and Crystal, melted together, imitate a Topaz. Aldrov. M. Metall.

The SMARAGDUS, growing together with a pale Amethyst in one Matrix. The Crystals are angular, but seem to hold no proportion.

The Occidental, sometimes as big as a mans fist, especially in Peru; but soft and cloudy. The Oriental, no bigger than a Filbert. The Europeans, in Cyprus, &c. the worst. 'Tis imitated Ambrosin. (in Aldrov. M. Met. ) out of Porta. with Æs ustum, and half as much Crocus Martis.

Six Grains of this Stone, in powder, procureth sweat. Mus. Wormian. Applied entire to the Belly, stopeth all kind of Dysenetries in a miraculous manner. Boet. from Guainerius.

A CLEAR and GREEN STONE, (a kind of Smaragdus) which, being heated red hot, shineth in the dark for a considerable time, sc. About 1/16th of an hour. Given by Dr. William Crown. I tried the experiment my self also. And at the same time observ'd, That as it grew hot in the fire, its Green colour was changed into a Sky-blew; which it likewise retain'd so long as it continu'd to shine: but after that, recover'd its native green again.

The AGATE. So called from the River Achates in Sicily, near which it was first found. Theophr. de Lap. Almost of the colour of clear Horn. The hardest of Semiperspicuous Gems. They grow in India, Germany, Bohemia. Naturally adorned with much variety of waved and other figur'd Veins, Spots, the representation of Vegetable, and sometimes of Animal Bodies. None more memorable, than that mention'd by Pliny, Lib. 7. c. 11. of Pyrrhus King of Epyrus, in which, without much strain of phancy, one might imagine a representation of the Nine Muses, and Apollo, with his Harp, in the middle of them. 'Tis used for Sword-Hilts, Knife-Hafts, Beads, Cups, and the like. There are pieces of it, sometimes Mus. Septal. as thick as a Mans Arm.

The ONYX. So called, because in colour not unlike the Nail of a Mans Finger. Ambrosinus confounds the Agate and the Onyx together. But the Onyx differs from the Agate, chiefly, in that, instead of Veins, 'tis generally composed, saith Bœtius, of Zones. But I think rather of several Balls, one within another: which, when the Stone is polish'd, do indeed represent a round spot in the centre, with several Zones or Rings about it. Here are of divers sorts.

An ONYX with a white, and very broad Zone.

ANOTHER, of a pale Blew.

A THIRD, with Rings White and Bay.

A FOURTH, of a light yellowish colour, or of Citrine Amber, with ash-colour'd Rings.

A FIFTH, in Figure like an Eye, with the Iris, White; the Pupil, of the colour of Honey.

A SIXTH, with the middle Spot or Pupil encompassed with a grey Iris.

A SEVENTH, with the Iris party-colour'd, within, White; without, brown; and the Pupil also of the same colour.

An EIGHTH, with an ash-colour'd Pupil, the Iris of a pale Amethystine within, and white without. These with more variety of colours, are by some particularly called NICCOLI; qu. Onyculi.

A NINTH, which may be nam'd, The BINOCULAR; as having the likeness of two little Eyes. The Table on which Nature hath drawn them, is of the colour of yellow Amber, and semiperspicuous. The Eyes are white, with their Pupils of the colour of the palest live Honey.

A TENTH, distinctly called BELI OCULUS: the Iris whereof is Grey; the Pupil, and the rest of the Eye, Black.

An ELEVENTH, of the colour of yellow Amber, with grey Girdles, not round, as in all the former, but angular.

The EMBRIO of an ONYX. So I name it. 'Tis a half Globe, polish'd. The outer Crust or Shell, Semiperspicuous, and as hard as of a true Oynx. The part within, round, of an opacous liver-colour, and so soft as to be dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre.

A PEBBLE of kin to the Onyx. 'Tis round or globous, and on the two opposite sides, a little prominent. About an inch in Diametre. The outer Shell, yellowish; the middlemost, red; both opacous. The intimate Part, diaphanous, and of the colour of a glowing Coal. It seemeth to me, That as some Pebbles, so many more Flints, are a sort of ONYX. The Onyx, amongst other things, is used for the making of Cups; of which, King Mithridates is said to have had two Thousand. Sometimes so big, as to serve for Statues. At Rome, in the Basilica of St. Peter, there are (or were in Boetius's time) six little Onychine Columns. Boet. lib. 2. de Gem. & L. They grow both in the East and West-Indies, and in Europe.

The ONYCHATE: Betwixt an Onyx and an Achate. Composed not of Zones, or Balls, but of Plates, perspicuous and ash-colour'd, mixed.

ANOTHER, of a Globous Figure, consisting of Plates ash-colour'd and brown: like a little turn'd Bowl of Ashwood.

A THIRD, consisting of Black, and Horn-colour'd Plates, mixed together, these latter, being also stained with red spots.

The PSEUDOPALUS. 'Tis of a pale blewish Water, like a Fishes Eye, or a drop of Skim'd-Milk, with some Rays of yellow.

ANOTHER, growing to a thin Crust or Matrix of an Iron-colour.

This, and the Opalus it self, the softest of Gems. Boet. de Gem. They are now found principally in Hungary. Tavern. Voyages. The Opalus, saith Boetius, hath its variety of colours, only by Refraction: (adds Læt, Lib. 1. de Gem. c. 13. like those in a Prisme) for if it be broken it looseth them. 'Tis true, that these colours are produced by Refraction: yet not as in a Prisme; as not depending upon the Figure, (for they will not be produced in other Stones of the same figure) nor so much as any flaw or flakiness in the Stone; but its peculiar Texture, which causeth those Refractions. Tin and Venis-Glass melted together, imitate an Opalus. Porta. See also the Phil. Trans. hereof. Num. 38.

The ONYCOPALUS. By some called Oculus Cati. It hath the Zones or Rings of the Onyx, of a pale White. The best of these are found in Zeilan and Pegu. Much harder than the Opalus. It might be try'd, whether this Stone doth in any degree partake of the strange property of the Opalus; some of which, being only steeped a while in common water, will become Transparent for some time. Læt, ubi supra.

The CALCEDONY, i. e. Onyx Chalcedonius, as Kentman not amiss. Fossil. Nomencl. This is polish'd and set in a Frame. Above four inches long, and near as broad. Semiperspicuous, almost like to a piece of grey Ice. Consisting of white and most perspicuous parts so mixed together, as to look in some sort like a Honey-Coome.

Another small one, with a pointed and sexangular polish at both ends.

This Stone is next in hardness to the German Agate. The clearest, with a pale cast of blew the best. In Germany, being cut into thin broad Tablets, many have their Arms either engraven thereon, or painted on the back-side; prefering it to Crystal, as being harder, if good. Hereof also are made little Mortars for the powdering of Emery; likewise Cups, Religious Beads, &c. Georg. Agric.

The SARDIUS or Cornelian, qu. Carnelian. A semiperspicuous Stone. The best, by some called The Male, of the colour of Flesh, saith Boetius, with the blood in it. I add, but of a living Animal. But this is diluted with somewhat of an Amber-colour. Anciently not only This, but all the smaller Gems, were used especially for Signets and Signet-Rings. Theop. de Lapid.

The SARDONYX. As it were compounded of the Sardius, and the Onyx. This is polish'd, and so the better shews it self. It consisteth of White and Blackish Rings, one with in another. And stained both with red, and pale green Spots interjected. The Rings, with the help of a Glass, appear much more numerous, curiously representing those in the Root of Taraxacum or Dan-de-Lyon, cut transversly. Note also, That the said Rings are properly so call'd, only in the polish'd Stone; being, when entire, really so many Balls, as in the Bezoar or Onyx, one within another. This Stone is found in several parts in Asia and Europe. Harder than the Onyx, or the Agate; and is therefore figur'd with Emery. Hereof anciently Cups were made, and those Dishes call'd Vasa Myrrhina. See Worm.

The JASPIS. An opacous Gem; always, saith Læt, Lib. de Gem. with some kind of earthyness. But I take this to be only the property of the Lapis Nephriticus. 'Tis found of most colours; of which here is some variety.

A GREEN JASPIS, stained with White Spots.

A Flesh-colour'd JASPIS, with Blackish StriÆ.

ANOTHER, stained with Purple and Blew Spots mixed together.

A FOURTH, stained with white and red Spots.

A FIFTH, Variegated with White, Carnation, Red, dark Green, and bright Green Veins and Spots. Very like to those, which Boetius saith are plentifully found in Bohemia.

A GEOMETRICK JASPER. It seemeth at least of affinity with the Lapis Sanguinalis described in Boetius. Lib. 2. c. 184. out of Monardes. But is certainly one sort of Lapis Cruciformis. See Aldrov. Mus. Metall. This here is polish'd into a plain Oval Figure, or flat on both sides. About an inch and ¼ long, and ¼ thick. In the centre or middle part of both sides stands a Rhumb or Diamondsquare part, of a blackish Green. From the four Angles whereof are produced as many Lines of the same colour; and from each of these, two more, at acute Angles; the extreme parts whereof compose four more green Parts, as it were half Rhumbs: all joyn'd together with a circle near the Rim of the Stone. Amongst these, some yellow and red Spots are sprinkled up and down.

A Bag of a course sort of JASPER Stones, knockt off from those in Wilts-shire near Marleborough, called The Grey-Weathers. Given by John Aubrey Esq;. So hard, that no Tool will touch them. Generally of a light Grey, some almost white, many of a dirty red.

Another, of a blewish Grey. Taken from a like shelf of Stones at Stone-heng. 'Tis hard enough to scratch Glass.

Another like a green Pebble, found in one of the Streets of this City. Where also, saith the fore-mentioned Person, many more are met with, and that they are a sort of Jasper, brought, as Ballast, from the East-Indies.

The JASPACHATES. 'Tis polish'd, and so figur'd, as to look like one half of a Pear, with the Stalk, Coar, and dead Flower cut out. Curiously beautify'd with Yellow, Purple, and Blood-red Spots, immersed in the Horny and Semiperspicuous colour of the Agate; with which also 'tis equally hard. This also is a kind of BLOOD-STONE: as all other Jaspers with red Spots.

The JASPONYX. 'Tis polish'd with an Oval Figure. Composed of white Zones, besprinkled with White, Brown, and Red Spots.

Another of a courser kind, compos'd of Green and Ashcolour'd Plates. Like that Marble described by Imperatus with parallel black Lines.

The JASPAMMITES. So I call it; Having the Figure of the Ammites, with the Colour and Hardness of the Jaspis. For 'tis composed of little orbicular Stones, somewhat bigger than a Pepper-Corn; all green without, and of a dark Purple in the centre. So as they seem also to have been once little crusted or shell'd Balls, as those of the Ammites, hereafter describ'd.

The Jaspis grows in India, Phrygia, Thracia, and Bohemia. Next in hardness to the Agate. Sometimes so big, as to be used for Statues. Of great esteem, as an Amulet, for the stainching of all HÆmorrhages. Of its Effect herein, see some Cases in Boetius; one of them a most remarquable one. De Gem. lib. 2. c. 102. See also two others, in Mr. Boyle, Of Gems. The specifick Virtues ascribed to This and divers other Stones, seeming almost incredible unto some: Mr. Boyle, to render an intelligible Account of the same; doth reasonably (b) Pag. 177, 178.suppose, That all opacous Medical Stones have been, some Bolus's, some Ores of Metals, or Minerals of kin to Metals, so advantagiously alter'd, as by application only to become Sanative. Of the Virtues Of Gems, p. 171. 172. The Green-Jasper is by some prefer'd: but that which Boetius us'd in the Cases abovemention'd, was wholly Red.

The NEPHRITICK-STONE. Of affinity with the Jaspis, and rather harder. Of several colours; but no one of two, nor any Red: for the most part of a pale Green. It hath some softer parts intermixed, which make it look sometimes as if it were a little oily; and for which cause it admits not of a perfect polish. Of these here are two Species; first,

The NEPHRITICK STONE of Brasile. Gemma, Gesnero, Oripendula. Described by the Author of the Name. But this is smaller, and seems to be broken. Of a pale blewish Green, with some pores containing a whitish substance. Polish'd and shaped into a little Column. The better sort of the Natives of Brasile, to distinguish themselves, when they go abroad, wear this Stone (as we Rings on the Ear) upon their Lip; which is bored in their Childhood for that purpose.

ANOTHER, of affinity with the former. It consisteth mostly of parts of a dark Green; yet glossy; and firmly cohering. Yet so as in several conspicuous pores to contain a soft whitish substance.

This Stone, although of no beauty, yet is placed amongst Gems, for that it is highly esteemed, as an Amulet against Nephitical Pains, and the Stone and Gravel in the Kidneys. Of the admirable effects whereof, in divers Cases of this Nature, see the Relations of Monardes, and from him of Boetius; as also from a Noble Person, his Kinsman. Lib. 2. c. 110. The Green one with black spots, is commended by many. But Læt saith, Lib. 1. de Lap. he had one almost of the colour of Honey, which, upon frequent experience, he found to do all that Monardes relates of it.

The TURCOIS. So called, because brought to most places from Turkey, or those that trade from thence. By the Indians, Perose; for that it is found, most abundant, saith Cerutus, Mus. Calceol. S. 3. only, saith Tavernere, (d) in Persia. See the Description hereof in Boetius. This here, is all over tuberous on the top with round Knobs, of several sizes, from that of the head of a small Brass Nail to that of a Pin; some of a blewish, others of darker Green. Within (somewhat like the Onyx) disposed into Zones, mixed with spots: both of a Greenish Black. 'Tis two inches broad, and near three in length: a great one, if, as Boetius saith, it seldom exceeds the bigness of a Walnut.

Another, about as big as a Filbert.

A Third, a small one, like those set in Rings.

The MOTHER of the TURCOIS, as is supposed. Found in the Mines of Herngrunt in Hungary; and given by Dr. Edward Browne. Here are two Pieces. One of them, for the greatest part, blew; with some places black. In which is also immersed a sort of small Sand-colour'd Stones, so hard as to scratch Glass. The other, hath also a mixture of some parts that are Green. The Blew and the Green, are both, and they only dissoluble upon the effusion of Acids.

The best of these Stones are the Blewest. Bœt. de Gem. They have also this property; sc. to look blew by Day, Læt de Gem. and Green by Candle-light. Many, saith Boetius, have judged this to be reckon'd by Pliny, amongst Jaspers with the Name of Boreas. But either Pliny and the Ancients, or those that make that judgment of them, were greatly mistaken. For this is a very soft Stone, and easily dissoluble, with Ebullition, immediately upon the effusion of some, especially Nitrous Acids: and may be scraped with a Knife. So that I am of Opinion; That 'tis nothing else but a sort of Ærugo in some measure petrify'd. Which also is further confirm'd in that it doth not only resemble that in Colour, but, being (as it is easily) burnt, is of the same Tast. So that it is no marvail, if this Stone, with Age and especially much worn and exposed to the Air, looseth the beauty of its colour. And that it may be restored to the same by Oil of Vitriol; which eateth off its faded Surface.


AS Gems are distinguished chiefly by their Colours; so other Stones Regular, by their external Forms. This is of two general kinds. Such as is Circumscriptive, or depending upon the whole Stone, as ex. gr. in the Eagle-Stone; and this is properly call'd the Figure. Or such as is Accumulative, where there is a repetition of the same Figure in several parts, as in Muscovy-Glass, composed of parallel Plates: and so for the rest, whereof in their order.

A GLOBULAR PEBBLE, an inch and ¼ in Diametre, whitish and semiperspicuous. It seems to be an Assay towards the Eagle-Stone, hereafter describ'd.

A CLUSTER'D PISOLYTHOS. It consisteth of Globular and bay Stones, united together with an Ash-colour'd Cement: But this is very hard, and stirs not with Acids. Boetius and others figure a Cluster of these, but somewhat bigger.

This Stone may seem to belong to the second general kind above-said. But is really a heap of distinct Stones in one Bed. Which is also to be understood of others alike.

ANOTHER, composed of Globular Stones, consisting of a whitish, and soft or friable substance; yet gritty, and indissoluble with Acids. United together with a brown Cement.

A SINGLE one of the same Figure, but bigger; sc. as big as a Physical Pill. As also semipellucid, almost as the bay Amber. Very hard and indissoluble with Acids. Besler figures some of these, with the Name of Pisa majora lapidea.

The SINEPITES, as it may be called. Being a Cluster of small hard Globules, like Mustard-seeds; and united together with an obscure or dull Red Cement. Given by Sigr. Boccone.

The MECONITES. A Cluster of other like Globules no bigger than Poppy-seeds. See one of these in Boetius and Besler. These two last, are properly of the Hammites kind; but not the Pisolythos, although accounted so by Boetius. Of these Globules, it is observable with the help of a Glass, That although they are so very small, yet are they shell'd, or composed of little Balls one within another, as the Bezoar-Stone.

The CLUSTER'D STALAGMITES. A Congeries of Globular Stones, like so many petrify'd Drops; of the colour of Oriental Bezoar; cemented together with a kind of Gypsum. The whole Mass, which here is polish'd, is two inches and ½ square, and an inch high. This, and the following Stones of affinity herewith, differ from the five former, not so much in figure, as in substance, these being all instantly dissoluble with Acids. So that they seem to be a kind of Gypsum, first dissolved in some Mineral Menstruum, and after setling in this Figure.

The CORALLINE STALAGMITES, also cluster'd. It consisteth of little round Stones of the bigness of the former, but of the colour of red Coral. Cemented together with a sort of Gypsum. It is dissolved, upon the effusion of any strong Acid, with a strong Effervescence.

The POROUS STALAGMITES. 'Tis a ruder Species, the Stones of which it is composed, being not so distinct and round, as in the former. Cover'd all over with one common Crust. Yet most of them pounced with small or more open pores.

A SINGLE one, call'd PISUM CAROLINUM; because frequently bred in the Caroline Baths. Whitish, smooth and dense; and near as big as a Pistol Bullet.

Two SINGLE ones. Given by Sir Philip Skippon. Of a glossy Ash-colour, and very dense substance: yet easily dissolved with Spirit of Nitre. These are somewhat angular.

Two more, which are TWINS. These are perfectly round, except where they joyn together.

A Great TIBULINE SUGAR-PLUM. This and the other Rough sorts the Italians call Confetti de Tibuli; the place (not far from Rome) where they are bred. 'Tis above ½ an inch in Diametre, Globular, White, and Rough; exactly like a great Confet.

A Parcel of SMALL ones; white, round, and as it were granulated: just like Carvy Confets, and such like. Besler figures several of these under the Name of Petrify'd Aniseseeds, Fenil-seeds, &c.

The SUGAR-ALMOND, bred also in the same place. In colour, figure, size, and surface, so like to the rougher sort which Confectioners sometimes make, that, excepting the Tast, nothing can be liker.

Three STONES found very deep under ground near Hartford in New England. One of an Oval Figure, flatish, and having a little Globule standing upon its centre. Another, two half Globes, joyn'd edge to edge. The Third, much bigger than the former, of a circular Figure, and flat; an inch and ¼ over; almost like the Caps worn by Under-Graduates in our Universities. All soft, and fine, or not gritty, and not unlike a hard Bole. Spirit of Nitre dissolves them with Effervescence.

A little round, flat, and blackish Stone, resembling a Medicinal TROCH, or a thin CAKE of Terra sigillata, having as it were the Impression of a small Seal on one side. 'Tis a perfect Pebble, not affected with any Acid.

The EAGLE-STONE. Ætites. All the former Stones were round and solid. This is hollow. Named from a vulgar opinion, That the Eagle, when she sits, carries it to her Nest, to keep her Egg from being addle. And this, joyn'd with another, That Bodies operate according to their Signature: as this Stone, which often contains, or if you will, goes great with another Stone within it. Several sorts hereof are here preserv'd.

The FLORID Male EAGLE-STONE. A rare kind. 'Tis a perfect Flint, and semiperspicuous; of a Globular Figure, and as big as a good big Apple, or near three inches in Diametre. Flourished all round about with several sets of Rings one included within another, with some similitude to so many little Roses or double Crowfoot-Flowers. 'Tis very ponderous, being almost solid. Yet hollow at the centre; containing not one, but several small Stones, as is argu'd from the noise they make, upon shaking the Stone.

An ANGULAR or Ridged Male EAGLE-STONE. This also is about the bigness of a good large Apple. Of a brown colour, but daubed over with a kind of Okre; and was therefore probably bred in a Bed of the same. 'Tis very heavy; which argues it almost solid, as the former, and to have only a small hollow in the centre.

An ORBICULAR EAGLE-STONE. About the bigness of a midling Apple. The outside, rough and brown. Inwardly black. The Concave surface daubed with a sort of Okre; a quantity of which, 'tis likely, it once contain'd.

An OVAL EAGLE Stone. About as big as a midling Walnut. Without, blackish and rough, as it were granulated with some semiperspicuous Sands. Smooth within, and of a spruce£ Okre colour. On one side, it hath an oblong Aperture, with a smooth Lip as it were turned outward.

One half of an OVAL EAGLE Stone. 'Tis near three inches in Diametre. The inside rough-cast with small Grains, in size, like those of Bay-Salt; so hard as to cut Glass.

The FLAT round EAGLE Stone. Of a brown colour, and figur'd like a Troch.

The AMYGDALINE EAGLE Stone. Shaped like an Almond. Of a glossy brown, like half bright Iron. It contains a sort of Bole, of the colour of Fullers-Earth.

The Eagle-Stone which containeth no Stone, but Earth, is called GEODES. GEÆTITES were more express.

ANOTHER, of the same figure and bigness; but somewhat flatter.

A Rough and hard EAGLE Stone, the Concave surface whereof is daubed with a soft white wash, a kind of Gypsum, dissoluble with Spirit of Nitre.

ANOTHER Hard one, immersed in Iron Ore. All these are Naked. Those that follow have a soft Coat.

A COATED EAGLE Stone: A hollow Flint; one way, near two inches in Diametre, and almost round. Cover'd with a kind of white Earth, about ⅛th of an inch thick: yet not Chalky, but effœte, making no Effervescence with Acids. Containing several sparks or grains of Flint, cluster'd in a round Lump, together with some of the like Earth, as without.

A little Flinty LUMP taken out of another of the same Species.

TWO more EAGLE Stones, of the same Species, of a midling size, and almost as round as a Ball. One of them as big as a good big Walnut.

A FOURTH, bigger than a Musket-Bullet, and as round. Cover'd, as the three former, with a white earthy Coat; and containing the like substance in the centre. The main Body of all these, is either true Flint, or of a hard substance approaching to it. All these are by some called Males.

The FOEMALE EAGLE Stone. 'Tis round, and in a manner Oval. As big as a good large Apple. Ashcolour'd without, and white within. Of a soft friable and chalky substance, instantly dissoluble with Acids. From the outside, to the Concave, ½ an inch thick. Containeth a soft white chalky Stone, filling up its whole hollow, and answering to it, as the Yelk doth to the White of an Egg. This Stone is by Pliny called CALIMUS.

ANOTHER, somewhat harder. 'Tis also round, and bigger than the former, and the sides above ½ an inch thick. Rough on the outside, and smooth within. Yet so, as to be furrow'd with certain shallow Rings. To which also the Calimus, therein contain'd, exactly answers, as any Metal doth to the Mould in which it is cast. Both of them make an Effervescence with Acids.

The CALIMUS of another Eagle-Stone, as big as a good big Gall, and knobed in the same manner.

Several Species of this Stone are figur'd by Aldrovandus. Mus. Metall.

The flinty Eagle-Stone, and many other Flints, if observ'd when they are broken, seem to be an Assay towards the Onyx.

The Eagle-Stone is found in Apulia, Germany, Misnia, &c. Much accounted of by some, as an Amulet against Abortions.

The SEMIGLOBULAR TOAD-STONE. Lapis Bufoneus s. Garatronens. It looks like the the one half of a hard flinty Eagle-Stone; and probably, is nothing else. The Diametre ¼ of an inch.

The SEMIOVAL TOAD-STONE. 'Tis an inch long, ½ an inch over, of a brown colour, and flinty.

The Long SEMIOVAL TOAD-STONE. This also is flinty, and of a shining brown, or the colour of Oriental Bezoar, being polish'd. 'Tis about an inch long, and near ½ an inch over. Besler figures this, with the Name of Batrachoides.

Another sort of Toad-Stone, semiglobular, and solid, sc. with a flat base, is described by Gesner. Lib. de Lap. Fig. Thus far of Stones more Round. I shall next describe those which are Cylindrick, or near that Figure. And first the Osteocolla, of which here are several Species.

The SOLID or Pithless KNIT-BONE. Ranked by Kentman, Fossil. Nomencl. and not improperly, amongst the sorts of Osteocolla. Yet obtains the peculiar Name of ENOSTEOS: being porous, light, spongy, and cylindrick; so as to look just like the inward part of a Bone, or of Harts-Horn.

The KNIT-BONE with a small PITH. 'Tis bended almost like the Letter s. Cylindrick, and three inches round. Almost solid, yet containeth a very small Pith. The outer part, of an Ash-colour, and gritty or sabulous. The Pith, like most white Chalk. Both of them make a conspicuous Effervescence with Acids; but especially the Pith.

The GREAT-PITH'D KNIT-BONE. This is not a single one, but a Cluster. They stand together parallel, equal to the thick end of a Tobacco-Pipe-Stalk; without exceeding smooth, and of a yellowish colour, somewhat like that of the Plates in the Ludus Helmontij, hereafter described. Filled with a very large Pith, answerable to that in an Eldern-Branch, hard and stony, and of a blewish colour, like that of blew Marle. The spaces between the several Cylinders, fill'd up with another sort of Stone, of the colour of old Elm. The yellowish Cylinders, being rub'd hard, or scraped, hath a strong stinking scent: but what Species to compare it too, doth not at present occur. They are presently dissolved with Spirit of Nitre.

ANOTHER CLUSTER like the former; saving, that the Cylinders stand together without any, or with little, order: and that the brown and blewish Stones are both mixed in Veins, and several of the Cylinders hollow.

The EMPTY KNIT-BONE. This is neither solid, nor hath any Pith, but a Pipe; yet with a very small bore. Smooth both within and without. And transversly striated, as the Belemnites, hereafter describ'd.

ANOTHER, somewhat more hollow. This also is transversly striated, as the former; but without rough and of an Iron-colour.

A THIRD, most hollow; knobed without, and of an Ash-colour.

Of these Stones, see the Relation especially of Joh. Chrystophorus Beckmannus, Physick Professor at Frankfurt; Phil. Trans. N. 39. who observes, That they grow in a sandy, seldom or never in a claiy-Ground. Sometimes two mens depth; and with Branches side-ways. Taper'd, as in Plants; where thickest, equal to an ordinary Arm; the small Branches, to ones little Finger. The Place where found is noted by a white fatty Sand, the rest yellowish round about; and underneath a dark, moist, and fatty putrid substance, like rotten-Wood, running in Veins and is the Mother of the Osteocolla. So that it seems to grow somewhat after the manner of the Entrochus, or Stelechites above describ'd. 'Tis found most in Saxony, and the Palatinate.

This Stone, as is indicated by its Name, is highly esteemed for expediting the Coalition of broken Bones; ʒj hereof being given and repeated for above five days together. See one or two very remarquable Histories hereof in Boetius. De Lap. & Gem. Lib. 2.

The Larger Hollow STALACTITES, or WATERPIPE. The Greek Name supposeth it to grow somewhat after the manner of Icicles, from Lapidifick-Waters. Yet how it should grow hollow, as this, is somewhat hard to conceive. For hereby, it seems rather to grow or sprout upward, as the Stelechites. Only with this difference, That as that grows from an open Bed: this probably, from one under Water. Whence I take leave for the English Name. 'Tis three inches long, in thickness equal to the little Finger. Of a Cylindrick Figure, saving that at both ends 'tis a little more slender; whether naturally, appears not. Composed of several ash-colour'd and blackish Crusts, exceeding thin crispe and brittle, not ill resembling a rouled Wafer. The Bore is lined through with a small granulated Candy. 'Tis instantly dissolved with Spirit of Nitre.

ANOTHER, consisting wholly of white Crusts or Wafers one within another.

The SMALL WATER-PIPE. 'Tis a Cluster of very small Tubes, with the Bore so small, as scarcely to be seen without a Glass. Rough all over with a tuberous Crust. They are found in Germany, Moravia, and other Parts. One Drachm hereof in Powder, is a potent Sudorifick. Bœt. de Lap. & G.

A Stone like a Pebble with small TUBULAR KNOBS upon it, like the Primordia of a Water-Pipe. They are so small, that their hollows cannot be observ'd without a Glass. The Stone on which they grow, though very hard, yet makes a strong Effervescence with Spirit of Nitre. Thus far of Cylindrick Stones.

The CONICK STALACTITES, solid. 'Tis about three inches long; the top sharp, the middle ½ an inch over; the base, an inch, with four or five excentrick Crusts. The whole composed of several Crusts, one within another, as the Water-Pipe. Yet not hollow, as that, or rather not empty, but filled with a Red stony substance. Being kroken it shines like the Lapis Judaicus. Without, smooth, of an Ash-colour, with some little cast of red. Instantly dissolved with Spirit of Nitre. Aldrovandus Musæum Metallic. hath one figur'd like this; but by himself, or by Ambrosinus, call'd Stelechites Pyramidalis; very improperly.

The CONICK STALACTITES, hollow. 'Tis three inches long; at the top, which is now open, ¼ over; in the middle, near ¾; the base spread out, with several round Crusts on one side, like half bubbles, to the breadth of above an inch. On the opposite side, with a short single piped one. All of them contained together within the utmost Crust. Smooth and ash-colour'd without, within pure white.

The Black BELEMNITES. The generick Name is from the shape, like that of a Bolt-head. This Species is outwardly of an ash-colour, but black within: and therefore by some called Coraceas. Radiated as most of them are, with transverse StriÆ. And bored at the thick end, which is not so usual, with a Conick hollow. See the Description of two or three sorts in Boetius, Wormius, and others.

The WHITE BELEMNITES. 'Tis Conick as the former; but the Rays not so plain. Together with its white colour is joyn'd some little transparency.

The bigger YELLOW BELEMNITES. Particularly called Dactylus IdÆus; for that it is in shape and bigness like a little Finger; and was first, or is now chiefly, found upon Mount Ida. 'Tis solid, semiperspicuous, and of the colour of yellow Amber. They have usually a kind of notched Ridge all along one side; but this hath two opposite ones.

ANOTHER, with a little Hollow fill'd up with a Pith of Earth.

A CLUSTER of broken pieces of the Belemnites.

The SHELL'D BELEMNITES. qu. Stalemnites. Opacous, and of the colour of grey Horn. Pointed at both ends, as the Belemnites is at one. And at one end, sheweth six or seven shells one over another, as in the Stalactites above describ'd. From whence I have nam'd it.

Some of these being rub'd, take up Chaff or other light Bodies, as Amber doth. Kentman Fossil. Nomencl. mentions one of an Ash-colour, which being rub'd, smelt like a burnt Cows Horn. And a white one, which smelt not much unlike to white Ambar. They are found in Germany, and other Parts, sometimes in England. They all make a strong Effervescence with Acids. Thus far of Stones simply Conick.

The WORME-STONE. 'Tis now broken at one end, yet about two inches and ½ long. Consisteth of about five solid Rounds, winding from the bigger end (about ¾ of an inch over) so as to make a spiral Cone. Not much unlike a Steel Worme used for the drawing of Corks out of Bottles.

Another of the same shape and bigness. This Stone I find neither figur'd, nor mention'd by any Author, saving only Olearius. A Dutch Musæum. They were taken out of the midst of a Rock.

A NETED-STONE. Lapis retiformis. It consisteth of black and roundish portions, severally surrounded with Veins, of an Okre-colour, running one into another after the manner of Net-work. Along the middle of each Vein (about ⅛th of an inch broad) runs a small Thread or Line, almost of the same colour.

Another, with the Are'as of the Net-work not so black, softer, and somewhat flaky.

A FLINT of a dull Red, with the Figure, almost, of a λ; encompassed with six or seven Rings.

The FLAT BOLTHEAD. Anchorites. Of affinity with that well described by Wormius Mus. lib. 1. Sect. 2. c. 13. with the Title of Silex venabuli ferreum Cuspidem exactè referens. By Moscardo, Mus. lib. 2. c. 50. with that of Pietre Ceraunie; who also figures it with three or four Varieties. This like those, is a perfect Flint, and semiperspicuous. 'Tis likewise in the same manner, pointed like a Speer. Having at the other end, like those of Moscardo, a short Handle. But moreover, hath this peculiar, that 'tis pointed or spiked also backward on both sides the Handle; with some resemblance to an Anchor, or the Head of a Bearded-Dart: from whence I have nam'd it. 'Tis likewise toothed on the edges, and the sides as it were wrought with a kind of undulated sculpture, as those before mention'd.

ANOTHER, different from the former, in that it is longer, hath a deeper Indenture, but no handle. Both of them strike fire like other Flints. That of Wormius was found in a Hill in the Diocess of Ripen.

Not only Moscardo, but others reckon these amongst the CerauniÆ or Thunder-bolts. So called, because believed sometimes with Thunder to shoot down with violence out of the middle Region. Amongst other Relations hereof, that of Terzagi Mus. Septal. is very express; who saith, That the Corps of one struck dead with Thunder, being inspected in the presence of Septalius, and several others, and a black Wound observed about the Hip, and searched to the Bone; they found therein a round and edged Stone, which being broken, had a very strong sulphurious stink. With this Author, I scarce think any thing of this nature incredible, to those that read the Relation given at large by Wormius Musæum. of the Norwegick Mouse.

Thus far of Regular Stones, whose external Form is Circumscriptive, or at least depending upon the whole Stone. I shall now describe those, whose Form is Accumulative, or where there is a repetition of the same figure, or near it, in several Parts.

The GRAPE-STONE. Botrites, Wormio. Here are two or three sorts. One solid, of a yellowish colour, an inch and ½ long, knobed with several small Clusters, like a young bunch of Grapes.

The HOLLOW GRAPE-STONE, with high Knobs or white Berries cluster'd all round about, as in the former, and somewhat thicker.

A SEMI-GRAPE-STONE, with white Drops or Berries only on one side. They all make a vehement Effervescence with Acids; and are a sort of Stalagmites, next of kin to the Confetti di Tibuli before describ'd.

The STAR-STONE. Asteria vera, Boetio. Generally of a ¼ or ½ an inch in Diametre, consisting of several Joynts, evenly piled one upon another, of a Pentagonal Figure, like a Star, and with the signature also of another on both sides, which is composed of short transverse StriÆ. When broken, it shines like the Lapis Judaicus, or the Entrochites; to which latter it is next of kin. Sometimes they are found single. When consisting of more Joynts, it may rather be call'd Synasteria. Several both of the joynted and singles ones are here preserved.

A very hard Stone, a kind of Pebble with the signature of the Asteria upon it.

Mr. Lyster hath given a particular Account of this Stone, and its varieties in several Figures; published by Mr. Oldenburge, Phil. Trans. N. 112. together with some Notes of Mr. Ray thereupon. Mr. Lyster found the fairest of them near Bugthorp and Leppington in York-shire, in a blew Clay.

The STARRED-STONE. Astroites. So called, for that being tabulated, or polish'd to a plain, it appears adorned with little Stars, about ¼ or ⅛th of an inch in Diametre. Boetius conjectures Pliny to reckon this Stone for a sort of Agate. Whether that be so or no, himself is greatly mistaken Lib. 2. c. 145. in affirming as much: this being a very soft Stone. The same Author takes notice, as of a strange thing, That this Stone being put into Vinegar C. 147. will move up and down in it. Whereas it proceeds (as Mr. Lyster also observes of the Asteria, which he calls the Astroites) (d) Phil. Trans. only from the Ebullition following upon the immersion: and happens to any other Stone dissoluble with Acids, if immersed in small pieces.

Another, two inches long, and near as broad. This is unpolish'd, and seems to be but part of a far bigger Stone. So that although the figure which Boetius, and some others give, is but small, sc. not an inch long: yet is it sometimes of good bulk.

The ASTROCHITES; polish'd with the figure of a Cross. The Stars are here more round, than in the former. The spaces between the several Stars and Rays, of a dark blackish colour. The Rays or Stars themselves are pale. And also surrounded with a toothed Circle; so as not unaptly to represent the Wheel of a Watch: from whence I have nam'd it.

The imperfect STARRY-STONE. Astroites Bœtio Lib. 2. c. 164. quartus. In this the Stars are more obscure, and scarce radiated, but rather spots. But the Stone for substance the same as the former.

The WAVED Stone. Astroites Bœtio Ibid. tertius; but improperly so call'd. For although it be, for substance, like the former; yet is not adorn'd with the likeness of Stars, but of Waves. The several Waves are composed of whitish transvers StriÆ.

Another, with the StriÆ more conspicuous.

The SEIVE-STONE. Lapis Cribriformis. A kind of Tophus. 'Tis of a brown colour, porous light and friable, as a Pumice. And perforated with many Pores more conspicuous, about as big as to admit a large